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WINNERS OF THE NOBEL PRIZES.
[Prepared for The Daily News Almanac by B. PHYSICS. 01—William Conrad Roentgen, professor of physics at the University of Munich, for his discovery of the rays bearing his name. 02—Divided equally between Honrik Anton Loentz. professor of physics at the University of .eyden, and Peter Zeemau, professor of physics ;t the University of Amsterdam, for their reearehea In the effects of magnetism on the pheoinena of radiation.
13—Half to Antolne Henri Beoquerel, professor f physics at the Ecole Polytechnlque and at the luseura d'Histolre Naturelle, Paris, France, leuiber Institute Francaise, in recognition of is discovery of spontaneous radio-activity; half
> Pierre Curie, professor of physics at the Unl>rsity of Paris (Sorbonne) and teacher in physs at the Paris Municipal School of Industrial hysics and Chemistry, and his wife. Marie ilodovska Curie, preceptress at the Higher Noral School for Young Girls at Sevres, "as an kncwledgment of the extraordinary merit they ive acquired through the work which they have ■ne In common in connection with the radiation enomena discovered by Prof. Henri Becquerel."
1—Lord Rayleigh, professor of natural phllosoy. Royal Institution of Great Britain, Loudon, - Ms investigation of the constituent elements
the most Important gases and for his discov7 of argon in connection with that Investigate
—Philippe Lenard. professor of physics at the yslcal Institute of Kiel, for his investigation
the cathode rays and recognition of his exlent works on "Electricity in Waterfalls," he Cathode Rays and Their Electric Action
Gases," "The Bringing Out of Cathode Rays m Ultraviolet Light" and others. -J. 3. Thomson, professor of experimental sics at the University of Cambridge, Engd, for his researches extending over many rs into the nature of electricity.
CHEMISTRY. . .
-Jakob Hendrlk van't Hoff. professor of chemy in the University of Berlin, for discovering laws of chemical dynamics and df osmotic sure in solutions.
Emil Fischer, professor of chemistry in the .-ersity of Berlin, for his synthetic works in the sugar and purine groups. Svante August Arrhenlus, professor at the ersity of Stockholm, for elaborating and >nstratlng his theory of electrolytic dissjoclaand thus promoting the development of dstry.
3ir William Ramsay, professor of chemistry ie University college, London, in recognition Is merit in discovering atmospheric gases determining their place in the periodic sys
idoif von Baeyer, professor of chemistry [unich, for his recent discoveries of the coloring rfiatter "cceruleln" and red ng matter "eosin" and of "indol" and of iseovery of the process to make artificial
> blue. He is the world's most noted stuof synthetic chemistry and has in the last ears discovered a great number of processes !ue to the industrial world.
. Moissan, professor of chemistry at the ine, Paris, for his experiments in the on of fluorine, his researches regarding the ■ of that element and his application of the !c furnace to the service of science.
nil Adolf von Behring, professor of hygiene ledical history at the University of MarPrussia, for his works on serum therapeuith especial reference to diphtheria.
Lofgren, chief clerk of the Nobel foundation.]
1902—Donald Ross, professor of tropical medicine at the University college of Liverpool, for his discovery of the cause and cure of malaria.
1903— Niels Ryberg Flnsen, professor of medicine, Copenhagen, Denmark, for his work in treating diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light rays.
1904—Ivan Petrovlc Pawlow, professor of physiology In the Military Academy of Medicine, St. 'Petersburg, in recognition of his work in the physiology of the digestion.
1905—Robert Koch, member of the Royal Academy of Science, Berlin, for his bacteriologlc discoveries, as for example his tuberculine; also> for his works on bacteriologlc researches with special reference to cholera and tuberculosis.
1906—Profs. Ramon y Cajal and Camillo Golgi of the Pavia university, Italy, for their works dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system. LITERATURE.
1901—Rene Francois Armand Sully-Prudhomme, member of the French academy, for poetical works exhibiting the highest idealism and artistic perfection as well us a rare union of the qualities of heart and genius.
1902—Theodor Mommsen a professor of history at the University of Berlin, as the "greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special regard to his monumental work 'Romische Geschicte.'"
1903—Bjornstjerne Bjornson, author, Norway, "as a token of lecognition of his noble, grand and many sided work as a classic writer, which work has always been characterized simultaneously by the freshness of inspiration and a rare purity of soul."
