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administer relief to the social state in disguises its profound truth, but which, every age and country of the world, when duly meditated on, throws a and the woful results which have flood of light on the seemingly coneverywhere arisen from trusting the tradictory and inexplicable difference remedying of abuses to the profane and in the stability of, and effect produced corrupt hands of the mass of the people. by, similar forms of government in How could it be otherwise ? Worn out different countries and ages of the or disgusted with the oppressions and world. What, say the Republicans, abuses of the great, we intrusted the can be so absurd as to refer to human great work of reform to inferior corruption the failure of democratic hands, and hoped that by changing institutions, when history has recorded the seat of power from the higher to the virtues of Sparta, the simple hethe lower orders, we would succeed roism of Switzerland, the flourishing in eradicating the social evils under commonwealth of America ? Softly : which society had so long laboured. before these examples are considered Abuses and injustice, it was thought, decisive on the subject, consider well did not originate in human nature in whether they do not establish a con. general, but in the peculiarity of power clusion directly adverse to that for being vested in a few hands ; if this which the Revolutionists refer to these error was corrected, and the popular celebrated States. It is not mere voice allowed to be heard in all the power which proves fatal to democrabranches of Government, the reign of tic institutions; it is power which oppression must cease, because the confers the means of increasing selfish interest of the majority, then rendered enjoyment and gratifying human paspredominant, is to check the abuses of sion; it is power coinciding with or the few, and obtain for themselves the falling into the hands of persons alive blessings of good and cheap govern to the luxuries and corruptions of life ment. Vain conceit! Granting that which is the fatal poison. Lycurgus in this way you may effectually put showed a deep knowledge of human an end to the abuses or corruptions nature when he prohibited any money of the minority who formerly ruled, but iron coin in his commonwealth. how are you to guard against the vast. If the citizens of a Republic are shepby multiplied abuses of the majority herds, who assemble once a-year under who are now installed in power? the canopy of heaven, as in the canton Quis custodiet ipsos custodes ? That of Underwalden, to deliberate on their is the rock on which democratic in- simple political wants, which do not stitutions ever and ever must imme- exceed the concerns of a tolerablydiately be shipwrecked. It is the in- sized English parish ; or if they are herent corruption and depravity of warriors, chained by severe laws and our nature, appearing only more clear- severer customs, as in Sparta, to a ly and deplorably by every successive frugal and simple life, eating black addition which we make to the multi- broth, drinking water, and knowing tude of our governors, which is the no distinction but in warlike celebrity; real, universal, eternal, and deep- or if they are retained by extraordinary seated cause of the utter impossibility, circumstances in a rude state of agri. in an advanced and artificial state of culture, as in America, and have two society, of democratic institutions ei hundred millions of uncultivated acres ther existing for any time, or produ- always ready to afford a refuge to the cing any thing but misery and evil poverty or drain off the discontented during the brief period of their en multitudes of their country, they may durance.

go on for a considerable time without “ The necessity," says Coleridge, society being shattered by the unruly for external government to man is in passions of the majority of mankind. the inverse ratio of the vigour of his Now, however, the inherent depravity self-government. Where the last is of the human heart is evincing its ty. most complete, the first is least want rannic propensities even in that simple ed. Hence the more virtue the more and religious land, where rural labour liberty." This is one of those pre- generally induces simplicity of mancious thoughts, the simplicity of which ners, and the general presence of com

* Table-Talk, ii. 193.

fort, equally with the absence of wealth, religion are to be considered as burdenmoderates the most violent passions of some exactions which are to be avoided our nature. The dreadful spectacle by all who would obtain power or wealth of a human being recently burnt to in the community, have been inculcated death by a slow fire by a savage mob every where and in every possible way. in the southern states, proves that the What matter of surprise, then, is it, that, inhuman passions of our nature are

having sown the wind, we now begin to shared alike by the authors of a Cas

reap the whirlwind ? that murders, robtilian auto da fe and the liberal elect beries, gambling in all its varieties, suicides, ors of Transatlantic independence.

