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ulation in 1903, 3,206,042; Santiago, 334,538; Val Exports to the United States in 1907, $3,160,891; paraiso, 143, 769; Concepcion, 49,801. Total ex imports, $3,412,785. Chief exports, animal and ports in 1905, $103. 223,000; imports, $71,686,000. agricultural products; imports, manufactured artiExports to the United States in 1907, $18,287, cles. 029; imports, $10,195,657. Chief exports, nitrate,

VENEZUELA. wool, hides and leather; imports, sugar, coal, cotton goods, cashmeres, oil, galvanized iron.

President. Gen. C. Castro; capital, Caracas.

Area, 364,000 square miles. Population (1905), COLOMBIA.

2,602,492; 'Caracas, 75,000. Exports to the United President, Gen. Rafael M. Reyes; capital, Bo States in 1907, $7,852,214; imports, $3,024,629. gota. Area, 444,980 square miles. Population in Chief exports, coffee, hides, cabinet woods, rub1905, 4,279, 674. Total exports (1899), $18,487,- | ber and chemicals; imports, machinery, manu000; total imports, $10,685,000. Exports to the factures of iron and steel, provisions, furniture United States in 1907, $6,308, 680; imports, $3, and mineral wools. 084,718. Chief exports, gold, silver and other minerals, coffee, cocca, cattle, sugar, tobacco and rubber; imports, manufactures of iron and steel,

CENTRAL AMERICAN STATES. cotton goods.

COSTA RICA.
ECUADOR.

President, Cleto Gonzales Viquez; capital, San President, Gen. Eloy Alfaro; capital, Quito. Jose. Area, 18,400 square miles; population, 334,Area, 116,000 square miles. Population, 1,272, 297; of San Jose, 25,000. Exports to the United 000; Quito, 80,000; Guayaquil, 50,000. Total ex States in 1907, $4,965, 034; imports, $2,470,986. ports in 1905, $9,262,834; imports, $7,267,268. Ex- | Chief exports, coffee and bananas; imports, cot

[graphic]

INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS, WASHINGTON, D. c.

ports to the United States in 1907, $3,059,573; imports, $1,726,289. Chief exports, coffee, cocoa, rice, sugar, rubber, cabinet woods, chemicals and minerals; imports, cotton, provisions, manufac. tures of iron and steel, clothing and mineral oil.

PARAGUAY. President, Gen. Benigno Ferraya; capital, Asuncion. Area, 157,000 square miles. Population (1905), 631,347. Asuncion (1905). 60,259. Total exports in 1905, $5,232,770; imports, $4,678,514. Exports to the United States in 1907, $3,819; imports $173,560. Chief exports, mate (or Paraguay tea), tobacco, hides, timber, oranges; imports, cotton goods, machinery and provisions.

PERU. President. Jose Pardo; capital, Lima. Area, 695,733 square miles. Population, 4,000,000; Lima, 130,000; Callao, 16,000. Total exports in 1905, $28,758, 105; imports, $21,645.755. Exports to the United States in 1907, $4,958,202; imports, $6,075.739. Chief exports, cotton, coffee, sugar, cinchona. india rubber, dyes and medicinal plants; imports, woolens, cottons, machinery and manufactures of iron.

URUGUAY. President, Dr. Claudio Williman; capital, Montevideo. Area, 72,210 square miles. Population (1904), 1,038,086; Montevideo, 266,000. Total exports in 1905, $39,764,000; imports $21,938,000.

ton, machinery, iron and steel manufactures, woolens and worsteds.

GUATEMALA. President, Manuel . E. Cabrera; capital, Guatemala de Nueva Area, 48,290 square miles; population. 1,842,134; of the capital, 96,560, Exports to the United States in 1907, $3,872,538; imports, $2,848,864. Chief exports, coffee and bananas; imports, cotton and cereals.

HONDURAS. President, Manuel Bonilla; capital, Tegucigalpa. Area, 46,250 square miles; population, 500,136; Tegucigalpa, 34,692. Exports to the United States in 1907, $2,296,556; imports, $1,833,056. Chief exports, bananas, coffee, cattle, cocoanuts and wood; chief import, cotton.

NICARAGUA.
President. Gen. Jose Cantos Zelaya; capital, Ma-
nagua. Area, 49,200 square miles; population, 500,-
000; Managua, 30,000; Leon, 45.000. Exports to
the United States in 1907. $1,028,166; imports,
$1,923,111. Chief exports, cattle and coffee; im-
ports, flour, wine, beer, barbed wire, cotton goods,
sewing machines, kerosene, calico and tallow.

PANAMA.
Mr. Manuel Amador Guerrero; term expire's
Sept. 30, 1912. Independence of Panama declared
Nov. 3, 1903; constitution adopted Feb, 13, 1904.

Legislative power is vested in a national assembly composed of deputies elected by the people. The ratio of representation is one deputy for each 10.000 inhabitants. The term of office is four years. The area of the republic is 31,571 square miles and the population about 400,000. The exports to the United States in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907, amounted to $1,752,314 and the imports to $16,150,953. The chief articles of export are bananas, rubber, coffee and pearls.

