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The mean wages, 1 franc 35 cents, are equal to 13 d. per day per head, or rer week, 6s. 9d. The wages of spinners at Lille, where the finer yarns are spun, are 3 francs per day, or 15s. per week. At Mulhausen, 2 francs 34 cents, or nearly 12s. per week. The scale of wages for the following places we take from Mr Greg and the Report of the Commissioners.
In the Tyrol (Germany), the spinner earns 9s. weekly.
8s. 4d. Bonn (Prussia),
5s. 6d. Switzerland, . The last is, we think, understated. M. A. Kæchlin, the very intelligent French manufacturer, and member of the Chamber of Deputies, rated them rather higher, if our memory do not deceive us, for we have not the authority at hand. But to understand these rates, quantities produced and qualities are necessary.
The operatives at Lowell, in the State of Massachusetts, are paid probably higher than in any part of the United States. The following, according to an authentic source, are the mean rates :
12s. 11d. per week.
13s. 4d. Weaving,
13s. ltd. Dressing, &c.
15s. 7d. These were the rates paid in May, week, so that in America the differ1834, as furnished by the Merrimack ence so far is in our favour. But Corporation Manufacturing Company other advantages, even taking the disto M. Chevalier, who is certainly an advantages of a higher rate of interest unexceptionable authority. We have and greater cost of machinery into always been inclined to distrust the account, help to kick the beam against evidence of Mr James Kempson, the us. For instance, the superior cheapAmerican cotton manufacturer, as ness of water-power, which is an imtaken before the Commons' Commit. mense saving, and the economy of the tee on Manufactures. He proved too raw material, nearly at their door, unmuch.*
taxed. The average wages of two The average rate of Factory earn- principal classes in Manchester and ings in England for all classes of ope- the neighbourhood are stated in the ratives are estimated at 10s. 6d. per Factory Report thus :Spinners,
255. per week. Power-loom weavers, male and female adults, male
and female non-adults, but chiefly females, 10s. 10d.
The fine spinners of course earn considerably more in proportion to the higher numbers and the quality. The average wages in calico printing, men and boys included, have been calculated at 10s. per week. The daily duration of labour appears to beIn France,
For Children, . We shall frankly own that the and abroad, as here sketched, does not rapidly comparative view of the state salute us as over cheering. If to the of the cotton manufacture at home lower rate of wages, and many other
* Witness his statement about rates of living. “ I have paid (in America) 8s. per week for board, lodgings, and washing, and lived as well as I could live in equal lodgings in a village in England for L.2 a-week." The assertion is a gross absurdity. essentials of superiority now existing mulation. Every post now brings inagainst us abroad, we add an addi. telligence of new and gigantic entertional bonus in a ten-hours' bill, by prises. From Baden we are informed which the manufacturer will be ex- that many manufactories, spinneries, pected to pay the same amount of &c., have been established in the viciwages as now for the labour of twelve nity of Carlsruhe, and the Brisgau *** hours, our case will not be improved. which may be attributed to the abunSupposing that the demand remain dance of capital, the low rate of labour, steady it must add one-sixth to wages and perhaps to the favourable climate." already double those of some, and one of manufacturing companies, and enthird more than those of other neigh- terprises established and projected, we bouring states. Moreover, to produce bave information that would fill more the same quantities the number of space than we have to spare. Not mills, print-works, &c. as well as of only is commercial attention directed hands, must be increased by one-sixth. to cotton manufactures, but to other But mills cannot be created in one speculations. Independent of the great day, nor could such an augmentation railroad undertakings from Aix-labe possible for years. On the Con- Chapelle to Cologne, and in divers tinent they can build nearly as fast, parts of Austria, to facilitate, acceleand in Ameriea equally so perhaps, as rate, and cheapen the means of transwe can here. In the mean time higher port and outlet (without particularprices would check consumption at izing the steam navigation from the home and abroad. But the additional Danube to the Black Sea), it will not number of mills would not be built be amiss to give our readers an outhere, because capital would seek line of some of the vast enterprises in the places which promised the most train of execution, and projected by profitable returns. The rates of Saxony alone-comparatively a small profit are low here--they are exor- state—to say nothing of Prussia Rhebitant elsewhere, through protect- nane :ing tariffs and low wages. Let us A Railroad from Dresden to Leipnot deceive ourselves. Capital is sic. All the shares taken and paid up, not so locomotive as in America; The Railroad of the Erzebirge. but when once the stream sets, and From the Elbe, traversing the Mol. set it has, the tributary streamlets dau, through Chemnitz to Zwickau, are inevitably attracted to the same with a tunnel of several hundred yards. course. We fear not Switzerland, Thirty thousand shares, of 100 rixdol. nor Belgium, a mightier rival still, lars each, subscribed in a few days. backed by the ponderous capitals of its Steam Navigation Company, from manufacturers, merchants, and the so- Dresden to Hamburg. Capital, One cieté génerale. The incipient tornado hundred and fifty million rixdoldoes not take its rise in those quarters, lars. but in France, Austria, the Germanic Coal Mining Company of PottschapCustoms Confederation, and the Uni. pel. It is calculated that these mines ted States. In these there are all the cannot be exhausted for three centuelements of manufacturing prosperity; ries. Capital three hundred thousand large populations, cheap living, low rixdollars. wages, immense internal consumption Brewing Company at Dresden, to alone. We leave Russia out of the relieve Saxony from the importation question at present, because, largely of foreign beer. Capital, four hun. as she imports of our yarns, sixty mil. dred thousand rixdollars. lions of people are not so soon supplied Iron-Works and Machine-making with fabrics at home.
