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399,560. The trade with the United States in 1907 was: Imports, $51,493,044; exports, $30,140,053. Chief imports are cereals, textiles and metal goods; chief exports, cereals, raw textiles, tissues, iron, glass, hides, chemicals and machinery.

BULGARIA. GOVERNMENT-Prince, Ferdinand, duke of SaxeCoburg-Gotha. Legislation is enacted by the “sobranje," a single chamber of 157 members elected for five years. Bulgaria is an autonomous princi. pality under the suzerainty of Turkey.

AREA AND POPULATION-Area, 21,380 square miles. Population Dec. 31, 1903, 4,028,239; population of Sofia, the capital, 82,187.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS-Exports in 1905, $29,592,137; imports. $24,449,987. The exports are mainly cereals and the imports textiles.

DENMARK. GOVERNMENT–King, Frederick VIII.; heir apparent, Prince Christian. Cabinet:

Premier and Minister of War and Marine-J. C. Christensen.

Foreign Affairs-Count R. Levetzau.
Finance-W. Lassen.
Home Affairs-S. Berg.
Agriculture-Ole Hansen.
Justice- A. Alberti.
Instruction-Enevold Sorensen.
Public Works-Svend Hoegsbro.'

Legislative authority is vested in the landsthing and folkething. The former, which is the upper house, has 66 members, twelve of whom are appointed for life, the remainder being elected for terms of eight years. The folkething, or lower house, has 114 members, each elected for three years.

AREA AND POPULATION-Denmark's area is 15.592 square miles and total population in 1906, 2,605,268. Copenhagen, the capital, has a population of 426,540 (without suburbs).

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS-Total exports in 1905. $133.387.000; imports, $155,631,000. The imports from the United States in 1907 were $23,384,989; exports, $1,125,945. Leading articles of export are butter, pork, eggs and lard; of import, textiles, cereals, wood, iron manufactures and coal.

FRANCE. GOVERNMENT-President, Clement Armand Fallieres; term expires 1913.

Premier and Minister of the Interior-M, Clemenceau.

Justice-M. Guyot-Dessaigne.
Foreign Affairs-M. Pichon.
Education-M. Briand.
Finance-M. Caillaux.
War-Gen. Picquart.
Marine-M. Thomson.
Public Works-M. Barthou.
Commerce-M. Doumergue.
Colonies-M. Millies-Lacroix.
Agriculture-M. Ruau.
Labor-M. Viviani.

Legislative authority is vested in the chamber of deputies and the senate. The former has 584 mem. bers, each of whom is elected for four years. The senate has 300 members elected for nine years. The presidential term is seven years.

AREA AND POPULATION-France has a total area of 207,054 square miles. The area of the French colonies and dependencies throughout the world is 4.367.746 square miles. Total population (1901), 38,961.945. Population of the principal cities in 1901: Paris .........2,714,068 Toulouse ...... 149,841 Marseilles ..... 491,161 St. Etienne.... 146,559 Lyons ........

459,099 Roubaix .... 142,365 Bordeaux .....

257,638
5
Nantes ....

132,990 Lille

210,696 Havre ..... 130, 196 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS-The total imports in 1906 amounted to $1,009, 279,000; exports, $973,427,000. Exports to the United States in 1907, $127,803,445; imports from, $113,604,692. The chief exports are textiles, wine, raw silk, wool, small wares and leather: imports, wine, raw wool, raw silk, timber and wood, leather, skins and linen,

GERMANY. GOVERNMENT—Emperor and king of Prussia, William II.; heir-apparent, Prince Frederick William. Cabinet officers:

Imperial Chancellor-Prince Dr. Bernhard von Bulow.

Foreign Affairs-Herr Wilhelm von Schon.

Interior-Dr. Count Arthur von Posadowsky-Wehner. Navy-Vice-Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz. Justice-Dr. Arnold Nieberding. Colonies-Bernhard Dernburg. Treasury-Baron Hermann von Stengel. Postal Affairs-Dr. Reinhold Kraetke.

President of Imperial Railway AdministrationDr. Friedrich Schulz

The Prussian minister of war, Lieut.-Gen. Carl von Einem-Roth maler, while nominally having jurisdiction over Prussian army affairs only, represents the imperial government in the reichstag in military matters and is, for all practical nurroses, German secretary for war. Of the various independent states of Germany only the kingdoms of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg have their own ministers of war.

Legislative authority is vested in a bundesrath, or senate, of 58 members, and a reichstag. or house, of 397 members. The latter are elected for five-year terms on a popular franchise and the senators are appointed from the state governments for each session.

