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Total weight of Cotton imported for consumption, that is working up.

Lbs. 1836,

367,713,963 Of which exported in the shape of Manufactured or piece goods,

111,644,210 Yarn,

85,195,702 198,860,910 Thread,


Left for home consumption only,

168,853,053 lbs. It is not necessary to encumber the account with the fractional items of waste, which would not affect the result either way.

Assuming, which would not, per- dinary excitement, and an extrava. haps, be much wide of the truth, that gant rise in prices, must be regarded the cottons consumed in Great Bri. as furnishing rather an exaggerated tain were of equal value with the real view. Allowing, however, an abateor declared value of those exported, ment of one-fifth, or 20 per cent, on it would seem that the annual move. the amount, which will reduce the ment of the trade reached to the enor- appreciation more nearly to that of mous money quantity of fifty millions ordinary times, the prodigious sum sterling! The last, and the one pre- total must still excite astonishment. eeding, having been years of extraor

Cottons exported,
Consumed at home,



Forming an extraordinary circulation of values annually
in this magnificent manufacture of

The manufacture gives bread to operatives and families
consisting of not fewer persons than

Amongst whom are distributed in wages yearly not less


Į Now, it must be admitted that this the mercy of other continents for the is an interest of importance so vast, very first necessary of its being. Nor, that, compared with it, all others, prodigious as in its dimensions it apsave agriculture, seem to fade into pears, and resembling more the giinsignificance. It is one, therefore, gantic product of the energies of a which should awaken all our solici. world than of an islet, is it a monopo. tudes rather to surround it with every ly which we can claim and control as guarantee for its future progress, than our own. Its very grandeur will be to run the slightest risk of impairing the primary cause of its fall, whenits permanence by undue interference ever the hour of its fall arrives. It with those conditions of existence under provoked the wrath and the unprofitwhich it has advanced to its pinnacle able covetousness of Napoleon, and of present greatness. For it is not gave birth to the continental system ; an industry of which, like iron, or followed by the prohibitory tariffs of coal, or hardware, or earthenware, the Bourbons, by which alone the or woollens, we hold the keys in our mighty rivalship of France was called own possession, but one artificially into action. It awakened the cupi. created, dependent, and therefore at dity, at the same time that it opened

trusted. The quantities speak for themselves. Taking into account the more expensive quality of the goods fabricated and retained for home consumption, and coupling it with the fact of the vast proportion which yarn bears to the whole export, which may be considered an article in the first stage of manufacture only, and therefore of low comparative value, we are satisfied that the value of the home consumption of cotton equals, if it do not transcend that of the export trade.

See Blackwood for March, 1836, article “ Cotton Manufacture," since which the quantities consumed and values circulated have increased probably as above noted.

to the people of Massachusetts and Then we also will build factories and America a way by which they might establish manufactures ; this shall be mortally harm Great Britain, with our war against England.” So also which they were then at war, and judged Prussia, when we refused to profit themselves. The people of take her corn and timber, to abandon New England, says Mr Cheozlier, our own colonies, and ruin our agriafter deep reflection, said to them- culturists, in order to enrich a land selves, “ the best war against the which made us no return ; and hence English is that which will attack their the German custom's league. It may prosperity; what is the principal be well cursorily to glance at the desource of the riches of Great Bri- gree of progression of our competitain ? Her manufactures. — Among tors in the race. The raw cotton these which which are the most pro- wrought in the manufactures of ductive? The manufacture of cottons. France amounted only in 1812 to

6,343,230 Kilogrammes, or less than

14,000,000 lbs. In 1833, it had risen to

35,609,819 Kils. 1835,

38,759,819 These are the quantities, as stated in the Tableau General of commerce, the official record, and are the latest official returns published. From Mr Greg's pamphlet, however, we learn that the consumption of 1836 was

353,005 bags. Against in 1835,

308,736 The two corresponding years for Great Britain give, 1836,

1,031,904 bags. 1835,

937,616 The increase therefore in France was more than one-seventh, whilst that of Britain was less than one-ninth. The total export of manufactured piecegoods from France was, 1833, to the amount of

56,663,351 francs. It had risen in 1835 to

61,608,731 Not having the French official reports before us for 1834, we shall pursue the comparison of the same two years for this country. Declared value of British cottons exported, 1833,

