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vassing ?-_Was it intended that the of its deliverance; and pointed at magnificent institutions which the cha- with the finger of scorn in the valleys rity of former and more enlightened of Navarre, while the turf was yet ages had established for the protection green on the graves of the Pyrenees ? and relief of the distress necessarily Was it intended that the scenes of consequent upon a high state of civi. all our former triumphs should be lisation, and an extensive manufactu- sullied by our present perfidy or disring population, should be converted grace; that the thunder of allied into so many Bastiles for state oppres. French and English cannon should sion, where poverty is treated with the shake the graves at Waterloo, to reharshness of punishment, and suffering store Antwerp, itself, as Napoleon deprived of its last consolation of sha said, “ worth a kingdom," to the triring its bitterness with those most color flag ; that the plains of Vittoria dear to it? Was it intended that the should witness the inglorious melting country should be oppressed by a vex- away of British uniforms under the atious set of municipal magistrates, scythe of disease and the orgies of unfit either for the discharge of their intemperance; that the breach of St duties or the administration of justice, Sebastians should be trodden for and who disgraced even the seat of months by a British garrison imprijudgment by their jealousies and pas- soned within its walls ; that the quay sions of inferior democracy?
at Lisbon should witness the English Was it intended, in foreign transac- standards retiring in disgrace before a tions, when we launched so vehement revolutionary rabble, thirsting for the ly into the career of revolution, that blood of their Queen? These are the freedom was to expire everywhere external triumphs of democracy; these under the consequences of its own the trophies which New England has extravagances, or the insidious poison exchanged for the Blenheims, the of our non-intervention policy? --- That Trafalgars, the Waterloos of former France, after six years of bloodshed, days; for the respect of the brave and tumult, and massacre, was to sink the love of the good all over the world; into such a state of apathy and po- for victories unprecedented in the litical despair, that the very name of bright page of European fame; for freedom became odious, and Prince renown unexampled in the long annals Polignac's ordonnances were re-enact- of civilized glory. ed with double severity, and executed These have been the foreign and with an hundredfold activity and vi- domestic RESULTS of revolution-regour ? _ That Spain, after having sults now certain and passed into the streamed with blood and all the hor- page of history, graven deep on the rors of a warfare plusquam civile, for tablets of English story, imprinted five long years, was to relapse in ut- with a burning iron on the time-hoter horror at the evils of democratic noured front of her deathless fame. ascendency to the government of an And again we ask, were these the absolute monarch ? That the heroes results which were either expected or of democracy should have there no desired by the chaotic crowd that, six triumphs to record, but those over years ago, brought on all these evils, their own sovereign-no successful by joining in that destructive passion assaults to boast but on the bedcham- for democratic power? What did they ber of their defenceless queen ?- Was expect? We will tell them what they it designed that Poland, pierced to the expected. They had no doubt that heart, trodden down, subjugated, was the complete regeneration of society to have its dreams of anarchical inde- was at hand ; that the reign of justice, pendence extinguished in the blood or peace, and prosperity was about to captivity of its bravest citizens ?- commence; that Government, purified Was it meant that the very name of by the infusion of popular virtue and England was to become odious or con- energy, was, with the general concurtemptible even to those states which rence of the nation, to engage in a had shared most largely in the bene- career of general and benign usefulfits or glories of its alliance; that an ness; that corruption was to be unEnglishman was to be hated in Hol- known, ambition extinguished, patriland, even while the heroes of Quatre otic ardour alone triumphant. Abuses, Bras were still alive, and execrated in it was said, nestle in the recesses of Portugal, yet ringing with the glories aristocratic power ; corruption is necessary, when government is to be to the French revolutionary war was carried on against the wishes of the founded on the gross injustice of joinpeople; but the first will disappearing one of two contending parties in a when the pure flood of popular pa- state against the other; and Lord triotism is let in to cleanse the Augean Brougham, in an especial manner, * stable of patrician power ; the second let loose the floodgates of his elobe unnecessary, when the legislature quence in 1824 at the enormous inis so framed as to respond at once to justice of the French interference the popular voice.-Captivating ideas! with the civil war which at that period worthy of being placed beside the El raged in the Peninsula ; and their Dorado of Sir Walter Raleigh, the whole foreign conduct since has been Utopia of Sir Thomas More, or the a series of interventions in Belgium, probable extinction of Death of Con- Spain, and Portugal, sufficiently agdorcet. We may conceive the dis- gressive to make us odious, sufficientappointment the acute, bitter disap- ly weak to render us contemptible. pointment-when, instead of these So far, indeed, has this non-intervecharming anticipations, the heated ning-quasi-intervening policy gone, enthusiasts of the day found them- that the more honest Radicals now selves overwhelmed by a sordid-libe- confess that there is no inconsistency ral swarm of Government employés, between their present conduct and or Whig-Radical magistrates; and their former professions ; because noncorruption reappearing with more intervention means, “ Never interfethan pristine depravity among the ring in favour of the aristocratic party very classes who, till they enjoyed its against the popular; but always inadvantages, were the loudest in de- terfering in favour of the popular parclaiming against its effects.