AREA AND POPULATION—The area of the states in the empire is 208,830 square miles, area of dependencies about 1,027,120 square miles; grand 'total, 1,235,950 square miles.

The last federal census was taken Dec. 1, 1905. According to this the population of the empire was 60,641,278. The estimated population of the foreign dependencies is 12,686,000. State population in 1905: Prussia ......37,293,324 | Lippe ........ 145,577 Bavaria ...... 6,524,372 Waldeck ..... 59,127 Wurttemberg.. 2,302,179 SchwarzburgBaden ....... 2,010,728 Rud. ....

96,835 Saxony ....... 4,508,601 SchwarzburgMecklenburg

Sond.

85,152 Schwerin...,

625,045 Reuss, junior Hesse ........ 1, 209,175 branch ..... 144,581 Oldenburg ... 438,856 SchaumburgBrunswick ... 485,958

Lippe ::....

44,992 Saxe-Weimar.. 388,095 Reuss, elder Mecklenburg

branch .....

70,603 Strelitzi 103,451

Hamburg .....

874,878 Saxe-Meiningen 268,916 Lubeck .... 105,857 Anhalt .... 328,029 Bremen ...

263,440 Saxe-Coburg

Alsace-Lor... 1,814,564 Gotha ...... 242, 432 Saxe-Altenburg 101,412 Total .....60,641,278

German cities having more than 150,000 inhabitants in 1905 included the following: Berlin ........2,040,145 Essen ........

231.360 Hamburg '802,793 Stettin ........

224,119 Munich 538,983 Konigsberg

223,770 Dresden ......

516,996
Bremen ...

214,861 Leipzig 503,672 Duisburg

192,346 Breslau. 470,904 Dortmund

175,577 Cologne ..

428,722 Halle-on-Saal... 169,916 Frankforta 334,978 Altona .....

....

168,320 Nurnberg .. 294,426 Strassburg . 167,678 Dusseldorf

253, 274 Kiel ...... 163, 772 Hanover.. 250,024 Elberfeld .. 162,853 Stuttgart 249.286 Mannheim

.....

163,693 Chemnitz ..... 244,927 Danzig

159, 648 Magdeburg ...240,633 Barmen ....... 156.030 Charlottenburg.. 239,559 | Rixdorf ....... 153,513

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS-Total exports (1906). $1,457,750,000; total imports, $1,868, 426,000.

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907, Germany exported $161,544,552 worth of merchandise to the United States and imported merchandise valued at $256,653,060.

SOVEREIGNS OF STATES.
Prussia-King, William II.
Anhalt-Duke, Frederick.
Baden-Grand duke, Frederick II.
Bavaria-King, Otto; prince regent, Leopold.
Brunswick-Regent, Duke John Albert.

ther.

Hesse-Grand duke, Ernst Ludwig.

4,300. Total exports in 1905, $355,000; imports, Lippe-Count, Leopold IV.

$960,000. Montenegro has practically no trade Mecklenburg-Schwerin-Grand duke, Friedrich with the United States. Chief exports are suFranz IV.

mac, smoked sardines, cattle, sheep, goats, cheese, Mecklenburg-Strelitz-Grand duke, Adolph Fred olive oil, wine and tobacco. Imports include petroerick.

leum, salt, maize, cottons, hardware, sugar, coffee Oldenburg—Grand duke, Frederick August.

and rice. Reuss, Elder Branch-Prince, Henry XXIV. Reuss, Younger Branch-Prince, Henry XIV.

NORWAY. Saxe-Altenburg-Duke, Ernst. Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Duke, Charles Edwara. GOVERNMENT-King, Haakon VII.; heir-apparent, Saxe-Meiningen-Duke, George II.

Olaf. Saxe-Weimar-Grand duke, William Ernst.

Premier and Foreign Affairs-J. Lovland. Saxony-King, Frederick August III.

Justice-J. 0. Boredal. Schaumburg-Lippe-Prince, George.

Church and Public Instruction-Otto Jensen. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt-Prince, Gunther.

Finance-Magnus Halvorson. Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen-Prince, Charles Gun Public Works-A. Berge.

Commerce-Sofus Arctander. Waldeck--Prince, Frederick.

Defense-K. F. G. Dawes. Wurttemberg-King. William II.

Agriculture-M. Aarrestad.

