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the session were unrelaxing. He speakers were in general persons but never lost sight of the Ministry. Nei- little known beyond their own counther sleight nor force could avail them ties, and that their sentiments were to escape from his powerful hand. utterly untinged with any of that Always possessing the highest infor- reserve and caution which almost mation on the subject of debate, al. necessarily belong to Parliamentary ways enforcing it by the clearest argu. partisans, but that they were plain, ments, and adorning it with the man- straightforward, often indignant, and liest eloquence, he pressed hourly on always ardent expressions of feeling the Cabinet, until their only resource for the degraded condition of their from being extinguished, was the pro- country, and of disgust for the Whig. rogation. Too advanced and too emi. papist faction which held it in fetters. nent for a conflict with such adversa- It was equally to be observed, that ries, he has before him the struggle in those meetings men of every rank with the more furious strength and joined ; yet that there was a peculiarmore envenomed hostility of revolu- ity in their junction. The first who tion. He has powers for it.

united, on those occasions, were chiefMox in ovilia,

ly persons of the better condition of Nunc in reluctantes dracones. middle life. The landed gentry, bar

The Hydra, fed in the bottomless risters, clergy, and respectable men marshes and poisoned atmosphere of of the other established professions. popular passion, is already lifting up The original impulse was decidedly of its heads, and to crush it will require the middle order. That order, in the strength of a giant. But it can which it has been so often said that be crushed, and by the blessing of Pro the strength of English opinion and vidence on a manly people, it will. English virtue unequivocally consists. The speech at the Glasgow dinner As those meetings acquired force, they was an example of the faculties, and invited Peers and Members of Parliaan evidence of their demand for this ment to join them. As they acquired final conflict. Its merits were, that it additional force, they opened their was a great British declaration of pub. doors to the more intelligent among lic principle. It was more than a the working classes. Those classes party speech, it was even more than a again formed associations among Parliamentary one. It looked beyond themselves, and the manly, pious, and the legislature, and extended to the principled feelings of attachment to the empire. Unrestricted by any refer- religion and Constitution of England ence to the impressions of individuals, have thus spread large and deep it spoke the sense of the nation. Em- through those very portions of society bodying the soundest wisdom for the on which the artitices of rebellion had exigencies of the time, it pronounced been most eagerly employed, and those maxims of public morals, which were conceived to be the natural strength, and sincerity, which are unis abettors of all revolution. versal and everlasting.

But if the nature of the change was During the recess, a long succession to be still more powerfully illustrated, of celebrations of Conservative princi. it was by the contrast of the Whig ple took place throughout England. dinners. They were in all points the The character of those meetings was direct reverse. In number not one to decisive of the comprehensiveness, fifty. In attendance meagre, vulgar, vigour, and truth of the great change riotous, and disunited. As to their which had been effected in the public component parts, utterly abandoned mind. It was clear, that the timidity by all the higher and more honourable which had suffered the Reform Bill to ranks of the community, by the Peerbe passed, and which had equally suf- age, the clergy, the great proprietors fered Parliament to be filled with the of land, by all but a few official adhercreatures of the mob, was no more; ents of the Cabinet in the several that the country had resumed the counties, and a few of those Members natural spirit of Englishmen, and that of Parliament who were notoriously thenceforth the struggle of principle creatures of the Ministry. In another would be maintained with the intrepi. point, the contrast was not less strikdity of truth. It was to be observed, ing. Not one of those meetings apthat those meetings were not construc- pears to have been spontaneous. Some ted by the leaders of Conservatism in Member of the Government was republic life, that their chairmen and gularly sent to canvass an invitation for himself; and, through his personal and If some great painter of the passions political connexions, construct a public should arise, with what colours of dinner. Thus Spring Rice was sent gloom and terror would he embody to Limerick to try the temptations of the time! in what features of conscious a Chancellor of the Exchequer, and guilt and late remorse would he paint make a defence of the Minister. Thus the form of that feeble yet criminal Lord Glenelg was sent to Inverness Cabinet who have bound themselves to play the part of owl in the sunshine, in the spell of those masters of eviland make a defence of the Ministry. the Macbeth of a truer history listenThus the Attorney-General was sent ing to his fate from the spirits of darkto Edinburgh to tell his Radical con- ness, evoked with rites of profanation stituents the undiscoverable merits of and blood! Can any man who hears a Ministry which had done nothing the meagre protestations of that Cabifor the last twelve months, and take to net against faction doubt that they feel himself the merit of having saved the themselves already in its power? Prime Minister from the clutches of It is easy to talk lightly of those the law in an action for adultery. things. There are indolent minds