1904—Half to Frederic Mistral for the originality and art of his poetry and for his important labors in Provencal philology; half to Jose Echegaray In recognition of his comprehensive and skillful work as an author, by which he revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama.
1905—Henryk Slenklewicz, the author of the famous book "Quo Vadls?" for his ability to picture the first Christians in the realistic colors of the olden time.
1900—Prof. Glosue Carducci of Bologna, Italy, for his poems and literary essays. PEACE.
1901—Divided equally between Henri Dunant, founder of the International Red Cross Society of Geneva, and Frederic Passay, founder of the first French peace association, the "Societe Francalse pour rArbitrage Entre. Nations."
1902—Divided equally between Elle Ducommuin. secretary of the international peace bureau at Bern, and Albert Gobat, chief of the interparliamentary peace bureau at Bern.
1903—William Randal Cremer. M. P., secretary of the International Arbitration league, Loudon.
1904—The Institute of International Right, a scientific association founded in 1873 in Ghent, Belgium.
1905—Baroness Bertha von Suttner for her splendid literary work written in the interest of the world's peace movement.
1906—Theodore Roosevelt, president of the United States, for the part he took In bringing the Russo-Japanese war to an end. Money set apart by the president for the establishment of a permanent industrial peace commission. The prizes are awarded on the 10th of December of each year. In 1901 each prize was $40,
409.64: 1902. $38,014.97; in 1903. $37,883.82; in
1904. $37,344.10- in 1905, $37,442.10; in 1906, $38,
An official account of the origin of the Nobel
prize fund will be found on page 108 of The Chicago Daily News Almanac and Year-Book for
JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER'S GIFTS FOR EDUCATION.
In June, 1905, John D. Rockefeller gave $10,000,000 to the general education board for the purposes of higher education. In February, 1907, he gave the same body $32,000,000 for the same purpose. The gift was announced in j the following letter:
"New York, Feb. 6.— : General Education Board, i 54 Williams Street, New j York City—Gentlemen: \ My father authorizes me to say that on or before April 1, 1907, he will give to the general board income-bearing securities the present mark< t value of which is about thirty. two million dollars ($32 , 000,000), one-third to be I added to the permanent I endowment of the board, I two-thirds to be applied to such specific objects within the corporate purposes of the board as either he or I may from JOHN D ROCKEFEL- "me to time direct any rri. remainder not so desig
** nated at the death of
the survivor to be added also to the permanent
endowment of the board. _. .,
"JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, JR."
The board accepted the gift and addressed the following letter to the donor:
"The general education board acknowledges the receipt of the communication of Feb. 6, 1907, from Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., a member of this body, announcing your decision to- give the board for the purpose of its organization securities of the current value of thirty-two million dollars ($32,00o.000). The general education board accepts this gift with a deep sense of gratitude to you and of responsibility to society. The sum, added to the eleven millions ($11,000,000) which you have formerly given to this board, makes the general eaucatio'n board the guardian and administrator of a total trust fund of forty-three million dollars ($43,000,000).
"This Is the largest sum ever given by a man in the history of the race for any social or philanthropic purpose. The board congratulates you upon the high and wise impulse which has moved you to this deed, and desires to thank you, in behalf of all educational interests whose developments it will advance, in behalf of our country, whose civilization for all time it should be made to strengthen and elevate, and in behalf of mankind everywhere, in whose interests it hais been given and for whose use it is dedicated.
"The administration of this fund entails upon the general education board the most far-reaching responsibilities ever placed upon any educational organization in the world. As members of the board we accept this responsibility, conscious alike of Its difficulties and its opportunities. We will use our best wisdom to transmute your gift into Intellectual and moral power, counting it a supreme privilege to dedicate whatever strength we have to Its just use in the service of men."
The following statement issued at the time the gift of $10,000,000 was made in 1905 explains the manner in which the distribution of funds is made:
"John D. Rockefeller. Jr., with other men of this city, was instrumental in forming the general education board in February, 1902. A broad and admirable charter was secured from congress and signed bv President Roosevelt on Jan. 12. 1903. A gift of $1,000,000 from John D. Rockefeller was immediately passed over to the board, especially designated for educational work in the .south. Other funds have been added by other philanthropists since that time and the board has confined its work mainly to educational work in the southern states.