Legislative authority is vested in the storthing, GREECE.

consisting of 117 members elected for three years

by universal suffrage. The storthing consists of GOVERNMENT-King, George I.; heir-apparent, two houses, the odelsthing and the lagthing. The Prince Constantine, duke of Sparta. Cabinet:

former is made up of three-fourths of the memPresident of the Council and Minister of War bers of the storthing and the latter of one-fourth. M. Theotokis.

AREA AND POPULATION—The total area of NorForeign-M. Skouzes.

way is 124, 445 square miles. Total population in Worship and Instruction-M. Stephanopoulos.

December, 1902, 2,263,010. Christiania in 1900 had Marine-M. Trikoupi.

a population of 227,626 and Bergen, 72,151. Interior-M. Kalogeropoulos.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS-The value of the imJustice-M. Bokotopoulos. Finance-M. Simopoulos.

ports in 1906 was approximately $89,995,070; exLegislative authority is vested in one chamber,

ports. $60,312,998. Exports to the United States the boule,” consisting of 235 members, each of

in 1907, $3,795,387; imports $5,682,508. The chief whom is elected for four years.

exports are timber and wood manufactures, malty AREA AND POPULATION–Total area, 25,014 square

food, paper and minerals; imports, breadstuffs, miles. Population in 1903, 2,645,175 (estimated).

groceries, yarn, textiles, vessels and machinery. Athens in '1896 had 111,486 inhabitants; Piræus, 42,169, and Patras, 37,958. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS--The total exports in 1905

PORTUGAL. a mounted in value to $16,772,000; imports, $28. GOVERNMENT-King, Carlos I.; heir-apparent, 156,600. Exports to the United States in 1907, Louis Philippe. Cabinet: $3,086,419; imports from the United States, $1, Premier and Minister of Interior-Senhor J. F. 634,431. The leading exports are currants, ores, IC. Franco, olive oil and figs; imports, foodstuffs, textiles, Finance-Senhor E. D. Schroeter. coal and timber.

Foreign Affairs-Senhor L. de Magalhaes.

War-Senhor Vasconcellos Porto.
ITALY.

Marine and Colonies-Senhor A. d'Ornellas.

Public Works-Senhor J. M. Reymo. GOVERNMENT-King. Victor Emmanuel III.; heir Justice and Worship-Senhor J. Novaes. to the crown, his son Humbert, prince of Pied. Legislative authority is vested in the cortes, mont, born Sept. 16, 1904.

which consists of a house of peers and a house of President of Council and Minister of the In

commons, the former having 155 members and the terior-Giovanni Giolitti.

latter 148. Foreign Affairs-Sig. Tittoni.

AREA AND POPULATION—Total area, including Grace and Justice-Sig. Orlando.

Azores and Madeira, 35,490 square miles. Area of Treasury-Sig. Carcano.

possessions in Africa and Asia, 801,060 square Finance-Sig. Fusinato.

miles. The population of the home country with War-Sig. Vigano.

the Azores and Madeira in 1900 was 5,428,659; of Marine-Admiral Mirabello.

the colonies in Africa and Asia, 9,216,707. In the Public Instruction--Sig. Rava.

same year Lisbon had a population of 356,009 and Public Works-Sig. Gianturco.

Oporto 167,955. Agriculture, Industry and Trade-Sig. Cocco-Ortu.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS—Total imports in 1905, Ports and Telegraph-Sig. Schanzer.

$60,690,000; total exports, $29,070,000. Imports AREA AND POPULATION—The area of Italy is from the United States in 1907, $2,787,422; ex110,646 square miles. According to the census of ports to the United States, $6, 479,500. The chief Feb. 9, 1901, the total population is 32,475,253. imports are foodstuffs, cotton, sugar, fish, wool, Estimated total population in 1906, 33, 733,198. leather, coal and coffee; chief exports, wine, sarPopulation of the principal cities:

dines, copper ore, olives and figs. Naples ....563,731 Genoa .....

....234,700
Milan .
.: 491,460 Florence ...205,589

ROUMANIA.
Rome ...........462,783 i Bologna ........152,000
Turin .
..335,639 Venice .... .... 151,840

GOVERNMENT-King, Carol I.; heir-apparent, Palermo ..... ...310,352 Messina ........149,779

Ferdinand, prince of Roumania.