£18,486,401 1835,

22,128,304 France, therefore, exported more, fore, it will be seen that the career of relatively, that is, nearly five millions this industry in France is more acceadditional against an advance here of lerated than here, which can be satis. less than three and three quarter mil- factorily accounted for, only, we think, lions. The French exports meet ours by the daily greater equality of skill, in the same markets, more especially combined with superior economy of Spain, Belgium, the United States, production. Sardinia, &c., about one-seventh of the The manufactures of America abwhole of her exports only being to her sorbed no more than 10,000 bales in own colonies. Upon the whole, there. 1810. In 1830 they converted into cloth

126,512 bags. 1832

173,800 1834

197,000 1836

237,000 So that in seven years the consumption was not far away from being doubled. Within the same period the British speed was, 1830,

805,250 bags. 1836,



Increase at the rate of about 28 per cent only. The export of piece-goods reached, 1831, to the value of

1,126,313 dollars. 1835,

2,856,681 That is, it had much more than doubled in five years. Two of the chief articles were, 1831, Printed and coloured piece-goods,

96,931 dollars. White and grey ditto,

947,932 1835, Printed, &c.,

397,412 White, &c.,

2,355,202 Our own movement was,

1831, declared value of cotton exports, £17,257,204


Immense as this advance must be fury of land-jobbing schemes in the justly deemed, it is only one-fourth west, of building extravagances in the part of the speed at which our Trans- east, of bancomania every where, atlantic brethren have raced. They which have involved all other, the little comprehend the indomitable and commerce, agriculture, and industry untiring energies of the Yankee cha- of the Union in bankruptey, the cotracter, who shall opine that once em- ton manufacture alone remains unbarked in the contest they will ever scathed, luxuriating in profits, and be found lagging behind. Men who tempting the cupidity of fresh advengrudge the indispensable half-hour of turers. The late ruinous results of all meal time as a deduction of so much per other descriptions of enterprise will cent from the day's profits, and who serve to draw the attention and whet glory in calling and in thinking them- the appetite of the industrial commuselves the “ first nation in the world” nity and of capitalists. The assurance -the “ State Empire"--will cease of better wages will tempt labour from not, shrink not, from toil and trial less beneficial employment in agriculuntil they have achieved, are first at, tural and other pursuits, in a country the goal. They have skill, ingenuity, where families emigrate a thousand the raw products, capital - English miles any way with less scruple than capital--all in their favour. Specula- here a change of ten would be resolved tion is a necessity of their nature; the on. Iron and coal are abundant, and reverses of to-day disturb not their the progress of mining has kept pace imperturbable phlegm; their cry to- with that of the cotton manufacture. morrow is still-Go a-head!* And The latest return at hand of the iron go a-head they will if the spirit of the production comes down unfortunately mother-land be caught slumbering in only to 1830.+ There were in that fancied security. During all the late year in action in the States say 1830. Furnaces,


Tons of 28 cwts.
Producing, converted into the shape of bar-iron, 96,621
And of castings from the blast furnaces,

Importation of foreign iron,


* In the late session of the legislature of Massachusetts several bills were passed incorporating more companies, with large subscribed capitals, for establishing cottonspinning and manufacturing concerns on the largest scale.

† This article was suggested to us, whilst on a tour in the manufacturing districts of Lancashire, in the middle of last month, by the perusal of Mr Greg's pamphlet, which about that time made its appearance, and by the great meeting on Hartshead Moor of the operatives, against the Workhouse system. We intended to have taken up the subject at a more distant day, and with that view had not been neglectful of observation and notes. The circumstances stated, decided us to execute our resolve off hand, and rather to risk being incomplete than out of season. Of course our means of reference were often beyond reach,

Thus, the importation entered into vania, has opened new and inexhausthe consumption for rather more than tible sources of supply of a mineral one-fifth only. Besides the coal mines now made available for all purposes. of Virginia, the discovery in 1814 of The quantities extracted and brought the mines of Anthracite, in Pennsyl- to market stand thus :

Tops. 1820,

365 1825,

33,699 1830,

173,734 1835,

557,000 The whole product of France in materially during a season of high 1834 was but 2,500,000 tons; and that prices, or until the continental spinnerof Belgium, the richest mineral country ies could supply the increased and inin Europe after Great Britain, no creasing demands of the weaver. For more than 3,200,000.

the tax being laid upon weight and inThere are no precise data for estic variable, as prices rose or continued mating the progress of the cotton ma- high its per centage pressure was less, nufacture in Prussia and Germany, as they diminished it gradually adbut we are already enabled to judge vanced to a prohibition. of the effect of the German custom's high prices its influence has exceeded league upon our own industry. We our anticipations. The following intimated on a former occasion that table, extraeted from Burns's Commerthe operation of that confederacy cial Glance for this year, exhibits the against us would not probably be felt march of the Prussian system. EXPORTS TO GERMANY AND THROUGH THE HANS TOWNS