"The present elft differs from Mr. Rockefeller's first gift to the board in the following particulars:
The principal sum of the gift of $1,000,000, made on the organization of the board, could be distributed. The present gift of $10,000,000 is held as an endowment, the income only being available for distribution. The first gift was designed to he used exclusively in the southern states. The pies* ent gift is for use not only in the southern states but throughout the United States, without distinction of section. The first gift could be used for common schools and secondary education. The second gift is confined to higher education and is designed specially for colleges as distinguished from the great universities, although there is no prohibition in the letter of gift against making contributions to universities.
"Both gifts are available for denominational schools as well as for those which are nonsectarian. While the funds may be employed for denominational schools, they will be employed without sectarian distinctions. No special denomination will be particularly favored, but the funds will be open to approved schools of all denominations, although they cannot be employed for giving specifically theological instruction.
"In distributing the funds the board will aim especially to favor those institutions which are well located and which have a local constituency sufficiently strong and able to insure permanence and power. No attempt will be made to resuscitate moribund schools or to assist institutions which are so located that they cannot promise to be permanently useful. Within these limits there are no restrictions as to the use of the Income. It maj be used for endowment, for buildings, for current expenses, for debts, for apparatus or for any other purpose which may be found most serviceable."
The members of the general education board are: Frederick T. Gates (chairman), George Foster Peabody (treasurer), Wallace Buttrick (secretary), Robert C. Ogden, Starr J. Murphy, Daniel C. Gilman, Edward A. Alderman. Morris K. Jesup, Walter II. Page, Albert Shaw, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Hugh H. Hanna. Harry Pratt Judson (of the University of Chicago). F,. Benjamin Andrews (of the University of Nebraska) and Hollis B. Frissell.
CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON.
I Prepared by William
The Carnegie Institution of Washington was incorporated Jan. 4, 1902, and endowed by Andrew Carnegie with $10,000,000. The purpose of the institution Is thus declared by its founder:
'■It is proposed to found in the city of Washington an institution which, with the co-operation of institutions now or hereafter established, there or elsewhere, shall in the broadest arid most liberal manner encourage investigation, research and discovery—show the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind, provide such buildings, laboratories, books and apparatus as may be needed, and afford instruction of an advanced character to students properly qualified to profit thereby.*'
The following list shows the departments of Investigations to which the larger grants have been assigned and the amounts of those grants in 1906:
Station for experimental evolution $21,000
Tortugas marine biological laboratory.... 15,700
Botanical research 33,000
Horticulture (Luther Burbank) 10,000
Economics and sociology 30,000
Historical research 14,450
Terrestrial magnetism 54,000
Solar observatory (Mount Wilson) 160,000
Geophysical research 20,000
Geophysical laboratory 85,000
Southern observatory 10,000
The fields of investigation to which minor grants of from $500 to $10,000 were assigned were anthropology, areheeology, astronomy, bibliography, botany, chemistry, geology, history, literature, mathematics, meteorology, paleontology, philology and linguistics, physics, physiology and zoology. The grants for publication amounted to a total of $47,297.59.
The larger projects now under way and the names of the department directors or investigator? are as follows:
Barnum, chief clerk.]
Botanical Research—D. T, MaeDongal.
Economics and Sociology—Carroll D. Wright.
Experimental Evolution—Charles B. Davenport.
Historical Research—J. F, Jameson.
Marine Biology—A. G. Mayer.
Meridian Astrometry—Lewis Boss.
Nutrition—F. G. Benedict, R. H. Chittenden, L. B. Mendel and T. B. Osborne.
Solar Physics—George E. Hale.
Terrestrial Magnetism—A. L. Bauer.
Work in Geophysics— F. D. Adams, G. F. Becker.
and the conduct of the Institution were intrusted
to a board of twenty-seven trustees, but under
act of congress approved April 28. 1904. certain
ex-officlo trustees were dispensed with. The board
now consists of the following persons:
Trustees—John S. Billings. John L. Cadwalader,
President of the Institution—Robert S. Woodward.
Officers of the Board of Trustees—John S. Billings, chairman; Elihu Root, vice-chairman; C. H. Dodge, secretary.
Executive Committee—Carroll D. Wright, chairman: John S. Billings, Daniel C. Oilman. S. Weir Mitchell, Elihu Root, Robert S. Woodward, C. H. Dodge, C. D. Walcott. The offices of the institution are in the Bond
building. Washington, D. C.
THE CARNEGIE FOUNDATION.