SALVADOR. President. Gen. Figueroa; capital, San Salvador. Area, 7,225 square miles: population (1901), 1,006,818; San Salvador, 59,540. Exports to the United States in 1907, $1,171.298; imports, $1,603,166. Chief exports, coffee, indigo, sugar, tobacco and balsams; imports, cottons, spirits, flour, iron goods, silk and yarn.

ORGANIZATION OF THE REPUBLIC-The organization of the republic of Cuba, begun in 1900, was practically completed on the 20th of May, 1902, when the military occupation of the island by the United States came to an end and Gen. Tomas Estrada Palma was inaugurated as the first president.

AREA AND POPULATION—The total area of Cuba is 35,994 square miles. The population in 1899, when the last census was taken, was 1,572,797. Population of principal cities: Cardenas ...... 21,940 | Matanzas ...... 36,374 Cienfuegos..... 30,338 | Puerto Principe. 25,102 Havana ........235,981 | Santiago ....... 43,000 | About 67 per cent of the population is white.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS-The total imports in 1906 amounted to $98,538,622 and the exports to $106,258,618. The imports from the United States in 1907 were valued at $49,305,274 and the exports at $97,441,690. The principal articles of export are sugar, tobacco and cigars, iron and manganese ore, fruit, coffee, cocoa, molasses and sponges; of import, animals, breadstuffs, coal and coke, iron and steel, wood, liquor, cotton, chemicals and vegetables,

CUBA.

GOVERNMENT-Owing to internal disorders in the island the United States was obliged to intervene and assume charge under the terms of the "Platt amendment" in September, 1906. Since then C. E. Magoon has been acting as governor and order has been maintained by a force of United States troops.

Under the constitution the legislative power in ordinary times is exercised by two elective bodies -the house of representatives and the senate, conjointly called congress. The senate is composed of four senators from each of the six provinces, elected for eight years by the provincial councilmen and by a double number of electors constituting together an electoral board.

The house of representatives is composed of one representative for each 25,000 inhabitants or fraction thereof over 12,500. elected for four years I y direct vote. One-half of the members of the house are to be elected every two years. The salary of members of congress is $3,600 a year.

HAITI. President, Gen. Nord Alexis. The area of Haiti is 10,201 square miles and the population about 1,425,000. Coffee, cocoa and logwood are the leading articles sold. Exports to the United States in 1907, $1,274,678; imports, $2,916,104,

SANTO DOMINGO. President, Gen. Ramon Caceres. The republic has an area of 18,045 square miles and a population of about 416,000. Santo Domingo, the capital. has 14,150 inhabitants. In 1906 the exports amounted to $6,543,872 and the chief articles shipped were coffee, cocoa and mahogany; imports, $4.251.337. Exports to the United States in 1907, $3,370,899; imports, $2,509,817.

COLONIES AND DEPENDENCIES OF EACH NATION,

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.

Sq. miles. Population. Bosnia and Herzegovina ........ 19,702 1,568,092

BELGIUM. Kongo Free State .............. 900,000 30,000,000

CHINA. Chinese Turkestan, etc.......... 550,340 1,200,000 Manchuria ...

363,610 16.000.000 Mongolia .......

......1,367,600 2,600.000 Tibet

463,200 6,500,000

DENMARK. Greenland ...

46,740 11,893 Iceland

39,756 78,470 West Indies

138 30,527

FRANCE. Algeria

343,500 5,158,050 Annam ..

52,100 6,124,000 Cambodia ....

37,400 1,500,000 Cochin China

20.000 2,968,600 Comoro isles

620 47,000 Dahomey

60,000 1,000,000 Guadeloupe, etc.

688 182, 110 Guiana ........

30,500 32,910 Guinea, French.

95,000 2,200,000 India, French

196 275,400 Ivory Coast ......

120,000 2,000.000 Kongo, French

450,000 10,000,000 Laos ....

98.400 650,000 Madagascar and islands

227,950 2,644,700 Martinique ....

380 203,780 Mayotte ...............

140 11,640 New Caledonia, etc....

7,650 53,350 Oceanic establishments

1,520 29,000 Rennions

970

173,200 Sahara, western ....

944,000 800,000 St. Pierre and Miquelon

92

6,250 Senegal.

9.070 107.800 Senegambia and Niger,

370.000 8,000,000 Somali Coast .......

12.000 50,000 Tonquin

46,000 10,000,000 Tunis

64,000 1,900,000

GREAT BRITAIN.

Sq. miles. Population. Aden and Perim

9,080 43,974 Ascension .

34

410 Australia ..

...3,063,1135,623,375 Bahamas ....

4.404 58,175 Basutoland ...

10,293 348,000 Bechua naland

275,000 120,040 Bermuda ...

19

20,209 Borneo and Sarawak.

73,106 660,000 British Guiana

90,277 296,565 British Honduras ..

7,562 40,372 British New Guinea ..

90,540 350,000 Canada .........

3,745,574 5,683,396 Cape Colony ...

276,995 2,470,289 Central Africa protectorate. 40,980 977,252 Ceylon .....

25,332 3,950,123 Cyprus .............!

3,584 248,114 East Africa protectorate..