Legislative authority is vested in a senate of IMPORTS AND EXPORTS—The value of merchandise 120 members and a chamber of deputies of 183 exported in 1906 was $354,319,462; imported, members elected for four years. $466.740,081. The total value of the exports to AREA AND POPULATION--The total area is 50,720 the United States in 1907 was $50,455,119; im. square miles. The population in 1899 was 5,956,ports from the United States, $61,746,965. Chief 690. Population of the principal towns in Decemimports are coal, cotton, grain, silk, wool, timber, ber, 1899; Bucharest, 282,071; Jassy, 78,067; machinery, sugar and oil; chief exports, silk, Galatz, 62,678; Braila, 58,392. wine, oil, coral, sulphur, hemp and flax.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS-The value of the ex

ports in 1905 was $91,420,000, of the imports, MONTENEGRO.

$67,507,597. The chief exports are cereals and the

leading imports are textiles. Exports to the Reigning prince, Nicholas I. Area, 3,630 square United States in 1905, $6,545; imports from, miles; population, 230,000; of the capital, Cettinje, | $683,231.

........

chiet exports the United value to asi United St

RUSSIA.

Finance-C. J. G. Swartz. GOVERNMENT-Czar, Nicholas II.; heir-apparent,

Marine-Commodore Ehrensaiard. Grand Duke Alexis.

Education-A. H. Hammarskjold. Premier and Minister of the Interior-M. Stoly Interior-Count Hugo Hamilton. pin.

Agriculture-Alfred Peterson. Foreign Affairs–M. Iswolsky.

Public Works-M. Hammarskjold. Finance-M. Kokovtseff.

Legislative authority is vested in a parliament Justice M, Scheglovitoff.

of two chambers, the first of which has a memAgriculture-Prince Vassilchikoff.

bership of 150 and the second 230. Members of Commerce-M. Filossofoff.

the upper house are elected for nine years and Railways-Gen. Schaffhausen.

those of the lower for three years. The first Controller-M. von Schwapbach,

chamber is elected by municipal representatives. Procurator of the Holy Synod-Peter Iswolsky. To be eligible one must own real estate worth at War-Gen. Rudiger.

least 80,000 crowns or pay taxes on an income of Navy-Admiral Dikoff.

at least 4,000 crowns. The second chamber conLegislative authority is vested in the czar, douma stituents must have an income of at least 800 and council of the empire. (See “Progress of Rev crowns or own real estate worth at least 1,000 olution in Russia.")

crowns. AREA AND POPULATION-Area, 8,647.657 square

AREA AND POPULATION—The total area of Sweden miles. Total population in 1897, 129,004,514; esti

is 172,876 square miles. The population Dec. 31, mated in 1905, 146,796,000. Population of the prin

1905, was 5,294,885. The population of the principal cities:

cipal cities at the same time was: Stockholm, St. Petersburg. 1,534,000 | Riga ........

256,197 324,488; Gothenburg, 140,851; Malmo, 72,459; Moscow .....1, 173,427 | Kiev

247, 432 Norrkoping, 44,760; Geffie, 30,842. Warsaw ..... 638, 209 Kharkov

174,846

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS-The total exports in Odessa ...... 405, 041

Vilna ....

159,568

1905 were valued at $120, 657,000; imports $153,Lodz ........ 315, 209

780,000. Exports to the United States in 1907, IMPORTS AND EXPORTS—The total value of the $4,171,258; imports, $9,413,649. The leading imports in 1906 was $319,225,000; of the exports, articles of export are timber and machinery; of $514,673,000. The exports to the United States import, textile goods and foodstuffs. in 1907 amounted in value to $16,559,437; imports from the United States, $19,778, 156. The

SWITZERLAND. chief exports are foodstuffs, timber, oil, furs and flax; imports, raw cotton, wool, metals, leather,

GOVERNMENT—President of Federal Council-M. hides, skins and machinery.

Eduard Muller,

Vice-President-M. Ernest Brenner.
SERVIA.

Legislative authority is vested in a state and a

national council, the former having 44 and the GOVERNMENT-King, Peter I. (Kara georgevitch); latter 167 members. The national councilors are heir-apparent, Prince George. Legislative author elected directly by the people; the state councilors ity is vested in a single chamber, called "skupsh are elected in some cantons by the people and in tina," of 198 members

others by the cantonal legislature. The chief exAREA AND POPULATION-Area, 18.650 square ecutive authority is vested in the bundesrath, or miles; population Dec. 31, 1905, 2,492,882. "The federal council, one member of which is the chief capital, Belgrade, has 80,747 inhabitants.

of one of the federal departments. Its decrees are EXPORTS AND IMPORTS-Total value of exports in enacted as a body. Its members are elected presi1905. $14,399,000; imports, $11,120,000. Exports dent in rotation. to the United States in 1907, $59,297; imports, Switzerland owns its main railroads, its tele. $175. The exports are mainly agricultural prod graph and telephone system and monopolizes the ucts and animals and the imports cotton and manufacture and sale of alcohol. woolen goods and metals.