ty against the aristocratic.” They It was said by Dr Johnson, that deplored, in melting strains from the “ Whiggism was the negation of all Opposition benches, the cruel and principle ;” on which it was wittily impolitic abandonment of Poland by remarked, by a writer of no ordinary the European states, and unanimously ability in the present day, that this denounced his oblivion of that gallant was a mistake; for that the Whigs people in 1807 and 1812 as the foulest have a very clear principle of action, blot on the character of Napoleon ; and that is, “ invariably to do that and they themselves first encouraged which, when in Opposition, they had the Poles, by their language and their most vehemently condemned." The example, to engage in a desperate remost cursory review of their policy, volt in 1831, and then needlessly paid both domestic and foreign, since they five millions sterling to the Emperor were installed in power, must, with Nicholas, which gave him the means every dispassionate observer, demon- of putting them down. They loudly strate that there is much truth in this declaimed against the insatiable ambi. caustic remark. They professed in tion of Russia, and especially the enOpposition the utmost horror at inter- ormous peril of their ever getting posference with the internal concerns of session of the Dardanelles; and yet other states; their whole opposition they themselves placed the command
*“ I rise," said Lord Brougham, on Feb. 4, 1824, “ to join with every man who deserves the name of Briton, in expressing unqualified detestation and abhorrence at the audacious interference of the allied sovereigns in the affairs of Spain; or if that detestation is qualified, it is only by indignation and disgust at the canting hypocrisy of the language in which the loathsome principles of the tyrants were promulgated to the world. I rejoice to find that such execrable principles have met with no responsive voice from the mover and seconder of this address. The allies, by a pretended respect for, but a real mockery of religion and freedom, make war upon liberty in the abstract. Our assistance is necessary to avert the wicked enforcement of principles contrary to the law of nations, and repugnant to every idea of nation 1 independence. The Holy Alliance, with their armed hordes, are now ready to carry the brand of civil war into Spain, and consummate their frightfw. projects. The principles of interfering in the internal concerns of other states now advanced are matter of universal interest; for if they be established, to what state may they not with fatal effect be applied?" Feb. 3, 1824. Parl. Deb. Hansard.
of those very Straits and the keys had been the grave of real freedom, of Constantinople in the hands of the and held in utter abhorrence the Emperor Nicholas, by refusing aid to swarms of civil employés, who, in the the Porte, when he applied to us for Austrian, Russian, and French emsuccour in his last extremity, after the pires, gave the whole command of battle of Koniah, which necessarily employment, and consequently the led to his throwing himself into the whole sway, in the state to the cenarms of the Russians, and the conclu- tral government; and in order to sion of the fatal treaty of Unkiar- show how well disposed they are to Skelesse, which converted the Euxine act upon their principles, they have into a great Russian lake.
