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Amidst all our declarations in fa- glorious spectacle. They have been vour of the lights of the age, and the deceived, and willingly deceived, by the extraordinary influence of the press, endless falsehoods which the revoluand the extension of journals in diffu- tionary press and the holders of Spasing correct ideas on every subject of nish bonds spread abroad on this subpolicy, foreign and domestic, it may ject, they have been carried away by be doubted, whether there is to be the false and slanderous appellations found in the whole history of human bestowed on Don Carlos, they have delusion, not even excepting the be- been mystified by a denial of his clear nighted ages of Papal despotism, or and irresistible title to the throne, they the equally dark era of Napoleon's have not duly considered the stern and tyranny, an example of ignorance so inexorable necessity which compelled complete and general, as has prevailed him to abandon the humane system of in this country, for the last seven warfare which he at first adopted, and years, as to the affairs of Spain. retaliate upon his enemies the atroWhile a contest has been going on cious and murderous rule of war which there during all that period between they had so long practised against him constitutional right and revolutionary and his followers; and by their suspoliation ; while the Peninsula has pineness permitted the royal arms of been convulsed by the long protracted England to be implicated in the most conflict between legal government and savage crusade ever undertaken in democratic despotism; while the same modern times against the liberty of cause which has been supported since mankind, and a band of brave but de1830 in Great Britain by the arms of luded mercenaries, to prolong to their reasoning, eloquence, or influence, has own and their country's eternal disthere been carried on with the edge of grace a frightful conflict between sorthe sword; while for the last four years, did democratic despotism, striving a struggle has been maintained by the to elevate itself on the ruins of its Basque mountaineers for their rights country, and the free-born bravery of and their liberties, their hearths and unconquerable patriots. their religion, which history will place We take blame to ourselves on this beside the glories of Marathon and subject; we confess ourselves impliSalamis, of Naefels and Morgarten: cated in the charge which, through all while an heroic Prince and his heroic the succeeding ages of the world, will brothers have borne up against a load attach to the name of England, for its of oppression, foreign and domestic, deplorable concern in this heroic conin defence of legal right and constitu- flict, which will go far to obliterate tional freedom, with a courage and a the recollection of all its memorable exskill rarely paralleled in the annals of crtions in the cause of freedom. The military achievement, the great bulk calamity is not the defeat sustained at of the English nation have looked St Sebastian or Hernani : not the with supineness or indifference on the disgrace of English regiments being

VOL. XLI. NO, CCLIX,

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routed and driven back at the point of despotic tyrants who ever yet rose the bayonet in shameful confusion; to transient greatness upon the misethese stains are easily wiped out: ry and degradation of their country. the national courage, when brought But, while we thus absolve both the into the field in a just cause, will soon government and the country from in. obliterate the recollection of the defeat tentional abuse of power in the deplorwhich was sustained in supporting that able transactions which both have sancof cruelty and injustice. The real tioned, there is a limit beyond which disgrace—the calamity which England this forbearance cannot be extended. has indeed to mourn, is that of having This result of our shameful interjoined in an alliance to beat down vention to oppress the free, and aid the the liberties of mankind ; in having murderers in massacring the innocent, aided a selfish, execrable band of is now fixed and unalterable, and in murderers and plunderers to oppress no degree dependent on the future and massacre our faithful allies ; in issue of the contest. What that may having combined with France, in defi- finally be, God only knows. It is posance alike of the faith of treaties and sible, doubtless, that the weight of the the rules of international law, to de- Quadruple Alliance the direct interprive a gallant prince of his rightful vention of France—the insidious supinheritance ; in having sent out the port of England—the exhaustion of a royal forces of England, under the old protracted contest—and the extirpaflag of Wellington, to aid a set of cut- tion of the population capable of bearthroats and assassins, of robbers and ing arms in the Basque Provinces, plunderers, in carrying fire and sword, may beat down these heroic mounmourning and despair through the val- taineers, and establish amidst blood leys of a simple and virtuous people, and ashes, anguish and mourning, the combined in no other cause but that cruel oppression of the Madrid demofor which Hambden bled on the field crats in the lovely valleys of Navarre : and Sidney on the scaffold.

