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pendent press is even more powerful and the Constitution, are not to be among the proprietors of ten-pound driven by persecution on one side, houses, than among the holders of and the want of due encouragement agricultural leases. The visit of the on the other, to join the ranks of the professional canvasser is equally use. Revolutionary party. The system of less in the one class as in the other. exclusive dealing, as it is called, has It is by personal intercourse with the been invariably and extensively acted middle orders, and the constant dis on by the Whigs. The principle is play of an affectionate interest in all recognised in its fullest extent by the their concerns, that the aristocracy present Government. Every situation can alone hope to be regarded in their of trust or emolument, from the hightrue light, and to remove from their est places in the Church, or on the Jupolitical intentions that false colouring dicial Bench, down to the most paltry in which they have been involved by commissionership, is bestowed with the calumnies of selfish demagogues. reference principally, if not solely, to It should never be forgotten too, the political principles of the individual that a Conservative ten-pounder is on whom it is conferred; and any devigenerally speaking a marked man ation from this rule is denounced by among his fellows. No one who has the Revolutionary press, as a derelicnot witnessed it can be aware of the tion of principle so gross as to endanextent of persecution, which in many ger the very existence of the Ministry. districts awaits any elector of this It is difficult to conjecture how that class who has the courage to vote for conduct can be culpable in an indivithe Conservative candidate. The un. dual, which is not only excusable, but meaning abuse with which such men highly commendable, in the adminisare assailed, is the least serious conse- trative Government. Besides, the exquence of their conscientious exercise clusive spirit which the Whig party of opinion. Belonging as they gene generally have long displayed, and by rally do to the class of smaller shop. which not only their commercial deal. keepers, the loss of custom to which ings, but their familiar intercourse and they are exposed by offending their personal friendships have been reguLiberal neighbours, is attended with sated with a single view to the consequences, the apprehension of strengthening of their political conwhich has kept back many a recruit nexions, and extending the influence from the ranks of the Conservative of their own coterie-while it debars party. It is surely then, no less the our opponents from censuring in others interest than the duty, of the natural the adoption of a similar principle-inleaders of that party, to take care that vests with a defensive character the such men do not eventually suffer from undoubted right which every friend of their adherence to the right cause the constitution possesses, of bestowing In Scotland especially the distribution his patronage where he pleases, and reof wealth and influence is fortunately fusing the sanction of his encouragesuch, that the friends of the Constitu- ment to men whose principles he contion can do much more to benefit an demns. honest and industrious tradesman, than It cannot now be denied that one the revolutionary party can do to in- great object of the authors of the Rejure him. In the present state of form Bill in fixing the amount of the public affairs, it is extremely doubtful county qualification in Scotland was, whether the advantage thus possessed that the Conservative feeling, always ought not, like every other species of prevalent among the agricultural influence, to be exercised with a poli. electors, should be counteracted by the tical view. It is not that Radicals democratic passions of the town and are to be punished by the withdrawal village-voters. Their despair at the of custom-or Conservatives gained utter failure of the experiment has been by the prospect of pecuniary bene- proportioned to the abandoned wickedfit. But they by whose support the ness of the design. The same legisestates and fortunes of the aristocracy lative provision, which invested with are preserved to them, are surely en- the franchise the possessors of house titled to share in the benefits which property of inconsiderable value, these were intended to confer on the has facilitated the acquisition of the neighbourhood in which their posses- electoral privilege by men of respecsors reside. And men attached on table station and right principles. principle to the cause of the Church The practice of procuring a title to
property, with the sole view of obtain. would have been in office at this hour. ing a vote, was commenced by the ad. Can it be doubted, that all that is neherents of the Whig party, for the cessary to secure his speedy return to purpose of swamping the Conserva- that post, which he alone, of all the tive interest, in the agricultural and statesmen of the day, is qualified to pastoral districts of Scotland. It is a fill, is the cordial and energetic union practice fully recognised by law, and of good men of all classes, in the emits general adoption must be produc- ployment of the means with which tive of the utter discomfiture of the Providence has intrusted them for the party in whom it originated. If the defence of the Constitution, and in the ten-pound voters cannot be convinced use of the privileges vested in them by
