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succumbed to him. There was no ap- I support that man ? No, never. I pearance of the growth of any rival know how useful I should be to him in power. Finally, he fell by one of replacing his simpleton of a commanthose caprices of cruelty which be- dant of Paris. But it is what I will longed less to the necessities of his not be. It is not yet the time.' (The position than the rabidness of his tiger pear was not ripe). There is no place heart. At a loss for employment, he honourable for me at present but the had determined to begin a new course army. We must have patience. I shall of public remedies. The victims got command Paris hereafier.' notice of his intention, and surprised “Such were the words of Napoleon. the tiger in his den. It has been ar- He then expressed to us his indignagued, that if Napoleon had joined him, tion against the Reign of Terror; of the ability of the young commandant which he announced the approaching of Paris might have saved the tyrant downfall. Ile finished by repeating from the catastrophe. Possibly it several times, half gloomy, half smilmight for the moment. But the love ing, 'What should I do in that gal

of blood was innate in Robespierre; ley?' The younger Robespierre soli• and supreme power, instead of huma- cited in vain. A few weeks after, the

nizing, would only have prompted him 9th Thermidor arrived, to deliver to more comprehensive cruelties. Even France, and justify the foresight of the France would have grown weary of General. If Napoleon had taken the the hideous homicide; he must have command of Henriot, on which side perished, and all his tools with him. would have been the victory?”

“ To be nearer to Napoleon," says It has again been argued, that NaLucien, “my family established them- poleon's readiness to accept the comselves at the Chateau Sallé, near An- mand under the Directory, but a year tibes, only a few leagues from the head later, showed that his reluctance arose quarters. I had left St Maximin, to from no scruple of conscience. But pass a few days with my family and the parties were different, Robespierre my brother. We were all assembled and Barras were the antipodes of each there, and the General gave us every other except in ambition. The one a moment that was at his disposal. He monster of blood, the other a showy, arrived one day more thoughtful than festive prodigal.

The one usual, and while walking between villain, who loved power for its indul. Joseph and me said, that it depended gence of his cruelty. The other a gay on himself to set out for Paris next day, man of the world, who loved power for and to be in a position in which he could its indulgence of his passions. No establish us all advantageously.' Lu- man can fairly place the character of cien was the shortsighted one on this the Government, when Napoleon was occasion, and would probably have led taken into its service, in comparison the way of the whole family to the Con- with the horrid atrocity which raised ciergerie. Napoleon preserved his sa- the universal voice of Europe against gacity and his line. * For my part,” Robespierre. says Lucien, in the true vein of a pro- That Napoleon was unsparing of vincial Frenchman, to whose imagina- blood in the field is sufficiently well tion Paris is considerably above a Ma- known. But he was no butcher on hometan paradise, “ the news enchant- the scaffold. The death of the Due ed me. To go to the great capital ap- d'Enghien was the act of an assassin, peared to me a height of felicity, that but an act to which he was urged by nothing could overweigh. • They offer its connexion with his tyrannical sysme,' said Napoleon, the place of Hen- tem of polity. It was almost a soliriot (the commandant of Paris). I am tary act. And there are few things to give my answer this evening. Well, more remarkable in the history of this what do you say to it?' We hesitated stern, fierce, and implacable mind than a moment. “Eh, eh,' rejoined the Ge- the rareness of public executions under neral, but it is worth considering his resistless reign. It is not a case to be enthusiastic upon. Another evidence of the sagacity of It is not so easy to save one's head at waiting was exhibited on his return Paris as

at St Maximin. The from the Italian campaign of 1798. younger Robespierre is an honest fel. All France resounded with his name. low: but his brother is not to be The Directory were sinking before the trifled with. He will be obeyed. Can eye. The army was rapidly identi

a cold

fying itself with sovereignty in planation, by the movement of the France. He was the hero of France. sun, and the heat which he propagates Strong suggestions, too, were made to in his course. But what accounts for him on all sides to seize the supre- years of mist, rain, and tempest ? macy.

