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for the reception of that popular exe- whilst they trample on, or disdain all cration, which unshared, might sud. below them in the social scale, they denly overwhelm the Workhouse sys. are jealous, and would pull down to tem with all its authors and abomina- their own level all above them. The tions.

bourgeoisie, or middle orders of AmeLet the middle classes take heed in rica, have already passed under the time; for upon them, as the founda- absolute yoke of the masses. They tion of power, as the order, more tan- are shorn of all power, deprived of all gible, more hated and envied, the re- dignity, degraded and confounded action of popular vengeance, for the among the common herd of matter ills of the Factory system, and the without mind-robed in all the arbi. atrocities of the Workhouse system, trary absolutism of universal suffrage. will surely be discharged the first. Not alone does the majority, in the Savings in wages, by the slow immo. plenitude of its tyranny, exclude them lation of factory children, and of rates, from political dominion or participaby the decimating consequences of tion in it, but its scrutinizing jeaworkhouse incarceration and work lousy penetrates and persecutes them house starvation diet, will be found in the details of private life. Woe cheerless and unfructifying economy, to the citizen, rich though he be, when corn ricks are blazing, cotton who indulges too ostentatiously in the mills are fired, and the masses, manu. luxuries of private life. The sight of facturing and agricultural, with their a carriage would scarcely be tolerated Jack Cades and Wat Tylers at their in Broadway - in Wall Street the head, are in open insurrection. At gaudy nuisance would breed a riot ; the best, and if successful in the strug- the tenant would be hooted for lordly gle, the county rate of one year may affectation of superiority--the pride chance to absorb all the wretched and of “ equality" would be shocked, the recklessly purchased parsimonies of majesty of the workie insulted. " In the poor's rate outlay for twenty. The Europe," says M. Chevalier," where sound and thinking portion have fore- great cities abound, every bourgeoisie seen this, but in the presence of a fac- which should fail in supporting the tious majority in the Legislature, and throne or the aristocracy, would be agitators in the Government, they re- exposed to a worse fate than that of main inert and passive. The clergy the American bourgeoisie." Let it not of the national church have distin- be imagined that the prosperity and guished themselves as becomes their advancement of America is referable holy calling, by active endeavours to in whole, or to any extent, to her remitigate the evil, and by remonstrance publican institutions. De Tocqueville, against the barbarity of the system. a writer equally favourable to the deBut not one of the dissenting ministry mocratic principle, and calculating uphas ventured forth to plead the cause on its inevitable triumph with the one of the people, nor dare they. The before quoted, acquaints us, that “the wealthy and well-doing, and such only population of America (in which is do they covet for their flocks, are there included her progress economically with the Voluntary principle in hand, and socially), increased as rapidly and in terrorem over them. Their sa. under the colonial system as it does laries, the supplies of the recusant at the present day ; that is to say, it preacher would be stopped, who also doubled in about twenty-two years. has a sordid interest in diminished But this proportion, which is now ap. rates.