mob outrages of every kind, have become so The frightful and now almost daily

frightfully frequent? But the fact of the

existence of such a state of things being occurrence of persons of all descrip

unquestionable, and the evils of it pertions being seized by the people in

fectly apparent, the question naturally the southern states of the Union, and

suggests itself, what measures of prevenhung up in the streets, without either

tion or cure can be taken by those who trial or sentence, merely because they prize the blessings of order and law, and entertain opinions disagreeable to the are desirous to preserve their property tyrant majority, is but an unhappy il. and save their lives ? Let every good lustration of the power of the human man and true in the community put this heart, as society advances and impor question to himself in sober earnest, and tant interests come into collision, to let the answer which suggests itself to the withstand the temptations consequent wise man, the learned man, and the good on the lust of power. They seem re- man, be made known and acted upon. solved to realize the celebrated saying Let the lessons of wisdom, of experience, of the French Republicans “ Is this of truth, be put forth boldly. This is no the freedom which was promised us? time for timidity. He who, having the we can no longer hang whom we power to do something to increase knowplease.”

ledge, to proclaim truth, to confute error, That we may not be suspected of

not be suspected of and thus to advance the cause of order, European exaggeration on this sub

morality, religion, law, and liberty, is too ject, we subjoin the following extract

timid, or calculating, or desponding to do from one of the most enlightened and

all that he can do, by speech, or writing, moderate of the American newspapers,

or action, is false to himself and to the the Philadelphia Gazette :

Being who gave him powers to be used

for the benefit of his fellow-men.” “ The mostravenous appetite must

Even in the northern states and have been glutted and destroyed by a perusal of the columns of any late news

best regulated parts of the Union, the paper. Revenge, riot, and intemperance possession of power, as society adseem to have their perfect work in every

vances, and important interests come section of the country. Exhibitions are into collision, appears to be producing every day made of lawless excess, of infernal its usual effect upon the human heart. jealousy, of cold blooded malignity, of most The “ tyrant majority” is even more debasing sensuality, of utter recklessness unrelenting in his oppression than the of life, and entire disregard, if not disbe- tyrant oligarchy or the tyrant despot. lief, of a futurity, which would have been Hear what the able and dispassionate considered honourable by the most brutal Tocqueville says on this subject :of the red-capped friends of the human “ In America the European ladder of race' of the French Revolution. And the power being inverted, the rich find signs of the times have for a long time themselves in a situation similar to past given full promise of such a state of that of the poor in Europe : it is they things. The preparation for it has been

who have often too much reason to

who have ften toon long and thorough. The pernicious doc

dread the law. The real advantage trines, that any measures however disho

of democracy is not that it protects nest, and men however unprincipled, may

the interests of all classes in the state, be made use of, in order to accomplish a political object--that the laws are inade

but that it accords with the wishes of

the majority. In the United States quate, or too tardy in their operations, to enforce rights and redress wrongs, and

the poor are the real rulers, and the must give place to the inconsiderate judg. rich have constantly reason to dread ments and sanguinary executions of the an abuse of their power. Omnipotence mob_that self-gratification, in its broadest is universally dangerous; to resist its sense, is the chief end and aim of man— seductions is beyond the human and that the requisitions of morality and strength; God alone can exercise it without injustice. Wherever power, similar institutions have been attemptpractically supreme, is intrusted to any ed. It would only have shown that class, be it an aristocracy or a demo- they had not arrived at the age when cracy, tyranny is at hand, and I for one strong passions lead to great delinwould seek an asylum elsewhere. In quencies. It is no difficult matter to America there is no security whatever keep infancy and childhood from against the tyranny of the majority, serious offences; the difficulty is to A striking instance of this occurred at preserve the heart immaculate, and the Baltimore during the war of 1812, at conduct irreproachable, from fifteen to which period the war was popular in twenty-five; the age of the passions, that city. A journal which espoused the desires, and the pleasures. No the opposite side excited the indigna- one doubts that a police, bridewells, tion of the inhabitants. The people and jails are a necessary part of governassembled, broke to pieces its printing ment in every great city ; but yet they presses, and attacked the houses of the are hardly required in purely agrieditors. The militia was called out, cultural districts, or amidst the simbut no one obeyed the summons. To plicity of pastoral life. As long as save the unhappy wretches who were the Americans have the great outlet menaced with instant death, they fell of the back settlements to draw off upon the plan of leading them to their turbulent spirits, and afford em- , prison as criminals. This precaution ployment to their clamorous millions, was in vain ; during the night the peo- the dangers of democracy will be ple rose, forced the prison doors, mur- scarcely felt. But let us suppose these dered one of the journalists, and left states, with their vast western territory the otliers for dead on the spot. The fully peopled ; with great cities and guilty were brought to justice, but manufactures teeming in the land ; instantly acquitted by the jury."* with a capital containing 1,500,000 inSuch was an example of that infamous habitants, and millions depending for system of Lynch Law, which has now their daily bread on the gossamer become so common in the United film of a paper currency; with wealth, States, which led the people lately to the accumulation of ages, existing in attempt to murder a judge who had some quarters, and indigence, the propronounced an unpopular sentence, duce of centuries of improvidence, and has in the last year consigned no panting for spoliation in another, and less than one hundred and twenty- say what could be the result of demofive persons to a violent and disgraceful cratic institutions in such A STATE? leath in the three states of Carolina, They would shiver society to atoms New Orleans, and Virginia alone. in a month.