In fact, all the demonstrations of which care nothing for the deepest public feeling on the Ministerial side public change, provided it seems not were the work of plan, of labour, of likely to molest their own pillows. stratagem, of the influence of those There are others who care for no congood things of which a minister sup. sequences whatever, if they think that plicating for the popular shout is sup- they will not occur until they themposed to be the direct depositary. selves are out of the world. There But let those forced and systematic are still more who will not give themtoils for popularity be taken as they are. selves the trouble of a second thought Let those fabricated feelings and can- upon the subject, or obstinately and vassed celebrations be contrasted, for foolishly persevere in thinking that a moment, with the free and open, the nothing evil can occur, because exunpremeditated and powerful displays treme evil has not yet fallen upon the of the true public heart, exhibited in country. Let the reader consider every county of England, pouring whether he is in any of those classes, upon us till the public journals cannot and learn that it is to such apathy find words to vary their description, that the whole menace of national till the language of loyalty seems to ruin is due at this moment. The vil. be the common language of the realm, lany which threatens the Constitution and till those noble evidences of the would not have dared to lift its head, true national mind are rendered al. if the vigilance of England had been most superfluous by their acknow. awake to the growth of this reptile ledged and uncontested superiority. adversary. But let apathy itself hear With those evidences before us, what what are the actual declarations of possible doubt can there be that the Radicalism, and then ask how would nation is beginning to feel the neces- it be possible for laws, religion, or sity for the exertion of its powers - public peace to subsist from the mothat, like the blind man by the way- ment when they were realized. At side, its quick ear has caught the the dinner to the representatives of sound of deliverance, and its only out. Bath in January, a muster of Radicalcry now is, that the last scale may be ism, a leading speaker thus gave the taken from its cyes?