His answer was, “ It is not Why have we for five years scarcely time yet. The public mind is not known the existence of snow to be decided. I should experience unex- overwhelmed with it in the sixth ? pected difficulties. I shall return from The cometary influence has been often Egypt, and find all those difficulties assigned, and laughed at, yet, there is extinguished by the lapse of time. I scarcely an instance of a comet's having leave the Directory behind me. They come down towards the earth's orbit, will at once do my work and their without its being followed by some own. The pear is not ripe." The remarkable change in the temperature oracle was true. He left France to of the year. In some instances the writhe under the loss of her Italian most delightful serenity, in others, the conquests; the Directory to sink into whole season, or whole year chill and popular scorn by the proof of their comfortless. If we are to be told, incapacity; the army to see its laurels that there are thousands of comets, torn away, and think of the distant and that therefore they must be conchieftain by whom they had been stantly acting upon the atmosphere, if planted. And when the name of they act at all, may we not ask, are all Bonaparte was not only in the mouths comets necessarily the same in their but in the hearts of the people ; when purposes or properties ? May they his presence was felt to be less a not be as different as there are different pledge of national fame, than a protec. objects for them to fulfil? May there tion against national ruin, he came, not be some of those thousands which and at one bound seized the throne. exclusively affect the carth, and its The pear was ripe!

seasons, while some may be adminis

tering salutary change to other globes, Among the results to which the and some may be solely conduits of light new experiments conveyance to the exhausted energies of the sun ? through the air may give rise, the During the last two months we most advantageous would be some in- have had the severest weather expecreased attention to the study of me- rienced in England since 1814. The teorology. When it shall have be- whole year had been rough, wet, and come important to investigate the cur- uncertain. A state of things which rents and changes of the air, we shall the towns and bathing places on the enter upon a science almost totally sea-coast felt heavily in their finance, new, yet of the very first interest, and for they were nearly deserted by the probably opening the widest remain- landowners, who felt no great satisfacing avenue to the command of nature. tion in travelling fifty or a hundred We have largely investigated, and in miles to face premature winter, in the consequence largely mastered three of little hovels for which the conscience the elements. The earth and water of the landlords of Brighton, Worthare nearly our slaves. But the air has ing, and the other summer camps of hitherto almost wholly escaped man's citizenship charge so rapaciously. dominion. The few general notions But on the 9th of November, the war which we have adopted on the subject of elements began. Storm swept the of its matter, operation, and impulses, whole coast of England and the wesare wholly inadequate to explain, and, tern shores of the continent; the sea what is of still higher importance, to was covered with wrecks, and the enable man to anticipate its chief shore with corpses. But it was on the phenomena.

29th of the same month that the most As to the changes of the air from tremendous tempest swept up from calm to tempest, the principal agency the Atlantic, and moving north-east, is doubtless caloric. The rush of the devastated all within its vast expanse, cold air to supply the place of the up probably to the pole. The wind heated is the well-known origin of the raged for three days with fearful fury, tempest. But, what is the agency houses were blown down, mail-coaches which influences the caloric itself? hurried away, waggons overturned by The periodical storms and rains of the the force of the blast, and though tropics admit of something like an ex- these may seem trivial instances of its


mischief, they give an extraordinary tle but resistless chemistry by which conception of the power of the wind. the impalpable element was turned inThe loss of shipping and life was de- to a material of a totally different form plorable. The year closed with the and qualities, and that material fabrigreat snow-storm. A slight fall on cated in a quantity sufficient to sheet the night of the 24th of December millions of miles, are contemplations seemed only to attire Christmas in his made to elevate our minds beyond the ancient robe, and the sight of the snow world. was almost welcomed.

But, combined with these conBut on Christmas night down came ceptions, there is one which most painthe whole weight of the vast fall. Be- fully brings us to this world again. fore daybreak the entire face of Eng- On the 24th the battle raged round land was a bed of snow. All the Bilboa. While the majesty of nature mails and conveyances of every kind was covering the land with its high were stopped at once, as the snow had evidence of power, man was slaying drifted in some places from ten to and -being slain ; thousands and tens twenty feet deep. The few carriages of thousands of the same soil, kindred, which ventured out were buried in the and tongue, were slaughtering each drifts, and were either left where they other from sunset to sunrise. When had sunk, or with infinite difficulty were

Christmas morning, the day of peace, dragged back to the towns from which came, it was to wretched Spain a day they had travelled. This state of of havoc; thousands were staining the things continued for nearly a week. snows . with their blood, exposed The single night's fall had the effect through the storm to all the tortures of impeding almost the entire machin- of the freezing wind. shelterless, ery of commerce and public communi- naked, stiffening in their gore, and cation. Great efforts were made to dying in agonies. clear the roads, the peasantry were put in motion by hundreds or thou- The value of the Canadas to Great s inds, but the task frequently baffled Britain as a territory for the efflux of them, and some of the mails were four her superabundant population, as a days due. The snow was so deep on customer for hier manufactures, and as the Kent road, that all intercourse was a balance for the naval ambition of the suspended until nearly the close of the United States, is well known to Euroweek, though the pioneers of Wool. pean statesmen.