_“Quum solitudinem fecerunt, pacem “ Wo unto those," says the Scrip: appellant.” In that case, the interest ture, “who call evil good and good of the struggle will be enhanced by evil ; for theirs is the greater damna- its tragic termination; the sympathies, tion." It is in this fatal delusion, the indignant sympathies of mankind in the confusion of ideas produced by in every future age, will be with the transposing the names of things, and unfortunate brave;—like the Poles or calling the cause of despotism that of the Girondists, the errors of their forfreedom, merely because it is support. mer conduct will all be forgotten in ed by Urban despots--and that of free- the Roman heroism of their fall. dom slavery, because it is upheld by They will take their place in history, rural patriots, that the true cause of beside their ancestors in Numantia this hideous perversion, not merely of and Saguntum, who preferred throw. national character, but even of partying themselves into the flames, to the eonsistency, is to be found. We are hated dóminion of the stranger; and perfectly persuaded that, if the people the Saragossans or Geronists in later of England were aware of the real na- days, who perished in combating the ture of the cause in which they em- formidable legions of Napoleon, or the barked a gallant but unfortunate band gallant patriots, who, with Kosciusko, of adventurers ; if the government shed their last blood, when the grena. were aware of the real tendency of the diers of Suwarrow were storming the quasi-intervention which they have entrenchments of Prague, and the Viscarried on, both the one and the other tula ran red with Polish blood. Or it would recoil with horror from the mea- may be, that Providence has reserved sures which they have so long sanc- a different destiny for these gallant tioned. But both were deluded by patriots, and that on this, as on so the name of freedom ; both were car- many previous occasions, the God of ried away by the absurd mania for the battles will bless the righteous side. extension of democratic institutions into In that case, their struggle will form countries wholly unprepared for them; one of the most animating periods in the and both thought they were upholding page of history-one of the bright and the cause of liberty and the ultimate consoling spots in the annals of human interests of Great Britain, by support- suffering, to which the patriot will ing a band who have proved themselves point in every succeeding age as the to be the most selfish, corrupt, and animating example of successful vir

tue, at the recital of which the hearts full knowledge of the hideous massaof the generous will throb, so long as cres which have so long disfigured this valour and constancy shall be appre- unhappy war_having before our eyes ciated upon earth.

the Durango decree, and the Carlist We speak thus warmly, because we executions ; and yielding to none in feel strongly--because we sympathize horror at these sanguinary atrocities, from the bottom of our hearts with and the most ardent wish for their the cause of freedom all over the termination. We make them also, world. But we are not deluded, as agreeing with the Standard, that if so many of our conntrymen are, who this frightful system had begun with never look beyond the surface of the Carlists, or had even been adopted things, by the mere assumption of false by them under the influence of any names. We have learned from our other cause than the sense of unbearown experience, as well as the annals able executions of a similar kind preof history, that tyranny, plunder, and viously suffered by them, and begun oppression can stalk in the rear of the by the Revolutionists, and the overtricolor flag, and urban multitudes be whelming necessity of mournful reroused by a ruthless band of sordid revo- taliation, not only would their cause lutionists, to their own and their coun. be unworthy of the sympathy of any try's ultimate ruin. We have learned brave or good man, but that Don also from the same sources of informa- Carlos himself would“ be a monster tion, that hearts can beat as warmly for unfit to live." But admitting all this, the cause of freedom, and arms combat we see it as clearly proved as any proas bravely in its defence on the moun- position in geometry, that this exetain as on the plain, in the sequestered crable system began with the Spanish valley as in the crowded city, under democrats, and them alone, and was the banners of religion and loyalty, as never resorted to by the Carlists, till under the standard of treason and per- years after they had suffered under its fidy. We yield to none in the ardent atrocious execution by their enemies ; love of liberty ; but what we call and the Carlist valleys were filled with liberty is the lasting protection of the mourning from the death of old men, rights and privileges of all classes of women and children, murdered in the people, not the trampling them cold blood by the democratic tyrants under foot, to suit the fanciful theories who sought to plunder and enslave of visionary enthusiasts, or the sordid them. And in such circumstances, we speculations of Stock Exchange revo- know that retaliation, however dread. lutionists. We look around us, and ful and mournful an extremity, is unbehold liberty still flourishing in the avoidable, and that brave and humane British Isles, after a hundred and fifty men are forced, like Zumalacarregui, years' duration, under the banner of to sentence prisoners to be shot, even religion and loyalty, despite all the when the order, as it did from him, efforts of infidel democracy for its de- draws tears like rain from their eyes. struction. We cast our eyes to the Unquestionably none can admire more other side of the Channel, and we see than we do the noble proclamation of freedom perishing, both in France and the Duke of York in 1793, in answer Spain, after unheard-of calamities, to the savage orders of the Directory under the ascendant of a revolutionary to the Revolutionary armies of France and freethinking generation. Taught to give no quarter. None can feel by these great examples, we have greater exultation at the humane conlearned to cling the more closely to duct of the Vendeans, who, in reply to a the faith and the maxims of our similar order from their inhuman opfathers, to see in the principles of re- pressors, sent eleven thousand prisoners ligion and loyalty the only secure back, with their heads merely shaved, foundation for real freedom; and to to the Republican lines. But it beexpect the ultimate triumph of con- longs to the prosperous and the secure stitutional principles, not from the to act upon such generous and noble sudden irruption of blood-thirsty fana- principles ;-the endurance of coldtics, or the selfish ambition of rapa- blooded cruelty, the pangs of murcious democrats, but the gradual and dered innocence, the sight of parents pacific growth of a middling class in and children slaughtered, will drive, society, under the protecting influence and in every age have driven, the of a durable Government.