plied to millions, was then applied to With these dangers impending on thousands of inhabitants; and the the one hand over them, no inconsi- same fact which was scarcely noticederable portion of the middle classes, able a century ago, is now evident to of the sectarians chiefly, are rushing every observer." He continues to blindly on towards—are infected with show that the “ British subjects in insane longings for the establishment Canada, who are dependent on a King, of a pure democracy on the ruins of augment and spread almost as rapidly the mixed Constitution, under which as the British settlers of the United they, as all, have grown in wealth and States, who live under a Republican happiness. M. Chevalier notes it as Government." a distinctive characteristic of the Eng. Here we must draw to a conclusion. lish and Anglo-American race, that Interests well understood, should lead the middle classes rather to strengthen conjuncture, is the empire to look for their connexion with the aristocracy safety and protection? In presence of and monarchy, than jealously to weaken the coming tempest there is a Governpowers and forms essential to the pre- ment only less imbecile than unprinservation of their own supremacy, and cipled—a majority in the Commons' which never can seriously endanger it. House compounded of traitors more But the social and political superiori. than suspected, of Radicals utilitarian ties of both bourgeoisie and aristocracy, and destructive, of Whigs venal and will be jeopardised if the crusade of time-serving—the authors, abettors, the first, and the acquiescent march of and supporters of the workhouse systhe last, against the rights of the poor tem—the implacable foes of the poor. be madly persisted in. The industrial Come the crash will, meet it who may. world is every where in the throes of A rural police will be nerveless to a convulsion_in the United States, prop up workhouses tumbling to their in France, in Germany, as well as ruin. The firmament of Whiggery is, here. Overstrained production is suc- however, calm and unclouded as on a ceeded by a violent reaction of falling summer's day. The cries of the poor values. Widely spread ruin and or the oppressed cloud not the atmosbankruptcy are inevitable results of a phere respired in Downing-streetdecline in prices, of 30, 40, or 50 per yet rebellion is silently and sombrely cent. Consumption is arrested withhatching in Ireland-Lower Canada out a medium of barter or exchange, is in open revolt-even the little rock and can only be re-established when of Malta is in quasi insurrection. the par is re-adjusted, and the down- Russia captures our ships, and wars ward race between nations decided at against our commerce-Portugal bars the common goal of diminished rates, us out with prohibitory tariffs-Geneas well as diminished production. ral Evans, the hero of Lord PalmerLong before that period, nay, before ston, with his legion and an army half the expiration of another year per- as strong as that which, at Vittoria, chance, thousands, and tens of thou- under Wellington, triumphed over, sands, in the manufacturing districts, and chased before it, 50,000 of the may be cast out of work. They will élite of the troops of Napoleon, is so cry out for bread, and a stone, a work disgracefully deteated at Hernani by house will be offered. The next en- a band of raw mountaineers, that the campment of one hundred thousand wreck owed its safety and escape, raging spirits, will not be in War- though within the walls of St Sebaswickshire, but in Lancashire. No tian, only to the cool intrepidity of the Olivers, or Parkeses, backed with Royal Marines, who protected the Treasury franks, will be wanting to flight. Brookes's is all agog with excite them-for betrayed they will peerages expectant, and commoners be powerless. A populace incom- coronetted but not ennobled. Nay, parably more intelligent, and leaders four hundred baronets have formed infinitely more desperate than those of an union to enforce their rights toBirmingham, may be banded in mortal the Ulster badge!!! Such was the strife against the “ monarchy of the feasting, such the idle revelries in Belmiddle classes,” whilst these are rash shazzar's palace at the ominous moly as besottedly occupied in sapping ment of the “ handwriting on the the foundations of the monarchy aris. wall.” So Nero sang, danced, and tocratical. Where, in so solemn a fiddled, whilst Rome was blazing!

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Amidst all our declarations in fa- glorious spectacle. They have been vour of the lights of the age, and the deceived, and willingly deceived, by the extraordinary influence of the press, endless falsehoods which the revoluand the extension of journals in diffu- tionary press and the holders of Spasing correct ideas on every subject of nish bonds spread abroad on this subpolicy, foreign and domestic, it mayject, they have been carried away by be doubted, whether there is to be the false and slanderous appellations found in the whole history of human bestowed on Don Carlos, they have delusion, not even excepting the be- been mystified by a denial of his clear nighted ages of Papal despotism, or and irresistible title to the throne, they the equally dark era of Napoleon's have not duly considered the stern and tyranny, an example of ignorance so inexorable necessity which compelled complete and general, as has prevailed him to abandon the humane system of in this country, for the last seven warfare which he at first adopted, and years, as to the affairs of Spain. retaliate upon his enemies the atroWhile a contest has been going on cious and murderous rule of war which there during all that period between they had so long practised against him constitutional right and revolutionary and his followers; and by their suspoliation; while the Peninsula has pineness permitted the royal arms of been convulsed by the long protracted England to be implicated in the most conflict between legal government and savage crusade ever undertaken in democratic despotism; while the same modern times against the liberty of cause which has been supported since mankind, and a band of brave but de1830 in Great Britain by the arms of luded mercenaries, to prolong to their reasoning, eloquence, or influence, has own and their country's eternal disthere been carried on with the edge of grace a frightful conflict between sorthe sword; while for the last four years, did democratic despotism, striving a struggle has been maintained by the to elevate itself on the ruins of its Basque mountaineers for their rights country, and the free-born bravery of and their liberties, their hearths and unconquerable patriots. their religion, which history will place We take blame to ourselves on this beside the glories of Marathon and subject; we confess ourselves impliSalamis, of Naefels and Morgarten: cated in the charge which, through all while an heroic Prince and his heroic the succeeding ages of the world, will brothers have borne up against a load attach to the name of England, for its of oppression, foreign and domestic, deplorable concern in this heroic conin defence of legal right and constitu. flict, which will go far to obliterate tional freedom, with a courage and a the recollection of all its memorable exskill rarely paralleled in the annals of ertions in the cause of freedom. The military achievement, the great bulk calamity is not the defeat sustained at of the English nation have looked St Sebastian or Hernani : not the with supineness or indifference on the disgrace of English regiments being vol. XLI. NO, CCLIX,