But it has a higher wich and Chatham were employed to value still, of which the generality of open the line ; the foreign mails were statesmen are careless or unconscious. sent by steam-boats to Dover. This It supplies the means for an illustrious sudden stoppage of all intercourse pro- experiment of civilisation. It affords duced great inconvenience, if not great the noble opportunity of filling an alevil, in the commercial world. Re- most boundless extent of empire with mittances delayed shook the credit of the laws, the knowledge, and above the merchant, and perhaps another all, the religion of England. Whether night's fall of snow would have been the Canadas are to remain united with little short of striking a blow at the England by Government; or finally, commercial credit of the nation. to form an independent authority, this

But from what source did this in- at least will have been done. A space calculable fall come? What mighty but little less than Europe will have agency could have at a moment com- been traversed by the steps of order, manded the mass that covered the the wilderness will have heard the 60,000 square miles of England; voice of morals, and the haunts of the covered the whole north of France, wolf and the bear, or of men more Holland, and Germany in a few hours? savage than the wolf and the bear, The millions of tons must have been will have been reclaimed into the gebeyond all count. And yet the oper- neral and genial inheritance of society. ation was as sudden as it was power- Under these aspects all that conful. No symptom of it was given in cerns the Canadas becomes of singuthe hue, the chill, or the tumult of the lar importance to this country; and air. Perhaps no act of nature gives we have read with interest, arising so high a conception of a more than from this source, the details given in mortal hand. The rapidity of its effect, the late publication of Washington the immensity of its product, the sub- Irving relative to the trade and condition of the vast region lying to the the North-west and the Hudson's Bay, west of the prairies and the Rocky The North-west was finally overMountains. This work, entitled powered, and a coalition was formed, “ Astoria," professes to be no more of which the Hudson's Bay took the than a compilation of the journals and lead. They have raised a powerful papers connected with the attempt of settlement, sixty miles up the Columa Nr Astor to form on the shores of bia river, called Fort - Vancouver, the Pacific a fur-trading settlement, carry on a vigorous trade from the to which he gave his name. The Rocky Mountains to the Pacific, over narrative, though told with the grace a large territory north and south, and of the writer, is necessarily dry. The keenly shut out all intruders. The casualties of the individuals are mere- American Fur Company still subsists, ly those to which we have been ac- actively employed in the trade from customed in the crowd of rather tire- Machillimachinac to the regions of some novels from the Backwoods; the Mississippi and Missouri. It emand the heroes are the heroes of the ploys steam-boats, and penetrates the novels, with all their rudeness and great internal rivers by them to the none of their romance. But the oc- great astonishment of the natives, and casional episodes of travel, and the the great security and relief of their insights into the capabilities of those own huntsmen and traders. Other immense countries, have an interest less acknowledged companies are superior to mere rude novelty ; and formed, which trade in the intermewe gratify ourselves in bringing be- diate regions. fore our readers some fragments of But, disregarding the valuable retheir information relative to a trade sults of those enterprises to trade, we now peculiarly Canadian.

may admire them as a striking inBy the treaty of 1794 between stance of the ways by which ProviEngland and America, the subjects of dence makes the earth known to man. both countries were permitted to trade The single circumstance that China alike with the Indians in the territq- produces an herb which the most acries of both ; but, from the circum- tive, enterprising, and civilized of Eustances of the case, almost the whole ropean nations loves to infuse in waof this trade naturally devolved to the ter and drink morning and evening, British merchant. The French, the is probably the chief bond of China to original masters of the fur trade, had the civilized world. The simple cirgiven it with the Canadas into British cumstance that furs are found in the hands at the time of the conquest of wildernesses of the West, which wothe French possessions. The com- men and princes love to wear, probamunication by the lakes and northern bly alone has brought those enorrivers was in the hands of the con

deserts of mountain, sand, querors. The Indian war with the marsh, and forest within the tread of United States, from 1776 to 1795, pro- man. Population would, doubtless, duced still stronger aversion on the in the course of time, have gradually part of the natives, and the American spread over them. But its progress iraders were nearly proscribed by is naturally slow ; men reluctantly this aboriginal hostility. An attempt leave the borders of civilized life, and was then made by Mr Astor to pur- centuries might have elapsed before chase half the interest of the Canadian the surge of population would have Fur Company, so as to share the Bri- swelled to the shores of the Pacific. tish trade, by Machillimachinac, with But now the whole west country is the Indians in and bordering on the almost regularly portioned out into United States. This attempt failed regions of trade-in size, future emthrough the nonintercourse act of the pires. The Russians hold the northwar of 1812. A previous attempt west, from Behring's Strait to Queen to form a company for the trade west Charlotte's Sound, in 53° north latiof the Rocky Mountains (the one re- tude; the Hudson's Bay Company corded in these volumes) had also from 53° to the south of the Columfailed through the war. This was the bia ; two American companies, Ashcondition of the trade from the United ley's and Bonneville's, thence to CaStates.