most mild and humane to the dread. We make these remarks, too, in the ful, but unavoidable system of retaliation. We know that the Vendeans ments, have, within these last few themselves, despite all the heroic months, been signally enlarged. First, humanity of their chiefs, were forced Captain Henningsen's animated and in the end to retaliate upon their ene- graphic narrative enlisted our sympamies the system of giving no quarter. thies in favour of the gallant moun. We know that Charette, for the two taineers, beside whom he drew the last years of his career, found it im- sword of freedom. Next, Mr Honan's possible to act on any other principle. able and well-informed work unfolded We go back to the annals of our own still more fully the nature of the concountry, and we see in them too test, and the resources from which the melancholy proof, that even in the Basque peasantry have maintained so sober-minded, or it may be, right long and surprising a struggle in dethinking inhabitants of the British fence of their privileges against all Isles, a certain endurance of suffering, the forces which have been arrayed and the commencement of a cruel against them. Then Lord Caernarsystem of war by one party, will at all von's admirable disquisition on the times drive their antagonists into a war, annexed to his highly interesting hideous course of reprisals. Have tour in the Portuguese provinces, gave we forgotten, that in the wars of the to the statements of his excellent preRoses, quarter was refused on both decessors the weight of his authority, sides by the contending armies, for nine the aid of his learning, and the suplong years; and that eighty princes of port of his eloquence. Though last, the blood, and almost all the nobility of not least, Mr Walton has taken the England were put to death, and most field with two octavo volumes, which of them in cold blood, by the ruthless throw a flood of light on the real nacruelty of English armies ? Have we ture of the contest now raging in the forgotten, that utter destruction was Peninsula,—the objects of the parties vowed by the Scottish Covenanters engaged, the claims of the competiagainst the Irish auxiliaries in Mon- tors to the throne,—the consequence trose's army; and that they carried of the triumph of the one or the other their vengeance so far, as to drown at on the future interests of religion and the bridge of Linlitligow even their freedom,—the cruel severities to which innocent babes? Have we forgotten the Carlists were subjected by their the cruel atrocities of the Irish Re- blood-thirsty enemies before they bellion, or the firm retaliation of the were reluctantly driven to retaliation, indignant Orangemen? Seeing then —and the frightful consequences that a certain extremity of suffering, which have resulted, and must contiand the endurance of a certain amount nue to result while it endures, from of cruelty by intestine opponents, will, our iniquitous co-operation with the in all ages, and in all nations, even cause of oppression. All these mo. the most moderate and humane, in- mentous topics are treated in the voduce the dreadful necessity of retalia- lumes before us with a clearness, tion, we look with pity, though temper, moderation, and ability which with poignant grief, on the stern re- leave nothing to be desired, and renprisals to which Don Carlos has been der them by far the most importdriven, and earnestly pray that similar ant work on the affairs of the Pencivil discord may long be averted from insula which has yet issued from the the British Isles; and that we may European press. When we see the not be doomed by a righteous Provi- ability and candour, the courage and dence, as we perhaps deserve, to un- energy, the learning and eloquence, dergo the unutterable wretchedness, which, unbought by the gold of the which our uncalled for and unjust sup- Stock Exchange, uninfluenced by speport of those who began the execrable culations in Spanish bonds, unsolicited system of murder, has so long pro- by the rewards of a deceived democratic duced in the Spanish peninsula. and commission-granting Administra