Company of Uebingen, near Dresden. If there be progress here, the pro. Capital, five hundred thousand rixgress elsewhere is still of a more for dollars. midable character. It betokens the Machine-making Company. Capi. possession of capital, the certainty of tal, one million rixdollars; for the its increase, the security of employing manufacture of cotton and wool-spinit, the immense returns for investing it. ning, and weaving machinery For the Continent of Europe this is No more need be cited, we apprea new feature, where, so long ravaged hend, to show the extraordinary accuby wars, the people hoarded, and damulation of capitals, and the boundless red not lay out their gains for accu. spirit of enterprise now pervading Germany, so lately and so long impove. economizing labour, but we no longer rished and needy. These capitals have enjoy a monopoly of skill and ingenubeen accumulated chiefly by the gold. ity. Step by step other nations ac. en profits accruing out of the cotton company us in our progress. At the manufacture, through the combined last year's public exhibition of prooperation of high protecting tariffs, ducts and manufactures at Mulhausen, against competition from abroad, and not to speak of splendid machines, low wages with cheap rates of living embracing all the most recent improveat home.
ments for spinning yarns, making paWith all respect to Mr Greg, for per, grinding corn, &c. &c, which were of all respect as a worthy master and shown, the display of samples of friend of his operative labourers, he is fine yarns, and embroidered and printworthy, and with all deference to his ed muslins, is said to have been extrasuperiority in practical knowledge, ordinary for execution and splendid and well-known intelligence besides, for taste. Samples of the highest range we have made use, in these pages, of of numbers of fine yarns, up to No. 300 no more of the information he has French count (340 or 350 British, we published, than what has been acbelieve), were to be seen from the spinknowledged-- valuable as we confess neries of Mulhausen, Thann, Guebthat information appears to us. Un- willer, Cernay, and Kaizerberg. The known to him as we are, he will, we No. 300 of M. A. Herzog, of Logeltrust, consider it no mark of disrespect bach, was said to be a specimen of that we have preferred to rely upon most perfect fabrication. It is assertour own resources rather than be in ed, and believed among our neighfluenced by his authority, weighty as bours of those parts, that although that doubtless is. It has served to they cannot yet produce sufficient of incline our minds very seriously to these fine yarns for the wants of the the consideration of the subject in manufacturer, still that the qualities hand. Last year only we gave a are superior to the corresponding guarded adhesion to the Ten Hours' counts produced here. The Austrian Bill, influenced by the sanguine ex- printed cottons, sent to the same expectations of various practical men of position by M. Spærlin, of Vienna, are well-known humanity, and tenderness reported to rival those of Manchester, for the operative classes, that the state and to be executed in the same sort of of trade and of profits could well sup. styles. port the sacrifice, as then doubtless The present Factory Act we believe they could. We are entirely satisfied to be impracticable, and to have been now of the reverse. The evil that designedly so contrived by the Minihereafter we have to pray against is, stry, in order to render abortive the the reduction of wages, without any zeal of the friends of the factory childreduction of timc-working. We en ren, and disgust the operatives themtertain little doubt that before the selves. The plan of eight hours' laend of this year 100,000 operatives bour, with relays, will end, can end, will be out of employ within a radius only in the adults being eventually of 20 miles round Manchester inclusive. condemned to sixteen hours daily toil, The question is not, therefore, cannot instead of twelve. Two alternatives be, working shorter time for the same alone seem to present themselveswages, but retaining the same wages either to prohibit the employment of for the same quantity of work and of children under twelve years of age alhours. In a manufacture depending together, and repeal the eight hours so largely, one-half, upon export, and clause for all above it—that is, under one-half the annual value of which is thirteen-or to render the system of repaid in wages alone among the work lays practicable and reconcilable with ers, those wages hereafter may chance the twelve hours daily labour of the to become the sole barometer for de- adult, enacta six hours bill for children.* termining its high or low condition. If practicable, the last plan would, we Our skill and ingenuity may discover think, be most advantageous, as well new and improve old processes for as satisfactory for all parties. But
* We first heard this plan suggested by Mr Robert Stuart, a respectable and intelligent master spinner of Manchester.