But even if these terrible examples Tocqueville has told us, in memorable did not exist to warn the people of and warning words, what would be the this country that democracy, even in result of attempting democratic instithe eminently favourablecircumstances tutions in such a state of society. “ If under which it arose in the United absolute power,” says he, “ should reStates, cannot withstand the strain establish itself, in whatever hands, in arising from the collision of opposite any of the democratic states of Europe, interests, and the emerging of fierce I have no doubt it would assume a new passions in the later stages of society, form unknown to our fathers. While it is evident that the instance of North the great families and the spirit of America is no proof that the impossibi. clanship prevailed, the individual who lity of democratic institutions, co-exists had to contend with tyranny never felt ing with public welfare, arises not from himself alone ; he was supported by the universal and inherent principles his clients, his relations, his friends. of our nature. If the North American But when the estates are divided, and Union were the most orderly and races are confounded, where will we peaceable country in the world, Lynch find the spirit of family? What force Law unknown, and popular tyranny will remain to the influence of habit unheard of, still that would leave un- among a people changing perpetually, touched the inference deducible from where every act of tyranny will find a all other nations and countries where precedent in previous disorders, where

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every crime can be justified by an ex- the danger arises, we may refer to the ample ; where nothing exists of suffi- contemporaneous instance of the fate cient antiquity to render its destruction of the southern states of that vast conan object of dread, and nothing can be tinent. We all remember the halcyon figured so new that men are afraid to days of South American delusion; engage in it? What resistance would when Captain Hall captivated the manners afford which had already world with the details of the regenerayielded to so many shocks ? What tion of society to the south of the line, could public opinion do, when twenty and fifty millions of British capital set persons did not exist who were bound out, trusting to the flood of prosperity together by a common tie; when you , which was to burst in upon the world can no where meet with a man, a with the exertions of these “ healthy family, a body corporate, nor a class young Republics." Where are all in society which could represent or act these delusions now? Where are the upon that opinion ? When each citizen hopes that were formed, the capital is equally impotent, equally poor, that was advanced, the dividends that equally isolated, and can only oppose were expected, the visions that were his individual weakness to the organ- afloat? Perhaps there is not to be ized strength of the central Govern- found in the whole history of the world, ment? To figure any thing analogous an example of such a deplorable sucto the despotism which then would be cession of calamities as have befallen established amongst us, we would re-' these “ healthy young Republics" from quire not to recur to our own annals: their democratic institutions. Revowe would be forced to recur to the lutions in all the states have been so monuments of antiquity to interrogate frequent since the authority of the the frightful periods of Romantyranny, Spaniards was finally subverted, that where manners being corrupted, old history will seek in vain to trace them recollections effaced, habits destroyed, but in characters of fire throughout opinions wavering, liberty deprived of the whole extent of the South American its asylum under the laws, could no Continent. We are preparing matelonger find a place of refuge; where no rials for some papers on the results guarantee existing for the citizens, and of democratic ascendency in these once they having none for themselves, men splendid colonies, and a more woful in power made a sport of their people, and at the same time instructive specand princes wore out the clemency of tacle never was exhibited to the world. heaven, rather than the patience of Suffice it to say at present, that in all their subjects. They are blind indeed the Republics population and comwho look after such democratic equality merce have declined in most to a for the monarchy of Henry IV., or frightful degree; that the population Louis XIV. For my own part, when of Potosi has sunk in twenty years from I reflect on the state to which many 150,000 to 12,000 inhabitants; that European nations have already arrived, the mines are generally abandoned, and that to which others are fast tend- and the supplies of silver for the world ing, I am led to believe that soon there obtained merely by raking up the rewill be no place among them but for de- fuse of former and pacific workings; mocratic equality, or the tyranny of the and that the most experienced travelCæsars."* It is not difficult to see of lers and observers concur in declaring what nations this profound observer that centuries of tranquillity and peace was thinking when he made these re- will not restore what twenty years of marks, or which of the alternatives democratic violence have destroyed. awaits in the end the European state S pain, too, was for long the favourwhich ventures on the perilous experi. ite theme of the revolutionary school ;

and unbounded were the anticipations And for decisive proof that, if of the blessings which were to flow North America has not yet sunk under from the regeneration of the Peninsula the despotism which invariably suc- by democratic ascendency. We now ceeds democratic equality, it is because see what has been the end of these she has not yet arrived at the age when things. Attend to the picture of

ment.