AREA AND POPULATION—Total area, 15,976 square

miles. The population, according to the census of SPAIN.

June, 1905, was 3,463,609. Population of the larGOVERNMENT–King, Alfonso XIII.; queen moth

gest cities: er, Maria Christina. Cabinet:

Zurich ....
180.843 | Bern .....

.. 71,748 President of the Council of Ministers–Senor Basel ...........127,987 Lausanne ....... 53,209 Maura.

Geneva .........114,547 St. Gallen....... 51,766 Foreign Affairs—Sertor A. Salazar.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS—Total exports in 1906, Marine-Senor Ferandiz.

$207,449.658; imports, $273,791,697. Exports to the Finance-Senor Osma.

United States in 1907, $26,830,840; imports, $612,Public Instruction-Senor R. San Pedro.

579. The articles chiefly exported are cottons, Justice-Marquise de Figueroa.

silks, clocks and watches; imported, foodstuffs, Interior-Senor Lacieroa.

silk, minerals and metals, clothing and animals, War-Senor Lono. AREA AND POPULATION—Total area, 194,783

THE NETHERLANDS. square miles. Total population of Spain, census of 1900, 18,618,086. Population of large cities:

GOVERNMENT-Queen, Wilhelmina; prince consort, Madrid ........539,835 Carthagena .... 99.871

Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Cabinet: Barcelona ......533,000 Saragossa ...... 99,118

Prime Minister and Home Secretary-P. Rink. Valencia .......213,530 Bilbao ......... 83.306

Foreign Affairs-Jonkheer D. A. W. Van Tets Seville ........148,315 Granada'.

75,900 Van Goudriaan. Malaga ........130,109 Cadiz ....

Industry-Prof. J. Kraus. Murcia .........111,539] Valladolid ...... 68,789

Agriculture, Commerce and Industry-Dr. J. D.

Veegens. IMPORTS AND EXPORTS—The exports of Spain in War-W. F. Ridder Van Rappard. 1306 amounted to $195,314,696; imports, $169,640,

Navy-Capt. W. J. Cohen Stuart. 649. Total exports to the United States in 1907, Justice-E. E. Van Raalte. $13,426,665; imports, $21,330,384. Chief exports Finance-Mrde Meester. : are wine, sugar, timber, animals, glassware and Colonies-D. Fock. pottery; imports, cotton and cotton manufactures, Trade-J. D. Veegens. machinery, drugs and chemical products.

Legislative authority is vested in the states-gen

eral, composed of two chambers, the first having SWEDEN.

50 members and the second 100. The latter are GOVERNMENT-King, Gustaf V.; crown prince,

elected directly and the former by the provincial Gustaf Adolph.

states. Premier and Minister of War-M. S. A. Lindman. AREA AND POPULATION-The area of Holland, or Foreign Affairs-E. B. Trolle.

I the Netherlands, is 12,648 square miles. The total

Valladoli...... 69,382

.....111,539

of per having OPULATIOS. The 1905, was and the

population Dec. 31, 1905. was 5,591,701. That of furs, wool, mats, fans, essential oils, straw braid, the chief cities was:

silks, hair, hides, hemp and sesamum seed. Amsterdam ....557,614 | Utrecht .........114,321

JAPAN. Rotterdam ......379,017 | Groningen. . 72.324

GOVERNMENT-Emperor, Mutsuhito; crown prince, The Hague (capiHaarlem ..... ... 68,997

Yoshihito. Cabinet: tal) ...........242,031

Premier-Marquis Saionji. IMPORTS AND EXPORTS-In 1905 Holland import Foreign Affairs-Viscount Hayashi. ed $1.030.918.000 worth of merchandise and export War-Gen. Baron Terauchi. ed $799,694,000. In 1907 the exports to the United Finance-Dr. Sakatani. States amounted to $32,454,616 and the imports Navy-Vice-Admiral Saito. from the same country to $101,450,319. Chief im Justice--Mr. Matsuda. ports are iron and steel and their manufactures, Education-Mr. Makino. textiles, coal, cereals and flour; exports, butter, Agriculture and Commerce-Mr. Matsuoka. sugar and cheese.

Interior - Mr. Hara.

Communications-Mr. Yamagata.
TURKEY.

Legislative authority is vested in the emperor

and the imperial diet. Abdul Hamid II.; heirGOVERNMENT-Sultan

This consists of the house

of peers and the house of representatives, the apparent, Mehemmed Reshad Effendi. Cabinet:

former having 364 and the latter 379 members. Grand Vizier-Ferid Pasha.