copied from despotic France a plan Pass to internal transactions. They for a rural gendarmerie, taking all its professed the utmost horror at go- orders from Downing Street. They verning by means of patronage, or have laid their grasp on the general resting on any other support than the direction of the Poor Laws throughout affections of the people ; and they England, and are preparing a bill for have, since their accession to office, taking the whole administration of the created ten offices for every one which turnpike-roads into the hands of Gothe Conservatives had previously abovernment! lished, having overspread Ireland with The Whig-Radicals will exclaim an army of Government officers in the that these remarks are dictated by a police, the constabulary, and other spirit of virulent hostility to the predepartments, and spent no less than sent Administration ; but we declare L.477,000 on foraging commission. solemnly, and with perfect sincerity, ers. They professed the greatest de. that they are the result of an entiretestation at persecution or harassment ly different feeling-nay, that they of any kind on account of religious proceed from a desire to shield them opinions; and they have entered into from the crushing weight of these ina cordial alliance with the Popish consistencies, and refer them to their faction, which has uniformly declared true cause, viz. the utter impracticaundying war against the Protestant bility of Government being conducted, establishment, and is putting in prac. or even society holding together, untice a persecution of the severest and der the practical operation of the most heart-rending kind-against not principles which they have held out merely the Protestant clergy in Ire- to the country. In Opposition, they land, but their wives, children, and professed principles which, when put households. They professed the in practice, they soon found to be utwarmest interest in the welfare of the terly inconsistent, not merely with poor, and the most tender concern for the maintenance of their own authothe sufferings of disease, old age, and rity, but the preservation of any thing destitution; and they have exerted like order or security in the realm. their whole strength to pass and carry In a moment of national madness, into execution an act which, in order they succeeded in overthrowing all to diminish the assessment on the es- the ancient and well-tried bulwarks at tates of the great and the affluent, once of constitutional freedom and has consigned indigence to the pugeneral subordination ; and their nishment of crime, loaded innocence whole subsequent effort has been to with the charges of seduction, and supply the gap. They are now aggravated the sufferings of misfor treading over again the old and welltune by severing families from each known path by which, in the decay of other. They professed a reverential Roman virtue, the Emperors strove to regard for order based on liberty, and make up, by legions of inferior functhey testified the sincerity of their tionaries and a Senate for life, for the professions by spreading abroad the want of the old hereditary Aristocrapassions which lighted up the fires of cy, swept away during the insanity of Nottingham and Bristol. They de- former democratic contests ; * and by clared that centralization in all ages which Napoleon and Louis-Philippe,
* “ The patrician families," says Gibbon, “ whose original number was never recruited till the end of the Commonwealth, were extinguished in the foreign and domestic wars, or failed in the ordinary course of nature. Few remained who could
after the frightful shocks to freedom, vernment carried on solely by the property, and order which resulted Major-Generals of Cromwell, and the from the previous triumph of revolu- last severities of military oppression tionary ambition, and the entire ruin endured by the guilty and now repentof the aristocratic class, regained, ant people? Did they expect, when amidst the total extinction of liberty, they took up arms, in order to wrest the degrading quiet of despotism. the command of the militia from These errors are the result of their Charles, that, before fifteen years had situation—of the monstrous doctrines expired, EIGHTY-THREE MILLIONS sterthey have promulgated, and the im- ling was to be wrenched out of the practicable projects which they have people by war-contributions and taxes held forth. They are now ground a greater sum than had been raised down by an invincible law of nature; in England in all the centuries put the same which, in the end, arrests together since the Norman conquest ? the course of the prodigal and the Did they expect that distant and imspendthrift, and brings on the unre- partial history was to narrate, as the strained career of passion a certain termination of their efforts in favour and bitter retribution. If they had of freedom_" To raise the new imthe energy of Napoleon, the genius position called the decimation, the of Cæsar, or the tenacity of Welling- Protector instituted twelve Major-Geton, the result would be the same. nerals, and divided the whole of EngThey might exhibit, perhaps, a more land into so many military jurisdicsplendid example of Satan-like perse- tions. These men, assisted by comverance in error, but they could not missioners, had power to subject whom elude the force of the moral law by they pleased to decimation, to levy all which, in the end, its punishment is the taxes imposed by the Protector secured.
and his council, and to imprison any It was the same in former days. person who should be exposed to their There is nothing new in the moral jealousy or suspicion ; nor was there world under the sun, because the any appeal from them but to the Prochanging theatre of human events ex- tector himself and his council. Unhibits in different ages, under every der colour of these powers, which were different combination of social affairs, sufficiently exorbitant, the Majorthe certain operation of the same Generals exercised a power still more passions, desires, and vices. What exorbitant, and acted as if absolute was expected when the English na- masters of the property and persons tion ran mad in 1642, and the people, of every subject. All reasonable drunk with the politico-religious en- men now concluded that the very thusiasm of the day, grouped round mask of liberty was at length thrown the standards of Pym and Hampden, aside, and that the nation was for ever and flung abroad to the winds the flag subject to military and despotic goof defiance to their sovereign? Did vernment-exercised not in the legal they expect that the King was to be manner of European nations, but acmurdered, the Peers abolished, the cording to the maxims of Eastern Clergy dispossessed, taxation quadru. tyranny. Not only the supreme mapled, personal freedom destroyed, gistrate owed his authority to illegal Parliament turned out of the chapel force and usurpation, but he had parof St Stephens by the bayonet, Go- celled out the people into so many
derive their descent from the foundation of the city, when the Emperors created a number of new patrician families. But these artificial supplies, in which the reigning house was always included, were rapidly swept away by the rage of tyrants, by frequent revolutions, the change of manners, and the intermixture of nations. To supply the want, Constantine revived, indeed, the title of patricians, but he revived it as a personal, not a hereditary distinction. The Police insensibly assumed the license of reporting whatever they could observe of the conduct either of magistrates or private citizens, and were soon considered as the eyes of the monarch and the scourge of the people. Under the warm influence of a feeble reign, they multiplied to the incredible number of ten thousand, disclaimed the mild, though frequent admonitions of the laws, and exercised in the management of the posts a rapacious and insolent oppression.”— GIBBON, c. xvii.