On the 27th of April, 1905. It was announced by Frank A. Vanderlip, vice-president of the National City bank of New York city, that Andrew Carnegie had transferred to a board of trustees $10,000,000 first mortgage 5 ner cent United States Steel Corporation bonds, tire purpose of the trust fund thus created being to provide annuities for college professors in the United States, Canada and Newfoundland who from old age or other physical disability are no longer in a position to render the most efficient service. The trustees are as follows:
A. T. Hadley. Yale university.
Charles William Eliot, Harvard university.
Nicholas Murray Butler, Columbia university.
Jacob G. Schurman, Cornell university.
Woodrow Wilson, Princeton university.
L. Clark Seelye, Smith college.
Charles C. Harrison, University of Pennsylvania.
Alex. C. Humphreys, 'Stevens institute.
S. B. McCurmlck. Western University of Pennsylvania.
Edwin B. Craighead, Tnlane university.
H. C. King. Oberlin college.
C. F. Thwlng, Western Reserve university.
Thomas McClelland. Knox college.
Edwin II, Hughes, Depauw university.
H. McClelland Bell, Drake university.
George H. Denny, Washington and Lee university. 4
President Peterson, McGill university.
Samuel Plantz, Lawrence university.
David S. Jordan, Leland Stanford Jr. university.
W. H. Crawford, . Allegheny college.
Henry S. Pritchett, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
F. A. Vanderlip, New York.
T. Morris Carnegie, New York.
R. A. Franks, Hnhokon, N. J.
The corporation having charge of the fund is styled "The Carnegie Foundation." No annuity to exceed $2,400 is paid.
The Wellman-Chicago Record-Herald polar expedition met with further delay in 1907 and operations were postponed until 1908. Extremely stormy weather prevailed during the summer in the region of Spitzbergen and only one opportunity was afforded of giving the airship a trial, and that was under adverse circumstances. In the winter of 1906-07 the craft had been enlarged so as to increase its carrying capacity, a new and more powerful motor had been provided and a new steel car built, making the America the most powerful airship ever constructed. The surface measurement of the balloon part or gas reservoir was 24,000 square feet, its length 1S3 feet and its greatest diameter 52.5 feet. The steel car underneath was 115 feet long. The lifting power of the balloon when fully inflated was 19,000 pounds, while the total weight to be carried, Including men, machinery, instruments, food,
a number of Siberian dogs and sledges for a possible journey over the snow and ice. was estimated at 15,000 pounds. A seventy-horse-power gasoline engine furnished the driving power.
The expedition reached Dane's island, Spitsbergen, June 8, 1907, and from then. until Sept. 2 the time was occupied in getting the airship ready and in repairing damages done by severe storms. The last two weeks were spent in waiting for favorable weather conditions. The trial ascent was made Sept. 2. when the airship was towed three miles through the strait by steamer and was then released. The machinery worked well and a start toward the north was actually made, but the wind, which had been blowing at the rate of six miles an hour, freshened, a snowstorm began and the compass failed to work and it was deemed absolutely necessary to mnke T landing and return to the base on Dane's Island. This was successfully accomplished with some difficulty on account of the gale. Mr. Wellman considered that the airship had proved a success, and while it was too late to make another trial in 1907 he announced that another attempt to reach the pole would be made in 190S.
The distance from Dane's island to the north Dole is about 618 sea miles, which would have made the distance for the round trip 1,236 miles. The estimated radius of action of the airship was from 2,250 to 2,700 miles.
ANOTHER PEARY EXPEDITION. Robert E Peary received three years' leave of absence for another expedition to the arctic and made preparations for sailing in the Roosevelt in August, 1907. It was found, however, that the steamer could not be got ready in time and the voyage was postponed until 1908. Peary expects to start from a more westerly point when he Depins the trip across the polar sea than he did In 1906. thus taking advantage of the movement of the Ice In the direction of the pole. The last time this movement carried him out of his course.
THE MIKKELSEN EXPEDITION. News was received Sept. 7, 1907. from the expedition led by Capt. Einar Mikkelsen, which sailed in the BChooner Duchess of Bedford May 21, 1906, to explore the Beaufort sea and adjacent waters. The schooner was wrecked, but all the members of the expedition escaped safely to the ice. Much work was done in the way of taking soundings, but no new discoveries were made.