AREA AND POPULATION—The total area of Japan Sheik-ul-Islam-Jemalledin Effendi.

is 161,210 square miles. The population accordMinister of the Interior-Memduh Pasha.

ing to the census of Dec. 31, 1905, was 47,812,Foreign Affairs-Tewfik Pasha. War-Riza Pasha.

138, exclusive of Formosa, the Pescadores and the

south half of Sakhalin..The total population is Marine -Djelal Pasha. Finance-Žia Bey.

close to 50,000,000. Cities having more than 100,

000 inhabitants are: Justice--Abdurrahman Pasha. President of Council of State-Said Pasha. Tokyo ........1,818,655 | Nagoya ....... 288,639 Public Works and Commerce-Zihni Pasha.

Osaka ...

995,945 Kobe.. · 285,002 Public Instruction-Hachim Pasha.

Kyoto

380,568 Nagasaki ....: 153, 293 Indirect Contributions-Hassen Fehmi Pasha. Yokohama .. 326,035 | Hiroshima

121, 196 Civil List-Ohannes Sakyz Effendi..

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS-The total imports in 1903 Agriculture, Mines and Forests—Selim Melhame amounted in value to $208,554,486; exports, $208,Pasha.

754.069. In 1907 the imports from the United Grand Master Artillery-Zeky Pasha.

States were valued at $38,770,060 and the exReligious Foundation-Turhan Pasha.

ports to the same country at $68,910,594. The The sultan, through the grand vizier and the chief exports are raw silk, cotton, yarn, copper, sheik-ul-Islam, exercises legislative and executive coal and tea; imports, sugar, cotton, iron and authority.

steel, machinery, petroleum and wool. AREA AND POPULATION-The area of that part of Turkey under the direct control of the sultan

KOREA. is 1,115,046 square miles; of the whole empire,

Emperor, Yi Syek; nominally a kingdom, but including tributary and subject states, 1,622,080 practically. a Japanese dependency. Estimated square miles. The total population of all parts area, 82,000 square miles. Population, 10,000,000 of the empire is 39,787,640, of whom 24.028,900

to 12,000,000, of whom 5,608, 151 were liable to are in Turkey proper. Constantinople has about

taxation in 1901. Seoul, the capital, has 196,646 1,123,000 inhabitants.

inhabitants. Imports in 1904 valued at $6,576,EXPORTS AND IMPORTS-The total exports in

595; exports, $1,733,376. Imports from the 1901 amounted in value to $72.524,800 and the

United States in 1907, $1.459,223; exports to, $1,imports to $117,207,800. The exports to the United

120. The imports are chiefly cotton goods, metStates in 1907 amounted to $6.930, 761 in value

als. keroserie and silk goods; exports are rice, and the imports to $1,125,099. The principal arti

beans, cowhides, ginseng and copper. cles imported are cloth and clothing, sugar, coffee,

PERSIA. flour, rice and manufactures of iron; exports,

Shah, or emperor, Mohammed Ali Mirza. Under grapes, silk, grain, cocoon, wool, cotton, carpets,

constitution granted in 1906 legislative authority hides and skins.

is vested in a national council of 156 members

and a senate of 60 members.' The area is about ASIA.

628.000 square miles and the population 9,500,000. AFGHANISTAN.

Imports in 1903-1904 about $35,000,000; exports, Ameer, Habibullah Khan; population, about

$23, 165,000. Imports from the United States in

1907. $3,042; exports to, $470,334. 4,000,000; area, 250,000 square miles. No statis

Teheran, the tics as to imports and exports of Afghanistan are

capital, has a population of about 280,000. Chief available. The chief productions are preserved

among the products are silk, fruits, wheat, bar

ley and rice. fruits, spices, wool, silk, cattle and tobacco.

SIAM.
BOKHARA.

King, Chulalongkorn I.; crown prince, Chowfa Ameer. Sayid Abdul Ahad; heir, Sayid Mir Alim Maha Vajirvudh. Area, 220,000 square miles; Khan. The area of Bokhara is about 80,000 square population is estimated at 6,686,846. Bangkok, miles and the population 1,250,000. The products

the capital, has about 450.000 inhabitants. The are corn, tobacco, fruit, silk and hemp. Since imports in 1905 were $19,968, 175 and the exports 1873 Bokhara has been a dependency of Russia.

$29.945,500. Imports from the United States in CHINA.