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routed and driven back at the point of despotic tyrants who ever yet rose the bayonet in shameful confusion; to transient greatness upon the misethese stains are easily wiped out: ry and degradation of their country. the national courage, when brought But, while we thus absolve both the into the field in a just cause, will soon government and the country from inobliterate the recollection of the defeat tentional abuse of power in the deplorwhich was sustained in supporting that able transactions which both have sancof cruelty and injustice. The real tioned, there is a limit beyond which disgrace—the calamity which England this forbearance cannot be extended. has indeed to mourn, is that of having This result of our shameful interjoined in an alliance to beat down vention to oppress the free, and aid the the liberties of mankind ; in having murderers in massacring the innocent, aided a selfish, execrable band of is now fixed and unalterable, and in murderers and plunderers to oppress no degree dependent on the future and massacre our faithful allies ; in issue of the contest. What that may having combined with France, in defi- finally be, God only knows. It is pos. ance alike of the faith of treaties and sible, doubtless, that the weight of the the rules of international law, to de. Quadruple Alliance- the direct interprive a gallant prince of his rightful vention of France-the insidious supinheritance; in having sent out the port of England--the exhaustion of a royal forces of England, under the old protracted contest and the extirpaflag of Wellington, to aid a set of cut- tion of the population capable of bearthroats and assassins, of robbers and ing arms in the Basque Provinces, plunderers, in carrying fire and sword, may beat down these heroic mounmourning and despair through the val- taineers, and establish amidst blood leys of a simple and virtuous people, and ashes, anguish and mourning, the combined in no other cause but that cruel oppression of the Madrid demofor which Hambden bled on the field crats in the lovely valleys of Navarre : and Sidney on the scaffold.

- Quum solitudinem fecerunt, pacem « Wo unto those," says the Scrip- appellant.” In that case, the interest ture, “who call evil good and good of the struggle will be enhanced by evil ; for theirs is the greater damna- its tragic termination; the sympathies, tion." It is in this fatal delusion the indignant sympathies of mankind in the confusion of ideas produced by in every future age, will be with the transposing the names of things, and unfortunate brave ;-like the Poles or calling the cause of despotism that of the Girondists, the errors of their forfreedom, merely because it is support. mer conduct will all be forgotten in ed by Urban despots--and that of free the Roman heroism of their fall. dom slavery, because it is upheld by They will take their place in history, rural patriots, that the true cause of beside their ancestors in Numantia this hideous perversion, not merely of and Saguntum, who preferred throw. national character, but even of partying themselves into the flames, to the consistency, is to be found. We are hated dominion of the stranger; and perfectly persuaded that, if the people the Saragossans or Geronists in later of England were aware of the real na- days, who perished in combating the ture of the cause in which they em- formidable legions of Napoleon, or the barked a gallant but unfortunate band gallant patriots, who, with Kosciusko, of adventurers ; if the government shed their last blood, when the grena. were aware of the real tendency of the diers of Suwarrow were storming the quasi-intervention which they have entrenchments of Prague, and the Viscarried on, both the one and the other tula ran red with Polish blood. Or it would recoil with horror from the mea- may be, that Providence has reserved sures which they have so long sanc- a different destiny for these gallant tioned. But both were deluded by patriots, and that on this, as on so the name of freedom ; both were car. many previous occasions, the God of ried away by the absurd mania for the battles will bless the righteous side. extension of democratic institutions into In that case, their struggle will form countries wholly unprepared for them; one of the most animating periods in the and both thought they were upholding page of history-one of the bright and the cause of liberty and the ultimate consoling spots in the annals of human interests of Great Britain, by support suffering, to which the patriot will ing a band who have proved themselves point in every succeeding age as the to be the most selfish, corrupt, and animating example of successful virtue, at the recital of which the hearts full knowledge of the hideous massaof the generous will throb, so long as cres which have so long disfigured this valour and constancy shall be appre unhappy war-having before our eyes ciated upon earth.