THE SHACKLETON EXPEDITION. Lieut E H. Shackleton of the British nayy started from London July 30. 1907, on an expedition to the antarctic in the steam barkentine Endurance, originally a sealing vessel of 227 tons.
Headquarters will be established on King Edward VII. land and an effort made to reach the south pole in the summer of 1908.
COOK EXPEDITION. Dr. F H. Cook, the explorer, was landed in Smith sound, latitude 79 north, in July, 19U7, by the schooner yacht John R. Bradley. His intention was to cross Ellesmereland early in the spring of 1908 and make an attempt to reach the north pole by means of dogs ana sledges, with which he was well supplied. The expedition, which consists of Dr. Cook, another white man and a number of Eskimos, planned to spend the winter thirty miles farther north than did Peary In 1905-1906.
CHRONOLOGY OF RECENT WARS.
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR, 1898.
Maine blown up ■ • Feb. 15
Diplomatic relations broken April -1
Cuban blockade declared Aprl ii
War declared by Spain....... April 24
War declared by United States April 2o
Dewey's victory at Manila May 1
Hobson's Merrimac exploit. -JTMe i
II S armv corps lands in Cuba June zi
Battle at El Caney and San Juan July 1
Cervera's fleet destroyed.. T,,Vi 17
Santiago de Cuba surrenders July 17
Peace protocol signed -*««■ J;
Surrender of Manila Aug. 13
Peace treaty signed in Paris Dec. i„
PHILIPPINE WAR. 1899 1902. Hostilities began Febb'4-7' '899
San Fernando captured -Maj 6, 1899
Battle of Bacoor -June 13, 1899
Battle of Imns JTMe 16, 1899
Battle of Colamba «JJ 2°. TM*>
Battle of Calulut .Aug-,«' H?«
Battle at Angeles.......... Aug. 16, 1899
MaJ. John A. Logan killed Nov. 14, 1899
Gen. Gregorlo del Pilar killed Dec 10, 1899
Gen. Lawton killed......... Dec. 19. 1S99
Taft commission appointed .Feb 25. 1900
End'Sf'tneTa^:::::::::::::::v.v.:X^ 1°. &!i
Military governorship ended July 4, 1902
ANGLO-BOER WAR. 1899-1902.
Boera declare war Oct. 10, 1899
Boers invade Natal Oct. 12, 1899
Battle of Glencoe..... Oct. 20, 1899
Battle of Magersfonteln.. Pec 10. WTM
Battle of Colesburg Dec. 31. 1899
Splon Kop battles Jan. 23-25,
Kimberley relieved Feb. 15,
Gen. Cronje surrenders Feb. 27,
Ladysmith relieved March 1,
Mafeklng relieved May 17,
Johannesburg captured May 30,
Orange Free State annexed May 30,
Pretoria captured June 4,
South African Republic annexed Sept. 1,
Gen. Metlmen captured March 7,
Treaty of peace signed May 31,
RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 1904-1905.
Hostilities begun by Japan Feb. 8,
War declared '. Feb. 10,
Petropavlovsk sunk April 13,
Battle of the Yalu May 1,
Battle ship Hatsuse sunk May 15,
Cruiser Yoshino sunk May 15,
Nanshan hill battles May 21-27,
Dalny captured May 30,
Vafangow battle June 14,
Kaiping captured ..July 8,
Port Arthur invested July 20-31,
Newchwang evacuated July 25,
Haicheng evacuated Aug. 3,
Port Arthur naval battle Aug. 10.
Battle of Llaoyang Aug. 26-Sept. 4,
Battle of Sha river Oct. 12-19,
Dogger bank affair Oct. 22,
203 Meter hill captured Nov. 30.
North Keekwan captured Dec. 18,
Elirlungshan captured— Dec. 25,
Sungshushan captured Dec. 31,
Tort Arthur surrendered Jan. 1-2,
Battle of Helkoutai Jan. 27-Feb. 4,
Battle of Mukden Feb. 24-March 12,
Battle of Sea of Japan May 27-28,
Roosevelt peace proposal .June 7,
Sakhalin captured ..July 31,
Portsmouth peace conference Aug. 9-29,
Peace treaty signed Sept 5,
1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1992 1902
1904 1904 1904 1901 1904 1904 1904 1904 1904 1904 1904 1904 1901 1904 1904 1904 1904 1904 1904 1904 1904 1905 1905 1905 1905 1905 1905 1905 1905