* Tocqueville, ii, 258, 259.

Spain, under republican fervour, and that of the past year, it will ficker for a the democratic Constitution of 1812, while, and then totally disappear.” which sets out with the principle These, and similar examples, with of universal suffrage, as now given which all history is filled, are utterly by Mr Michael Burke, the accuracy inexplicable by the democratic party, of whose observations and predictions and therefore they style history an old regarding the Peninsula has been so

almanac, and by common consent completely established by recent

make it a rule never to refer to, or events. - The Constitution of 1812, may now

pay any regard to its disagreeable leshe said to rule the kingdom of Spain. Es

sons. But to any person, who consi

ders the nature of the human heart, tablished for the second time by a military

who reflects that it is « deceitful above insurrection, this form of government, in every respeet unsuitable to the character

all things, and desperately wicked ;” of the Spaniards, cannot prove of long du

that there is " no one guiltless, no not ration. The presidents of every consti

one;" and who has observed how tational junta in the country are military

completely these assertions of univermen, and, with scarcely an exception, the

sal and inherent corruption are conmost unprincipled persons in the nation.

firmed by unvarying experience, both Nor are the other members of these juntas of the affairs of nations and of single more deserving of public confidence. Com- men, it will appear noways surprising posed for the most part of indigent em that the attempt to purify the affairs of ployés and petty lawyers, who endeavour to Government, and eradicate the vices gain, in a day or week of revolution, the of its administration, by merely multifortune which their slender talents could plying the number of persons who are nerer procure for them in peaceable times, to be actuated by its passions, and setheir first measure has invariably been the duced by its temptations, is of all hopeimposition of heavy contributions. It were less undertakings the most hopeless. idle to say that the sums thus raised have And he will probably be of opinion, been made use of for the benefit of the that if democratic institutions ever are state. The most vexations hardships, the

to exist with safety in an old state, it most unjust persecution, the most shameful

will be in a country where the incesTobbery, and the direst oppression, form the

sant influence of a beneficent religion catalogue of the labours of the constitutional

has gone far to uproot the seeds of juntas of Andalusia. Men, however commendable their conduct may have been

wickedness in our common nature, and during life, however sincere their admira

that the first reform which must pretion of rational liberty, if rich, are sus

cede all others, and is at once the most pected of Carlism, and heavily fined_if

important and the most difficult, is the poor, they are not unfrequently cast into

reform of the human heart. He will a loathsome prison, and forced to herd conclude, that till this is done, all atwith common malefactors. Such are the tempts at Republican institutions must auspices under which the groundwork of prove either nugatory or pernicious, Spanish regeneration has commenced. On and that Pope Pius VI. proved himthe 25th of July, Malaga began the revo- self a more profound politician, as well Jution by the assassination of the military as a better man, than any of our moand civil governor of the town; and in dern Reformers, when he said, in 1797, Madrid the idolized Constitution was pro- when still bishop of Imola—“ A declaimed on the 15th of August, and cele- mocratic government is not contrary brated by the murder of General Quesada. to the Gospel ; only it requires those But even the vile populace of Malaga — sublime virtues which cannot be learnthe very galley slaves let loose for the oc- ed but in the school of Jesus Christ. casion-respected the dead bodies of the

That virtue, whose duties are previctims. To the people of Madrid-of

scribed to us by the light of nature, the heroica villa of Madrid_it was reserved to hack and mangle the corpse of a

and fully brought to light by the

Christian dispensation, is alone capabrade general, and again exhibit to Europe

ble of bringing mankind to perfection, the horrible barbarity of a scene similar to that represented in Barcelona on the 5th and preparing them for supreme feliof August, 1835. And can such a sys

city ; it and it alone can be the true tem, originating in bloodshed, and sup- Jounaamion.

foundation of a prosperous democracy.

" ported by the most cruel exaction, find Clothed with mere moral virtues, we favour in the eyes of the Spanish people ? should be but imperfect beings : it is A momentary enthusiasm may exist religious truth which alone can inspire amongst a part of the people ; but, like the graces requisite for general self

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