Even upon

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Calicos, printed
Ditto, plain
Cambrics and Muslins
Ginghams and Checks

107,481 42,343 45,963 26,419 38,926,442 31,194,439 34,766,587 32,690,029 20,954,809 17,449,192 20,618,448 21,685,113 5,598,143 5,129,242 3,223,106 2,347,774

354,830 119,771 20,639 152,944 17,448,009 243,116 2,022,951 1,592,139


Velveteens, Velvets, Cords,} 6,022,286 5,510,640 4,724,442

Yards, 79,412,603 59,688,743 65,422,136 | 62,048,062

Showing a decrease in four years of judging from the multiplying demand more than seventeen millions of yards, for yarns from hence, over and above or above one-fifth. The decrease what is furnished by the numerous facwould doubtless be in reality much tories latterly constructed (and others more marked if it were possible to de- more numerous in course of construcduct from the total amount the sepa- tion) in Rhenane Prussia, Saxony, Barate imports of Hanover, Brunswick, den, and elsewhere, the condition of the Mecklenburgh, Holstein, and Olden- manufacturers of fabrics must be highburgh, which have not, we believe, ly flourishing. The despatch of cotton joined the league, and whose united yarns to Prussia and Germany through population amounts to about three the Hans Towns and Holland had millions. As it is, the trade is in ascended as follows:course of rapid annihilation; whilst 1833,

34,871,589 lbs. 1834' (adding more than 5,000,000 lbs. sent through

Belgium that year, from some temporary cause), 38,000,000 1835,

43,912,058 1836,

45,928,153 Thus, the excess of supply taken off many amounts to nearly one-third. within four years by looms in GerThe Prussian Tariff is based upon the



fraudulent pretext of a ten per cent cloths. The difference may be thus ad valorem tax, which, by some hocus explained :— The average price of cot. pocus more fraudulent still, is juggled ton prints exported for the last year is to mean a poundage duty of ls. 6d. stated at 14s. per piece ; add agency per pound upon all foreign cotton charges and freight, and say :1 piece of print, length 28 yards, weight 4 lb., value

L.0 15 0 10 per cent, ad valorem, would be

0 1 6 Poundage at Is. 6d., on 4 lb., is

0 6 0 or 40 per cent. Plain white calicoes are a case still stronger in point :

1 piece calico, length 24 yards, weight 5 lb. 8 oz., value L.0 10 0 10 per cent, ad valorem

0 1 0 Poundage at ls. Od.

0 8 2 or 82} per cent. Dr M:Culloch, who cloth wbich then sold currently at 10s. appears to have been entrusted by the 6d. per piece, ranges now about 6s. Prussian Government to make out a 6d. or 7s. only, so that the poundage vindication for it, lias imagined a case duty will equal, if not exceed, the cost of fine cotton prints at 2s. 6d. per price. yard, upon which he operates accord- It will be perceived, therefore, that ingly, and brings out the poundage at some of our former most extensive no more than 82 per cent. The an- customers are not only rapidly supswer is casy—there are not perhaps plying their own consumption, but twenty thousand pounds worth of that partially meeting us in other markets. costly article exported to Prussia and Assuming the first cost of manufacGermany in any one year. The right ture to be equal in Germany, France,t way, after all, is to decide upon the the United States, and Great Britain, point by the gross quantity, and not it is clear that all the difference of the by isolated instances. Take the whole tariffed amount, say thirty, forty, or exports, calculate the weight, and the fifty per cent of protecting duties, goes value, according to ascertained rates- into the pockets of our manufacturing those of Mr Burn, for example—and rivals, creates the capital wanted, the real result may be arrived at. and is and will be laid out in mills This we have done heretofore* in and machinery. But the first cost is ample detail, and need not repeat it not generally equal. The following here. The result is, that the actual shows at one view the mean rate of duty levied, or with which the com- wages in one of the largest establishmodities are struck, by the poundage ments of Mulhausen or the neighboursystem, amounted, on the whole actual hood. M. Ed. Collomb, by whom it export, to about 45 per cent. Prices has lately been published, does not have already considerably receded be- name the firm, but he answers for the low those of last year. Printing exactitude of the figures.


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The mean average per head of 1832 was 1 franc 16 cents only, so that wages had advanced.

See Blackwood, January, 1836. † The Tariff of France, honest towards us, if not neighbourly, is-prohibition.

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