1907, $376,738; exports to, $65,581. Chief among

the exports are rice, teak and marine products; GOVERNMENT-Emperor. Kwangsu; dowager em imports, cotton goods and opium. press, Tsu-Hsi; president of foreign office, Prince Ching.

AFRICA. AREA AND POPULATION—Total area of China, with dependencies, 4,277,170 square miles; esti

Emperor, Menelik II. Total area of Abyssinia mated population, 433,553,030.

about 200,000 square miles; population, 10,000,000. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS—The total exports in 1906 amounted to $193,185,000 and the imports

The exports are coffee, gum, wax, gold and to $335,191.000. During the fiscal year 1907 goods

ivory. American textiles to the value of $1.000,to the value of $25,704,532 were imported from

000 are imported annually. the United States. The total exports in the same

ALGERIA. period to the United States amounted to $33,436, Algeria is a colony of France. Governor-General 452. The articles imported from America consist -M. Jonnart. Area, 184,474 square miles; popumainly of flour, kerosene, sago, india-rubber shoes, lation in 1906, 5,231,850. Chief imports are cotginseng. quicksilver, white shirting, drills and tons, skins and furs and woodwork; exports, wine. broadcloth. Among the leading exports are tea, l sheep and cereals.

thout 200%Menel: ABYSSTIA,

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.

tives are elected for two years each and are apColony of Great Britain. Governor-Sir W. F. portioned at the rate of one for each 40,000 inhabHely-Hutchinson. Area, 276,995 square miles; itants; the senators, of whom there are fifty-six, population in 1904, 2,409,804 Exports in 1905, are elected by the people in the same manner as $162,090,000; imports, $96,167,000. Chief imports representatives. The president holds office four are textile fabrics and articles of food; exports, years and may be elected for several consecutive wool, ostrich feathers, hides, hair, copper ore, dia

terms. Gen. Porfirio Diaz is serving his seventh monds and gold.

term, which expires in November, 1910. Follow

ing are the names of his cabinet officers: EGYPT.

Senor Lic. Don Ignacio Mariscal, secretary of Khedive, Abbas Hilmi; heir-apparent, Mohammed

state and of the department of foreign affairs. Abdul Mouneim. Total area of Egypt, 400,000 Senor Don Ramon Corral, secretary of the intesquare miles; area of the Egyptian Sudan, 950,000

rior and vice-president. square miles. The population of Egypt proper in

Senor Lic. Don Justino Fernandez, secretary of 1897 was 9,734,405; of the Egyptian Sudan, 10,

justice. 000,000. Population of Cairo, 570,062; Alexandria, Senor Lic. Don Justo Sierra, secretary of public 319, 766. Great Britain controls the state finances instruction and fine arts. and is represented at Cairo by a "financial ad Senor Gen. Don Manuel Gonzales Cosio, secretary viser," who sits in the council of ministers. The of encouragement. present adviser is Sir Eldon Gorst. The total ex

Senor Ingeniero Don Blas Escontria, secretary ports in 1905 were valued at $100,641,000 and

of public works and communication. the imports at $ 106,591,000. Imports from the

Senor Lic. Don Jose Ives Limantour, secretary of United States in 1907, $1,225,077; exports to, the treasury and of public credit. $16,615,706. The exports consist chiefly of cereals, Senor Gen. Don Manuel Gonzales Cosio, secretary raw cotton and provisions; imports, wool, coal, of the army and navy. textiles and metal manufactures.

AREA AND POPULATION--The total area, includKONGO FREE STATE.

ing islands, is 767,005 square miles. The popula

tion, according to the federal census of Oct. 28, The Kongo Free State is nominally independent

1900, is 13,605,919. The population of leading but virtually a Belgian colony, its affairs being

cities of the republic follows: City of Mexico wholly under the control of King Leopold. The

(capital), 368,777; Guadalajara, 101,413; Puebla. estimated area is 900,000 square miles and the

93,521; Monterey, 62,266; San Luis Potosi, 61,009; negro population about 30,000,000. Europeans

Saltillo, 40,441; Pachuca, 37,487; Aguas Calientes, numbered 2,635 in January, 1906. Among the lead

35,052; Zacatecas, 32,856, Durango, 31,092; Toluca, ing articles of export are ivory, rubber, cocoa,

20.893; Hermosillo, 17.617. palm nuts, palm oil, copal gum and coffee. Total

COMMERCE—The chief exports of Mexico are imports in 1905, $9,192, 259; exports, $24,314,790.

precious metals, coffee, tobacco, hemp, sisal, sugar, LIBERIA.