the obstacles appear to be almost in- trained in the path of religion and mosuperable. In towns there would per- rality as well as of industry. haps be little difficulty in procuring In the mean time, we counsel the a supply of the requisite number Legislature to lose no time in repealof infant hands for the system of re. ing and consigning to the tomb of lays; but in country districts, and eternal ignominy the execrable workabout isolated spinneries, it would house system,f forged for the oppres. scarcely be possible. One or the sion of the working classes of Engother proposition, however, must, we land, and as if to chastise them for think, be entertained, for, maugre the their protest against the crying abuses opinion of Mr Greg, the present ab. of the Factory System,f and their in. surd piece of Whig legislation cannot vocation in behalf of the helpless prowork without eventual detriment to geny which seemed born only to in. the adult operative.*
herit and perpetuate bondage, disease,
and misery. Until the advent of that To conclude, for we have already day, which sooner or later will arrive, trespassed beyond our limits, we take we trust that Mr Oastler, the devoted leave to add our strenuous recommen- friend of the operative orders, will not dation of Mr Greg's advice to the relax in his determined but peaceful master spinners, of the “ propriety of agitation, and that the Member for cultivating a better understanding with Berks, honourably-how can a man their people.” There has been too be more honourably-distinguished in much of distance, of neglect, shall we his own county as “ the poor's man add of disdain almost, exhibited to- magistrate,” will not be discouraged wards them. These are not times for in the same noble cause, by the host the manifestation, for the perpetuation, of foes by whom he is now thwarted of unfriendly dispositions, even in the at every step, and maligned on every worldly sense ; the Christian obliga- occasion. We exhort the property tion is imperative in all times and un- classes, more especially the middle der all circumstances. Let the bonds of orders, to advance boldly to the resgood understanding, of amity, of con- cue. Now is the time to promote fidence, be drawn closer, and cultiva union, and cement harmony among ted more and more. The welfare of and between all denominations of sothe operatives may be promoted by a ciety; strike down the monster Poor kindly interest and superintendence, Law Abolition Act-it will be acceptas much as by the payment of weekly ed as a peace offering—the security of wages. Let the masters, imitating the home and property will be fortifiedmeritorious examples of Messrs Ash- the “ flood of mutiny" will be dammed ton, Greg, and many other meritorious up and dried at its source/content. manufacturers, attend to the comforts ment and concord will revisit the land. and the education of the infant la. If not, worse may betide—we are yet bourers, so that they may early be only in the beginning of the end,
* Mr Greg unjustly charges the friends of the operatives with agitating for the purpose of undoing their own work. In the first place, the Factory Bill was not their work, but passed under protest from them. In the second, the masters, or Mr P. Thomson, their representative, commenced the agitation by moving the repeal of the clause relating to the 13th year of age, before even it had been tried.
+ The old law was sufficiently stringent. The mere substitution of paid for gratuitous and interested overseers, to be appointed by the Magistrates in Quarter Sessions, or by any other local independent authority, would have been efficient for the correction of all abuses. But there would have been no Whig jobs!
Before concluding, let us not omit the confession of our obligations for much ready information and easy reference to “ Wheeler's History of Manchester"-a work as full of facts almost as of words, and a complete compendium of every thing relating to that important town and its various branches of industry unparalleled.
INDEX TO VOLUME XLI.
Affairs of Rome, by M. de la Menais, 251.
Scene XIX. Alcibiades Timandra, 54
tion of Alcibiades, 70.
by William Hay, 238, 622.
Baird, Sir David, inscription to his me-
chivalry, of which Baldwin, Earl of
Flanders, is the hero, 106.
the Birth-day, reviewed. 404.
Hymns to Venus and Mars, 440, 441.
ple," composed on the occasion of his
office consists of Irish and Scotch mem-
Chapman, Mr, his translation of the
Eumenides, from Æschylus, quoted,
386_Sonnets by him, 447
letter from a Curate to his friend, 479.
- Medical attendance, 629_Other Pa-
Grabbe, reviewed, 668.
season to them, 241 – the majority
Delta, Echoes of Antiquity, second series,
by him, 701.
on democracy, the subject has not been