--they may in almost every county, law, and involving a heavy responsibe outnumbered. We are opposed, bility to their own consciences and to under ordinary circumstances, to the posterity? If any hesitation could introduction to the roll of electors of have existed a few weeks ago as to men unconnected with the county, the manner in which this question and influenced by no motive but the should be answered, the late Conser. violence of political partisanship. The vative demonstration at Glasgow has principle of self-defence may compel put an end to all doubt upon the subthe proprietors of land to have re- ject. At that festival - by far the course to the assistance of strangers, to most splendid ever held in honour of repel the aggressions of the democra any statesmanthere were present tic party, and secure for the agriculhundreds of the most ardent and actural interest an adequate share of re tive supporters of the first Reform presentation. But the numerical Government. The heart-stirring apstrength of the revolutionary faction, peal addressed by the great Conserand their unceasing activity, are of vative leader to these men—his unanthemselves sufficient arguments for swerable exposition of the obligation placing on the register the name of under which they lie to vindicate their every man of right principles, who is own measure from the stigma of being connected with the district by any tie, inconsistent with the safety of the whether of birth-of residence-of per- British constitution, has been read by sonal or family connexion. It is al- thousands of similar principles throughmost inconceivable, in how many out the empire. If we do not say that instances persons possessed of an it has inspired them with the resoluundoubted qualification have hither. tion of uniting in defence of the civil to neglected to secure enrolment; and religious establishments of the and when to these are added the num country, it is only because we believe bers, whom a very slight exertion that they had been long so resolved. would with the greatest ease invest The exhortation of Sir Robert Peel with property more than sufficient to did not so much find an echo in the confer the franchise, it must be evi- hearts of the thousands who heard dent to the most superficial observer, him, as it was itself a forcible and that in many districts of Scotland the eloquent expression of a feeling very Conservative party has not yet put generally prevalent, both in England forth half its strength.
and Scotland. It was this feelingIn the calculation of political pro- call it re-action, or by any other name babilities, let no one undervalue the you will—that placed the champion of effect of individual exertion. The Re. the church and the monarchy in the form Bill was carried through one of seat of academic honour. It was this its most important stages by a single feeling that originated, and carried vote—and that the vote of the Lord into triumphant execution, the most Advocate Jeffrey, whose election was magnificent public testimonial that a not long afterwards declared null by country's gratitude ever offered to pothe decision of a committee. The elec- litical wisdom, energy, and worthtion of Mr Abercromby to the Speak- that with an enthusiasm, unbroken by er's chair was effected by a majority one murmur of dissent, welcomed the of ten. A little more exertion on the Conservative leader to the first compart of the Conservatives throughout mercial city in the empire-and that the empire, on occasion of the general won for him, from the hard-earned election, would have turned the scale gains of humble mechanics, a civic the other way. Had such been the compliment, which the paltry jealousy result of that division, Sir Robert Peel of their municipal rulers had refused. And it is this feeling, propelled and supremacy in one House from the invigorated by the successful issue of hands of the Popish faction and their the Glasgow banquet, that will exert infidel and Radical allies, and secure a powerful influence in “ widening the to the other the uncontrolled exercise foundations on which the defence of of their independence—and that will the British constitution and the reli- ultimately save Britain, by strengthgious establishments must rest" - ening through future ages the only that, let a dissolution of Parliament bulwarks of her power—the limited come when it may, will wrest the monarchy, and the Protestant Church.
AFFAIRS OF ROME.
BY MONS. DE LA MENAIS. It has been repeated of late years Our readers may recollect that M. by a certain party of our liberals, usque de la Menais, who has lately become ad nauseam, that the papal authority, so infamous by his book entitled “ Pawhatever it may have been in times roles d'un Croyant,” was some years past, has become an authority ex- ago the editor and originator of a paclusively spiritual ; that it assumes not per called the “ Avenir.” The object to dictate political opinions to its ad- of this publication was to ally the herents, or in any way to bias their Roman Catholic religion with the deconvictions on matters purely civil mocratic movement wherever it might and temporal. Roman Catholics among appear. This idea was bold, and seemus have been zealous to refute the im ed ingenious, but betrayed a depth of putation of any jurisdiction other than incredulity with respect to the Divine religious being exercised by their origin of a religion which was in this Church; and the very first man of all manner to be revived. Those, howour Radicals, the late Mr Cobbett, ever, who had no purposes of private has written a history of the Reforma- ambition to serve, saw at once that the, tion for the express purpose of show. project would infallibly destroy the ing what superior advantages, in many power to which it professed to impart respects, Englishmen enjoyed whilst new life. A certain spirit of free enthe papal supremacy extended