subdivisions of slavery, and delegated identity of the effects consequent on to his inferior ministers the same un democratic ascendency--in Rome, limited authority which he himself through the strife of Marius and Syl. had so violently assumed."*
la, following on the transports of GracWhat was it which the French chus, to the despotism of the Cæsarswere passionately desirous of obtain in England, through the fervour of ing, when, in 1789, they installed, the Long Parliament to the massacre amidst shouts whch made the world of the King and the military governresound, the Peers and Commons in ment of Cromwell-in France, through one chamber—thereby destroying the the warm aspirations of the Constiveto of the Upper House, and reali- tuent Assembly, the blood of the zing in full perfection our Liberal Convention, the despotism of Napodreams of Peerage Reform? Was it leon, the discontent of the Restorathat the whole liberties of the nation tion, to the leaden yoke of Louiswere to be extinguished by the iron Philippe-and, in England, through grasp of the Convention, or buried the transports of Reform and the fires under the sordid cupidity of the Di. of Bristol to the degrading despotism rectory, f or crushed under the con- of O'Connell's Tail, and the centraliquering chariot of Napoleon ? Was zing policy of a time-serving Demoit, that after fifty years of bloodshed, cracy – points to some general and confiscation, and suffering, they were common cause, deep seated in the reto sink down into a hopeless despot- cesses of the human heart, to which ism, heavy as the leaden yoke of the they are referable. The cause is, Byzantine empire, immovable as the indeed, deep seated; it is, indeed, institutions of the Chinese govern- universal in its operation ; it is, inment? They expected none of these deed, irresistible in its effects. It is things: they looked for the regenera- explained in the earliest record of hution of the human race—for a renew. man existence; it is referred to in al of the golden age-for the termi. every part of Holy Writ; it is connation of the tithes of aristocratic in firmed in every page of profane histojustice, and the commencement of the ry—that cause is the ORIGINAL CORbright dawn of democratic freedom. RUPTION OF THE HUMAN HEART; and Yet all these things came--and came till we close this great fountain of in spite of their utmost efforts to avert wickedness, or dilute the streams of them--swift as the hour of punish- depravity which it is incessantly pourment-certain as the approach of ing out upon the human race, all at. death.
tempts to correct the evils of GovernWe are told by physical philoso- ment by a larger infusion of popular phers, that although a few detached influence will be as vain as striving to fires on the crust of the globe may be extinguish a conflagration by heaping explained by partial combustion, yet fuel upon the flames. the simultaneous appearance of earth As this point of the original, inhe quakes at places far distant from each rent and irremediable save by Christother, points, with the certainty of de- ianity, depravity of the human heart monstration, to some common cause is the vital basis of revelation, so it operating in the regions of central lies at the root of the instant and total heat. The complete coincidence and failure of democratic institutions to
* Hume, vii. 241.
† Observe the picture of France under the Directory, drawn by a French contem. porary Republican writer :-" Merit was generally persecuted ; all men of honour chased from pulic situations ; political robbers every where assembled in their infernal points of rendezvous ; the wicked in power ; the apologists of the system of terror thundering in the tribune ; spoliation established under the name of forced loans ; assassination prepared ; thousands of victims already designed under the name of hostages; the signal for plunder, murder, and conflagration anxiously looked for, and couched under the words, the country is in danger. The same cries, the same shouts, were heard as in 1793; the same executioners, the same victims ; liberty, property, could no longer be said to exist ; the citizens had no security for their lives.--the state for its finances." Prem. Ann du Cons. p. 7.