Radicals' confession of faith :--" Our But a third party has sprung up, demands are for Annual Parliaments, bitter, loud-tongued, and utterly un- Universal Suffrage, and Vote by Balprincipled-Radicalism--the last birth lot. In addition, the House of Lords of that low hypocrisy by which the must be reformed." Whigs have so long pampered the Now, nothing can be clearer than vanity of the rabble-Radicalism, the that the complete operation of any one open champion of overthrow, the pro. of those four measures would be a De. fessed clamourer for revolution, de mocracy. The operation of the whole manding endless change, and, with a four would go still further than a Deprecipitate folly, untaught by the old mocracy, and would be ANARCHY. miseries of national convulsion, and Let us suppose, for instance, Annual with a sanguinary frenzy incurable Parliaments to become law. What but by its own pikes and scaffolds, re- man of any character, substance, projoicing in the hope of national evil. fession, or landed property could be a candidate after the first few trials ? fered Radicalism to have the upper Time, fortune, and talent would be hand. wasted with an ineffectiveness that Or take the instance of Universal would rapidly disgust every man of Suffrage. What would be the value respectability. The return for a of property an hour, if every wretch county now costs, at the most reduced who walks the streets were to be enti. rate of Reform, about L.4000. The tled to return members to Parliament? keenest cutting down of those ex. If the whole vice, vileness, dishonesty, penses will always leave room for beggary, and corruption of the meheavy demands on the purse of any tropolis and the towns were let loose candidate who is supposed able to to elect representatives, the influence meet them. There will be placards, of character, property, name, old conagents, canvassers, dinners, convey. nexions, old services, all that constiances, and a multitude of other ex- tutes the generous, manly, and subpenses, while there is any chance of stantial grounds of popularity, would their being paid. And all this for be trampled down by a countless rabthe precarious seat of one year! that ble, exulting in its power of revenge, year being partly occupied in can- and roaring for some Hunt or Cobvassing, and the Parliament being al- bett. They would inevitably choose ways sure, if we are to judge from all men after their own hearts. Highexperience, of being dissolved before waymen, pickpockets, forgers, cointhe regulated time. The average du- ers, gaming-housekeepers, the vilest ration of the actual Parliamentary instruments of the vilest sources of year would probably not exceed six existence, the man of fraud, the man months. This would soon drive every of plunder, the man of blood-those candidate of respectability out of the would be the electors; the more refield. But other candidates would not putable classes would be instantly be wanting. The characterless, the swamped at the hustings, and the most penniless, the unprincipled, the whole profligate, audacious, and promising crowd of those who, in default of bargainer would be the man of the having anything else to sell, sell day. With 658 men of this class to themselves, would be the perpe- make the laws of England, to guard tual hirelings of the mob. Can- its property, and sustain its religion, vassing would be their profession. what must be the result to England ? They would pay nothing, because Or take the Vote by Ballot. An it was known that they could pay acknowledged and base expedient to nothing. But pledges to every frantic allow the voter to promise one thing, caprice of the mob would be the price and do another; a public privilege of of their admission to the hustings. lying, and a private one of corruption. And the performance of those pledges Who can doubt that the whole busi. would be the price of their existence ness of elections would become a mat. in the House. Every new villain, ter of bribery, while there was any who hoped to gain in the common din candidate able to bribe ? What would vision of the spoil, would outbid his the man of the purse have to do, but villain predecessor, and, with a legis- to send his agent into the clubs of lature whose only principle was rob- voters, and say to each coterie, “ If bery, what would be the security of a my man is returned, fifty-or five hunshilling in the pocket of any honest dred pounds will be forthcoming for man? Yet annual Parliaments are the the club; if he is thrown out, the open demand of the Radicals, and if fault is yours, and you shall not have we suffer them once to become our a shilling." And the ballot would masters, annual Parliaments they will have this peculiar attraction for such have. Even triennial Parliaments, the a traffic, that there being no presumed most moderated demand of their most possibility of knowing how the indimoderate portion, would rapidly have vidual voted, there would be no actual the same result. Radicalism must be possibility of examining his vote on a resisted with all our heart and strength, petition, no power of proving bribery or we shall see civil convulsion, con- against him, and of course all the nafiscation of property, tyranny over the tural precautions now adopted to preperson, banishment, and loss of life. vent excessive corruption would be No human power can sustain England abandoned as useless. It is true, that against the direst extremities of ruin, bribery itself would at length be abanif her indolence shall have once suf- doned; but it would be only by the failure of individual means. But ed. Its hand against every man, when money was no more in the mar. every man's hand must be against it. ket, other influences, still more ha- The piety, the vigour, the learning, the zardous, would take its place. Pledges constitutional integrity, the indignant to divide the public property among native virtue of England must be sumthe populace would be the more tempt. moned to the struggle; and unless we ing bribe. The extinction of the na- are abandoned by the supreme source tional debt, and the robbery of the of all virtue, hope, and help, and abanpublic creditor, the lowering of rents, doned for our old apathy and our the spoliation of all property dedica- deepening crimes, we shall plunge it ted to religious objects—those would in the abyss from which it arose. be the more comprehensive corrup- Satan shall be bound! tions of a populace, which, working But Radicalism has one virtue, the in the dark, and freed by the ballot ruffian's virtue, courage. It is the from all considerations of personal direct reverse of Whig hypocrisy. It character, would hurry on from one leaves the grovelling, fawning, perfidirapine to another, until all was pils ous spirit of Whiggism immersed in lage.

its own baseness. It resists the Tories, We ask any man of sense, whether but it tramples on the Whigs. It puts this catastrophe would not be inevita, its heel on the loftiest of them, and proble? We ask of the Radical himself, nounces all his motives contemptible, whether he does not contemplate a and all his actions worthy of his modemocracy, and by democracy an tives. It draws up a bill of indictment overthrow of the existing order of against the whole party as against a things, a change of property, a repub- gang of political swindlers, and prolic, a revolution ?

nounces them naked of all character. But are we not to ask Englishmen, It stigmatizes them as a nest of coiners, where is the shadow of a necessity for counterfeiting the sterling circulation those tremendous changes ? What of honour by their own base metal. outrage is effected against the liberty Roebuck asserts, without any circumof the subject ?_what tyranny on con- locution, that “the Whigs have deceivscience ? — what threat of despoticed and defrauded the people." Colonel power from the throne ?—what cor- Napier says, with as little apology, ruption of justice? Is not England « That on the fall of the Wellington the freest, the fairest, the wealthiest, Ministry, the Whigs came fawning on the most fully employed, the most the people, and offered to lead the prosperous portion of the globe? And movement which they were determined why are we to stab all this to the heart, to mislead. The Irish said, Give us and fling the national prosperity into our rights, or give us our Parliament, the grave, merely to try whether it that we may do justice to ourselves. may or may not start up from its dis- What said the Whig Government? It solution in some more vigorous form? said, No, we will give you civil war. Has any man counted the cost of We will give you the sword to smite, those gratuitous experiments on the the torch to burn, the whip to torture, frame of a mighty kingdom? What, and the halter to hang you with." And but the most extravagant folly, or the all this was followed by tremendous most wanton malice, is it that would cheers. throw the constitution into the flames There is still a fourth party, suspected of civil discord, merely to see into by all, hated by all, disdained by all, what shapes its noble metal would run and the master of all. The party of among the embers of the empire ? the Popish priesthood ; sustained by What sullen frenzy or Satanic guilt the rent, and headed by O'Connell. would raise the image of the revolu. Utterly insignificant in individual abitionary Moloch among us, and fill it lity, with the single exception of its with human victims, only to take the leader, obscure in personal name, and augury from their cries, and fertilize despised in personal character, still, by the spot of the sacrifice with their its very want of principle, it sways the ashes ?