lifornia. The whole wilderness from In Canada, the trade had been car- the Mississippi to the Pacific is now ried on by the two rival companies traversed in every direction. From


the Arctic Sea to the Gulf of Mexico, esteemed; and whether the difference every mountain, forest, and river is arises from the age of the animal, or searched for furs.

from some peculiarity of location, is The furs are thence spread over the not known. They do not vary more world. The Hudson's Bay Company from the common marten, than the send their furs to London. The Ame- Arabian horse from the shaggy Canarican companies send theirs to New dian. York, the chief export trade being The rich dark shades of the sable, also to London : some, however, go and the snowy whiteness of the er. southward to the Spanish States, some mine, the great depth, and the pecuwestward to Canton. But the prin- liar almost flowing softness of their cipal mart is still London, which has skins and fur, have combined to gain thus become the great emporium for them a preference in all countries, the fur trade of the New World. and in all ages of the world. In this

Of the fur-bearing animals, “ the age, they maintain the same relative precious ermine," so called by way of estimate in regard to other furs, as pre-eminence, is found, of the best when they marked the rank of the quality, only in the cold regions of proud crusader, and were emblazoned Europe and Asia. Its fur is of the in heraldry ; but in most European most perfect whiteness, except the tip nations they are now worn promiscuof its tail, which is of a brilliant shin- ously by the opulent. ing black.

With these black tips The martens from Northern Asia tacked on the skins, they are beauti- and the mountains of Kamschatka are fully spotted, producing an effect of much superior to the American, though ten imitated, but never equalled in in every pack of American marten other furs. The ermine is of the skins there are a certain number which genus mustela (weasel), and resembles are beautifully shaded, and of a dark the common weasel in its form ; is brown olive colour, of great depth and from fourteen to sixteen inches from richness. the tip of the nose to the end of the Next these in value, for ornament tail. The body is from ten to twelve and utility, are the sea-otter, the mink, inches long. It lives in hollow trees, and the fiery-fox. river banks, and especially in beech The fiery-fox is the bright red of forests; preys on small birds, is very Asia ; is more brilliantly coloured and shy, sleeping during the day, and em- of finer fur than any other of the geploying the night in search of food. nus. It is highly valued for the splenThe fur of the older animals is pre- dour of its red colour, and the fineness ferred to the younger. It is taken by of its fur. It is the standard of value snares and traps, and sometimes shot on the north-eastern coast of Asia. with blunt arrows.

Attempts have The sea-otter, which was first inbeen made to domesticate it ; but it is troduced into commerce in 1725, from extremely wild, and has been found the Aleutian and Kurile islands, is an untameable.

xceedingly fine, close, soft fur, jet The sable can scarcely be called black in winter, with a silken gloss. second to the ermine. It is a native The fur of the young animal is of a of Northern Europe and Siberia, and beautiful brown colour. It is met is also of the genus mustela. In Sa- with in great abundance in Behring's moeda, Yadutsz, Kamschatka, and island, Kamschatka, Aleutian, and Fox Russia-Lapland, itis found of the richest islands, and is also taken on the oppoquality and darkest colour. In its site coasts of North America. It is habits it resembles the ermine. It sometimes taken with nets, but more preys on small squirrels and birds, frequently with clubs and spears. sleeps by day, and prowls for food Their food is principally lobster and during the night. It is so like the other shell-fish. marten in every particular except its In 1780 furs had become so scarce size, and the dark shade of its colour, in Siberia, that the supply was insufthat naturalists have not decided whe- ficient for the demand in the Asiatic ther it is the richest and finest of the countries. It was at this time that marten tribe, or a variety of that spe- the sea-otter was introduced into the cies. It varies in dimensions from markets for China. The skins brought eighteen to twenty inches. The finest such incredible prices, as to originate ar and the darkest colour are the most immediately several American and


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