the Durango decree, and the Carlist We speak thus warmly, because we executions; and yielding to none in feel strongly because we sympathize horror at these sanguinary atrocities, from the bottom of our hearts with and the most ardent wish for their the cause of freedom all over the termination. We make them also, world. But we are not deluded, as agreeing with the Standard, that if so many of our countrymen are, who this frightful system had begun with never look beyond the surface of the Carlists, or had even been adopted things, by the mere assumption of false by them under the influence of any names. We have learned from our other cause than the sense of unbearown experience, as well as the annals able executions of a similar kind preof history, that tyranny, plunder, and viously suffered by them, and begun oppression can stalk in the rear of the by the Revolutionists, and the overtricolor flag, and urban multitudes be whelming necessity of mournful reroused by a ruthless band of sordid revo. taliation, not only would their cause lutionists, to their own and their coun- be unworthy of the sympathy of any try's ultimate ruin. We have learned brave or good man, but that Don also from the same sources of informa. Carlos himself would be a monster tion, that hearts can beat as warmly for unfit to live.” But admitting all this, the cause of freedom, and arms combat we see it as clearly proved as any proas bravely in its defence on the moun. position in geometry, that this exetain as on the plain, in the sequestered crable system began with the Spanish valley as in the crowded city, under democrats, and them alone, and was the banners of religion and loyalty, as never resorted to by the Carlists, till under the standard of treason and per- years after they had suffered under its fidy. We yield to none in the ardent atrocious execution by their enemies ; love of liberty ; but what we call and the Carlist valleys were filled with liberty is the lasting protection of the mourning from the death of old men, rights and privileges of all classes of women and children, murdered in the people, not the trampling them cold blood by the democratic tyrants under foot, to suit the fanciful theories who sought to plunder and enslave of visionary enthusiasts, or the sordid them. And in such circumstances, we speculations of Stock Exchange revo- know that retaliation, however dread. lutionists. We look around us, and ful and mournful an extremity, is unbehold liberty still flourishing in the avoidable, and that brave and humane British Isles, after a hundred and fifty men are forced, like Zumalacarregui, years' duration, under the banner of to sentence prisoners to be shot, even religion and loyalty, despite all the when the order, as it did from him, efforts of infidel democracy for its de- draws tears like rain from their eyes. struction. We cast our eyes to the Unquestionably none can admire more other side of the Channel, and we see than we do the noble proclamation of freedom perishing, both in France and the Duke of York in 1793, in answer Spain, after unheard-of calamities, to the savage orders of the Directory under the ascendant of a revolutionary to the Revolutionary armies of France and freethinking generation. Taught to give no quarter. None can feel by these great examples, we have greater exultation at the humane conlearned to cling the more closely to duct of the Vendeans, who, in reply to a the faith and the maxims of our similar order from their inhuman opfathers, to see in the principles of re- pressors, sent eleven thousand prisoners ligion and loyalty the only secure back, with their heads merely shaved, foundation for real freedom; and to to the Republican lines. But it beexpect the ultimate triumph of con- longs to the prosperous and the secure stitutional principles, not from the to act upon such generous and noble sudden irruption of blood-thirsty fana principles ;—the endurance of coldtics, or the selfish ambition of rapa. blooded cruelty, the pangs of murcious democrats, but the gradual and dered innocence, the sight of parents pacific growth of a middling class in and children slaughtered, will drive, society, under the protecting influence and in every age have driven, the of a durable Government.

most mild and humane to the dreadWe make these remarks, too, in the ful, but unavoidable system of retalia

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