In attempting to make amends for tion, is thus generously and gratuiour hitherto apparent neglect of this tously coming forward from so many interesting subject

, we rejoice to think quarters at once in defence of the that the materials by which we can cause of religious truth and independnow vindicate the righteous cause, and ence, we recognise the revival of the explain to our deluded countrymen spirit of Old England; we indulge a the gross injustice of which they have hope that the press, like the Thames been rendered the unconscious instrų- water, may yet work off its own impurities; and we are ready to take our of their cause upon a disputed succeshumble part in so good a cause, and sion to the throne,-prevailed on Fer. bear with equanimity the torrent of dinand VII., when in a state of dotage, abuse with which the servile writers to alter the law of royal succession of the Treasury, or the hireling scribes in favour of his infant daughter,—got of the Stock Exchange, will assail our together the farce of a Cortes, to give endeavours to give greater publicity their sanction to the illegal act, and than, in a selfish and engrossed age, have since contrived to keep her on they might otherwise obtain to their the throne, as a mere puppet, to serve all-important disclosures.

as a cover to their revolutionary deFrom the statements proved, and signs, despite the clearly proved voice documents brought forward, in Mr of the nation, by filling the army and Walton's work, it is manifest;–1. all civil offices with their own creaThat the constitution of 1812, so long tures, and maintaining an usurped the darling object of democratic con- and hateful usurpation by the aid of tention in the Peninsula, and now the urban democracy, foreign co-operaavowed basis of its government, is an tion, and stock-jobbing assistance. 5. ultra-republican system, which never That the title of Don Carlos to the obtained the legal consent of the na- throne is clear, not less on the legitition, but was merely imposed on their mate principle of legal succession, countrymen for their own selfish ends which we were bound, in the most by a knot of urban democrats at Ca- solemn manner, by the treaty of diz, who at that unhappy period, Utrecht, to guarantee, than on the when four-fifths of the country was liberal principle of a violation of the occupied by the French armies, had social contract, and a trampling under contrived to usurp the powers, not only foot all the rights and privileges of of sovereignty, but of remodelling the the people, dissolving the title of a state. 2. That it is not only utterly sovereign, how well-founded soever unsuitable to the Spanish people, and in itself, to the supreme direction of necessarily productive of (as it ever affairs. 6. That the frightful system has produced) nothing but plunder, of murdering the prisoners was first massacre, and democratic oppression; introduced by the revolutionists ; that but is of so absurd and ill-consider- it was carried on with ruthless severied a character as even, if established ty and heartless rigour by them for in England, amidst a people habitua- years before it was imitated by the ted for centuries to the exercise of Royalists ; that they have repeatedly freedom, would tear society to atoms made endeavours, both publicly and in six months. 3. That, from expe- privately, to put a stop to its continurience of the devastating effects of this ance, but always been foiled by the ultra-radical constitution, and the sor- refusal of their savage antagonists. 7. did cupidity of the democratic agents That the English auxiliaries, both under whom it instantly brings to the head General Evans and Lord John Hay, of affairs, the great majority of the lent their powerful aid to the RevoluSpanish nation, almost all who are tionary party, not only without the Engdistinguished by their patriotism, lish Government having made any efprinciple, or good sense, are decid- fectual stipulation in favour of the edly opposed to its continuance; that abandoning that atrocious system of though often established by military warfare, but at a time when, without violence or democratic intrigue, it such aid, the war was on the point of has ever fallen to the ground by its being brought to a glorious termination own weight when not upheld, as it by the freeborn mountaineers of Biscay now is, by powerful foreign co-opera- and Navarre, and have thus become tion ; and that at this moment, if this implicated, through the fault or neco-operation were really withdrawn, glect of their government, in all the it would sink to the dust in three woful consequences of a continuance of months, with all its accessaries of de- the struggle. 8. That the stand made mocratic spoliation, royalist blood, by the Basque provinces is for their and universal suffering, never more to rights and their liberties, their privirise. 4. That the democratic party, leges and their immunities, enjoyed by since the time that nine-tenths of the their ancestors for five hundred years, nation had become the decided enemies asserted by them in every age with a of their usurpation, fell upon the expe- constancy and spirit exceeding oven dient of engrafting the maintenance the far-famed resolution of the Swiss

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