over quiry was necessarily presupposed in the country. In fact, there is a re- the hazardous experiment, and it was turning kindness felt very widely palpable, if Rome put herself in the among us towards the Romish super. van of such a spirit, that, from the stition. Its comparative powerless. moment in which she did so, her own ness during a long lapse of time looks, foundations would be plucked up, and to the unreflecting, very like harm- her complete overthrow would become lessness and innocence; and the re- inevitable. It was therefore intimated iterated asseverations one constantly to the Abbé de la Menais, that howhears of the perfect consistency of the ever pure his intentions might be, his doctrine and views of the Church of Holiness was greatly displeased with Rome with the largest measure of his speculations, and that if they were civil freedom, have not failed to make not discontinued, they would be con very deluding impressions. We should demned by authority. In consequence therefore omit to perform our duty if of this intimation, the Avenir was prowe did not show, from the volume visionally suspended. But the Abbé whose title is prefixed to this article, being unwilling to renounce his own that all these assertions and repre- views, determined to make an effort to sentations are false. One would think, bring the Pope and Cardinals to emindeed, that history would suffice to brace them. For this purpose he set confute falsehoods so gross and pal. out with his two chief colleagues, pable as those to which we allude. Messieurs de la Cordaire and MontBut since the uniform testimony of alembert, on a visit of expostulation ages has been shoved aside as inappli- to the Papal See. cable to the actual character of the “ On this mission," says he, “ three papal power, it is certainly not super- obscure Christians,true representatives fluous to produce a recent and striking of another age, by the naïve simpliexemplification of this character, which city of their faith, to which was united is as broad and complete as could pos- perhaps some knowledge of the actual sibly be desired.
world, proceeded towards the Eternal City. Being arrived, however, these first step towards obedience, by declasweetly simple and intelligent children ring his interior, simple, absolute, and of the Church obtained no satisfaction. Unlimited adhesion to the sentiments After an interview with the Holy Fa. expressed in a late encyclical letter of ther, in which it was stipulated that his Holiness to the general Church. the matter which had brought the pil. Now, this letter, among other doggrims so far should not even be al matic dicta of the same complexion, luded to, M. de la Menais received a declares “ the liberty of the press to letter from the Cardinal Pacca, con- be a fatal liberty, which cannot be held demning dogmatically all his political in too much abhorrence," and that views. The following is an extract " the maxim, or rather DELIRIUM, from this letter. Its sentiments are which affirms that liberty of conscience declared by the Cardinal to proceed ought to be guaranteed, is false and from the infallible « mouth of the absurd.” Beside this, the infallible successor of St Peter.' They are epistle inculcates, with great earnesttherefore not to be regarded as private ness, a blind submission to all the acts opinions, but as the decisions of the of established power, and marks with Roman Church, and as such they have its reprobation every novelty. The been received and obeyed.
Abbé de la Menais no doubt perceived
that formally to subscribe to the truth “ As you love,” say the Cardinal in this
of these doctrines would be tantamount epistle," the truth, and desire to know
to bidding for ever adieu to his own it that you may follow it, I will tell you
trade of politico-religious demagogue, frankly, and in a few words, the principal
or would plunge him into many dis. points, which, on an examination of the
honourable inconsistencies. He thereAvenir, have displeased his Holiness. First, he has been greatly afflicted to per
fore demurred, and found himself in a ceive that the editors of that paper have
position extremely puzzling. He attaken on themselves to discuss in the pre
tempted to make a distinction between sence of the public, and to decide on the
the temporal and spiritual power of most delicate questions touching the go- the ropeaom,,!!
the Popedom, but only got more and vernment of the Church and its supreme
more involved in embarrassing queschief. The Holy Father also disapproves, tioning. and even reprobates the doctrine relative We will give some of his contradicto civil (underlined in the original) and tory reasonings on this subject, though political liberty. The doctrines of the not absolutely needful to our arguAvenir on liberty of worship, and liberty of ment. They are strongly illustrative, the press (also underlined in the original), we think, both of the equivocating diswhich have been treated with so much ex honesty of the individual, and of the aggeration, and pushed so far by its edi intellectual misery which even a hightors, are likewise very reprehensible, and ly accomplished mind is reduced to in opposition to the instruction, the max.
whilst in bondage to Rome. The ims, and the practice of the Church. They
Abbé, in the sentence preceding the have greatly astonished and amicted the
passage which follows, has declared Holy Father; for, if under certain circum
his opinion, that civil and political stances, prudence requires they should be
matters do not belong to the jurisdictolerated as a lesser evil, such doctrines can never be upheld by any Catholic, as
tion of the Church; but frightened, it either good or desirable."