Cabinet. If it possessed principle, it We call upon the whole energy of could not so flexibly answer all the the British people to resist this fraudu- purposes of a cause essentially Jesuitilent and implacable enemy of God cal. But ready to move in any direc. and man. Radicalism must be crush- tion at a nod, it thus keeps its power

YOL. XLI, NO, CCLVII,

as an arbiter. It is the sword and claims to an indefinite extent. But they belt which the barbarian leader of the cannot say how far their demands may Popish invasion arrogantly flings into be carried, for that must depend on unthe British scale.

known events! They tell us, however, But, to give testimony more direct that what would have satisfied them a than our own, we take an authority year or two ago, will fall very short of which has just challenged public at satisfying them now. And that whattention.

ever is offered, will be received in The writer to whose opinions we part, because it will enable them to allude,* is a gentleman of fortune, re proceed in their incessant importunisident in the north of Ireland. A ties with the better prospect of success. Whig, strong upon all the weak points The demandant may be a gainer by of Whiggism, an advocate for every this mode of proceeding, but there one of those measures of fatal liberality cannot be a reciprocity of advantage. which have plunged the empire into And as peace alone could be the price successive depths of danger. A de- of concession, the value is not likely to claimer against all restrictions on ac- be realized. The principle will apply count of religion, which (forgetting equally to individuals, members, and that they are mere defences of the nations." public peace) he pronounces to be re- Next, as to Lord Mulgrave_" The strictions on liberty of conscience; and position in which they have been loudly demanding why power should pleased to place our Lord Lieutenant, not be as safely confided to Papists as appears somewhat ludicrous. They to Protestants; equally forgetting the boast of his favour, and say at the great essential distinction, that the same time, that their countenance is Fanist exercises his power to persecute, necessary to his protection. If we may and does so on the principles of his believe them, they carry on their busichurch, while the Protestant faith ness under his patronage. I wish they prohibits all persecution ; that Popery would place a board over their shop declares all heretics condemned to eter- door, announcing that they are 'misnal sufferings, and, therefore, declares chief-makers to the viceroy of Ireitself authorized to torture the body to land,' and licensed to deal in sediredeem the soul ; while Protestantism tion. They confer all the honour pronounces that cruelty can never be they can upon his excellency. They the source of good--that the tyranny call the process of their manufactory of man can never be virtue, and that Mulgravizing. * * * In the nortii the use of the rack and the scaffold to of Ireland, we cannot account for a coerce belief is only murder.

toleration of the association' in the Yet we find this liberal, this thorough metropolis ; nor reconcile the enduWhig, this man varnished all over with rance of it with the prosecutions which the most flaunting colours of the new are now pending over hundreds for school, actually so penetrated with a having walked in procession as Orangesense of the atrocity of the Popish men on the 12th of July last! We faction, from seeing its workings on believe it to be illegal, and, if it were the spot, that he unconsciously throws not permitted by the government, we down his old weight of Whig preju- could not entertain a doubt of its ille. dices, and starts forward to summon gality. What say the law officers ? Is his countrymen to a sense of their im- it their opinion (we know what can be minent ruin. He thus unhesitatingly done under privilege of Parliament) declares his slow and compulsory con- that men may associate out of Parliaviction, that the Popish Association is ment, demand the repeal of some stathe prime agent of national hazard. tutes, the modification of some, and

“ I have paid some attention,” says the enactment of some, and threaten a he, “to the progress of our public dismemberment of the empire, in case affairs, and, I fear, it is because I have of non-compliance? Yet the Associalooked on them impartially, that they tion agitates throughout the year, seem the more deplorable and despe avowedly to this end, unmolested. Sed rate.” Hethus pursues, “We are told by Julius ardet.' If folly is to be punishthe National Association that they have ed, why not prosecute crime ?

* Observations on the Present State of Ireland, by Sir Francis Macnaughten, Bart,

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