dye woods and cabinet woods, cattle and hides and President-Arthur Barclay. Legislative power is skins. In 1905 the total exports a mounted to $122,vested in a senate of nine members and a house 287,000; total imports for the same year were $88.of representatives of fourteen members. The total 201,000. The trade of Mexico is chiefly with the area of the republic is about 45,000 square miles United States, Great Britain, France, Germany and the population 2,120,000. The exports amount and Spain. During the year ended June 30, 1907. to about $600,000 annually and the imports to

the t'nited States exported to Mexico $66, 248,098 $650,000. Imports from the United States in 1907,

worth of manufactures of iron and steel, machin$64,904; exports to, $106. The chief exports are rub

ery, unmanufactured cotton, lumber, manufactures ber. palm oil, cocoa, coffee. ivory, ginger and

of cotton and gunpowder. For the same year the camwood. Imports are cottons, provisions, wood

imports from Mexico to the United States amountand iron manufactures and gin.

ed to $57,233,416. These consisted mainly of cof

fee, hides, textile grasses, cattle, lead, copper and MOROCCO.

tobacco. Sultan, Mulai-Abd-el-Aziz. Area of Morocco about 219,000 square miles; population, 5,000,000.

SOUTH AMERICAN REPUBLICS. Imports from the United States in 1907, $12, 142;

ARGENTINA. exports to, $686,513. The chief imports are cot

President, Dr. Jose F. Alcorta; capital, Buenos tons, sugar and tea; exports, eggs, almonds, goat

Aires. Area, 1,135.840 square miles. Population skins, beans, peas, linseed, wool, wax and cattle.

(1905), 5,678, 197; Buenos Aires, 1,025,653. Total 'ORANGE RIVER COLONY.

exports in 1906, $282,024,945; imports, $260,521,British colony. Governor-Earl of Selborne.

553. Exports to the United States in 1907, $16,Area, 50,392 square miles; population in 1904,

715,325; imports, $32,163,336. Chief exports, 387,315 (white, 142,679); population of Bloem

sheep, wool, cattle, hides, frozen meats and fontein, the capital. 33,890 (white. 15,421). Im

wheat; imports, machinery, agricultural imple. ports in 1906. $20,267,070; exports, $15,228,555.

ments, railway cars, engines and supplies and The imports are chiefly cloths, articles of food

manufactures of iron and steel. and drink and wood and hardware; exports, wool

BOLIVIA. and diamonds.

President, Senor 1. Montes; capital, Sucre. Area. TRANSVAAL COLONY.

708,195 square miles. Population, 2,267,935. LaBritish colony. Governor-Earl of Selborne.

Paz, 78,910; Chocachamba, 28,451; Sucre, 27.080. Area, 111,196 square miles; population in 1904,

Total exports in 1905, $14,766,000; imports $10,1,270,023 (white, 297,277). Imports in 1905, $79,

149.000. "Exports to the United States in 1907. 249.515: exports, $113,995,675. Chief imports,

nominal; imports $941,287. Chief exports, silver, metals, apparel, provisions and manufactures of

tin, copper, coffee, rubber; imports, provisions, wood; exports, gold, wool and coal.

clothing, hardware, spirits, silks and woolens. TUNIS.

BRAZIL. Bey, Sidi Mohammed; heir-presumptive, Mo | President, Senhor Affonso Penna; capital, Rio de hammed in Naar. Tunis is under the protectorate Janeiro. Area, 3.218,931 square miles. Populaof France and that country is represented by a

tion (1900), 17,371,069. Rio de Janeiro (1906). resident-general. Total area, 64,000 square miles;

811,265; Sao Paulo (1902), 332,000; Bahia, 230,population in 1902. 1.900,000, including 38.889 000; Pernambuco, 120,000. Exports (1905), $223,French. Imports in 1905, $18,190,923; exports. 285,720; imports, $163,697,920. Exports to the $11.655,316. Chief exports are wheat. barley,

United States in 1907, $97,881,158; imports, $18,olives and palms.

697.547. Chief exports, coffee, sugar, tobacco, cot

ton and rubber; imports, cotton goods, manufacMEXICO.

tures of iron and steel, furniture, mineral oils, GOVERNMENT-The republic of Mexico is divided

breadstuffs and provisions. into twenty-seven states, three territories and one

CHILE. federal district, each with a local government, but President, Senor Pedro Montt; capital, 'Santiall subject to the federal constitution. Representa- I ago. Area, 307,620 square miles. Estimated pop

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