appears, at his own temerity in this
assertion, he veers suddenly about, and In compliance with this decision of says_" But if either by right or in the Holy Father, the Avenir was fact the Pope decides otherwise, it is finally discontinued, and a formal de evidently the duty of Catholics rigorclaration was made by the editors, that ously to submit to his decisions, proviits discontinuance was an act of obe. sionally, at least, and even definitively, dience and submission to the authority if the Episcopacy remain silent ; for, of the Pope. This submission could according to the maxims of the Gallinot, one would think, have failed to can Church, the tacit adhesion of the be completely satisfactory. But it general Church suffices to stamp the was not deemed so. The papal dig- pontifical decision with the seal of innitaries, conceiving that the Abbé fallibility.” The Abbé then, again still retained some stubborn notions of taking courage after this admission, a political nature, not derived abso. ventures to reason with the Papal lutely from the dictation of the Roman power about liberty of conscience, and See, required of him to follow up his says boldly “ Supposing it admitted that Catholicism should be in contra. character of that Power which overdiction with the human conscience, shadows them, which is greater than under what obligation would men be they are. The Papist will always preto embrace its decisions ? On the one dominate over the man, however upside, it would be said, it is pride and right his natural disposition may be, madness to confide in reason naturally when the interests of his Church are infirm'" (this is from the Pope's let. in question. ter); " and on the other, 'that the con- We must now turn to some other science itself is deceitful ;' so that, to parts of M. de La Menais's volume, be a Catholic, one must abjure at the which demand a comment or two. same time one's reason and one's con. There is a school of philosophers and science.". After this sally, the Abbe politicians, so called in France, who becomes again submissive :-" For the may be appropriately denominated the sake of peace," says he, “ I determin- Mystics, and of these our author is one ed to sign the declaration demanded of of the most distinguished examples. me, but under the express reservation The French Mystics correspond in of my duty towards my country and one particular to our Utilitarians ; humanity.” This reservation, the that is, they are in the advance of the next sentence informs us, was a fla- Movement party of their countrymen. grantly dishonest act of prevarication; Indeed, it is difficult to find a French for, he continues, « in signing this democrat who has not a strain of mysdeclaration, simply, absolutely, and ticism in his views. The party, howwithout limitation, I knew very well ever, to whom we at present more espethat I affirmed implicitly that the Pope cially allude, have no further resemis God; and with the like object in blance to our Benthamites than what view, I am ready to affirm the same we have just pointed out. The two explicitly, whenever it shall be requir- schools, Mystic and Utilitarian, mereed of me."
ly occupy the same places in their It is needless to make any comment several countries. In every other reon this brief exposition we have been spect, they form perfect contrasts to able to furnish of the actual political each other, and show strikingly how principles of the Church of Rome. the nations in which they have sprung The doctrines of civil liberty, of the up essentially differ in character. Our liberty of the press, and of liberty of Radicals of “ the greatest happiness worship, are all, we see, equally de- principle," for instance, look to Renounced by the “ infallible" vicar of form, which, according to their deChrist. They can never be repre- signs, is to proceed without stoppage, sented, says the successor of St Peter, from detail to detail, till all things are by any true Catholic as either good or newly modified, as their grand instrudesirable, but are to be reprobated, ment. The French visionaries, on the held in abhorrence, deemed false and contrary, regarding Reform (indeed, absurd, and considered as the result of the word is not in the political vocaabsolute delirium. After this, is there bulary of the country) as too slow, and not something striking in the fact, that not sufficiently regenerating, look to the most bigoted Papists among us are revolution. But their desire for revothe most outrageous asserters of all lution arises not principally out of a these kinds of liberty ? Are we then love of change, or of excitement, or really to believe such persons frank out of ambition, or any of the other and honest in their declamations on motives which usually urge men to these subjects, or are we to conclude, subvert existing establishments. The that a desire to reach a certain posi- passion which chiefly actuates them is tion of influence falsifies their tongues, much more potent, and altogether of and brings their professions into con- a different description. The men we tradiction with their convictions? Or are writing of are fanatics. They ando they consider it just and honour ticipate, as far as we can catch their able to deceive enemies with a show of meaning, that, through a long chain of false colours ? God forbid that we revolutionary convulsions, a certain should make a bugbear of these men; social Revelation is to be wrought out, but let us not deceive ourselves with which is to consummate the happiness respect to their character, or rather- of the human race. Compared with not to do them injustice-let us not this passionate dream, the wildest prodeceive ourselves with respect to the jects and fancies of our English de