177,101

4,038, 250 Falkland islands.

6,500

2,016 Federated Malay states

26,380 871,974 Fiji ........

7,740 121.872 Gambia ....

3,619 90,354 Gibraltar ..

2

18,645 Gilbert islands....

180 35,000 Gold Coast

119,260 1,486,433 Hongkong ..

35 350,000 Hongkong leased territory.

389 489,800 India

766,797 294,317,082 Jamaica ......

4,207 817,560 Labuan

9,000 Leeward islands

701 132,360 Malta

117 205,059 Mauritius

835 382,972 Natal .......

35,371 1,141, 406 Newfoundland-Labrador

163, 734 229,527 New Zealand .....

104,751 888.639 Northern Nigeria ....

256,400 9,161,700 Orange River Colony

50,392 387,315 Rhodesia ..........

431, 265 1,400,000 St. Helena ..........

3,512 Seychelles ..........

149 20,767

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Timor

Sq. miles. Population.

Sq. miles. Population. Sierra Leone ............ 30,000 1,680.000 Curacao ..........

403 53,456 Solomon islands. 8,357 150,000 Dutch Guiana......

46,060 74,578 Somaliland protectorate 68,000 300,000 Java and Madura....

50,554 28,746,688 Southern Nigeria .. 77,260 4,444,393 Molucca islands.....

43,864 410,190 Straits Settlements 1,600 572, 249 New Guinea.............

151,789 200,000 Tonga islands .......

390
21,103 Riau Linnga archipelago...

16,301 86,186 Transvaal ..... 117,732 1.399,528 Sumatra ........

161, 812 3,052,699 Trinidad and Tobago 1,868 331,609 Timor archipelago...

17,698 119,239 Turks and Caicos islands.

169
5,287

PORTUGAL.
Uganda ..................

223,500 4,000,000
Angola ........

484,800 4,119,000 Weihaiwei .............

285
131.000
Cape Verde islands

147,424 Windward islands .......

672 372,631
Damao, Diu....

169 56,285 Zanzibar protectorate ....... 1,020 200,000

East Africa.....

293,400 3,120,000 GERMANY. Goa .............

1,469 475,513 Bismarck archipelago....... 20,000 188,006 Guinea ...........

13,940 820.000 Caroline and Pelew islands... 560 50,000 Macao, etc....

63,991 German East Africa... 384, 180 7,010,000 Prince's and St. Thomas....

360

42,103 German Southwest Africa... 322,450 200,000

7,330 300,000 Kaiser Wilhelm Land 70,000 110.000

RUSSIA.
Kamerun .............

191,130 3,500,000
Bokhara ...............

80,000 1,250,000 Kiauchau Bay......

200 33,000
Khiva

22,320 800,000 Marianne islands....

250

2,000 Marshall islands, etc.. 150 15.000

SPAIN.
1,000
Samoan islands......

33,000
Fernando Po, etc...

780 21,946 Solomon islands.....

4,200 45,000
Rio de Oro and Odrar...

70,000 130,000 Togoland ............

33,700 1,500,000
Rio Muni, etc................

140,000

9,800 ITALY.

TURKEY.
Eritrea, etc....

88,500 450,000
Bulgaria .....

38,080

4,028,239 Somali coast ........

100,000 400,000
Crete

3,365 310, 185 Cyprus ...,

3,710 237 000 JAPAN. Samos

180 53.424 Formosa 13,458 2,899,586 Egypt

400,000 9,734,405 Pescadores .....

55,222 Sudan .....

950,000 2,000,000 Sakhalin. 14,669 14,000

UNITED STATES.
NETHERLANDS.

Alaska ....

599,446 63,592 Bali and Lombok.. 4,065 1,041, 696

150

9,000 Banca 4,446 106,305 Hawaii ....

6,449 154,001 Billiton .... 1,863 43.386 Porto Rico....

3,606 953,243 Borneo ..... 212, 737 1,087,597 | Philippines .....

119,542 7,635,426 Celebes ...... 71,470 884,141 | Samoan islands..

79

5,800

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COLONIES AND MOTHER COUNTRIES COMPARED.

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No. of

AREA IN
SQUARE MILES.

POPULATION.!
COUNTRIES

colo-
nies. Mother

Colonies.
colonie

Total.

Mother colonies.tl country.

Total.

country. Austria-Hungary...

240.952 19,702 260,654 45,405,267 1,568,092 46,973,359 Belgium.

11,373 900,000 911,373 6,985,219 30,000,000 36,985,219 China.....

1,532,420 2,744,750 4,277,170 407,253,030 26.300,000 433,553,030 Denmark.

15,592 86.634 102,226 2.605,268 120.890 2,726,158 France.......

207.054 4,227,826 4.431,880 39,252,267 56,117,740 95,370,007 Germany.....

208,780 1,027.820 1,236,600 60.641.278 12.686,000 73,327,278 Great Britain.

121.390 11,311,893 11,433,283 43,659,121 349,187,714 392.816,835 Italy............

110.550 188,500 299,050 33.733,198 850,000 31.583, 198 Japan .......

147,655 28,212 175.867 46,732,138 2.968,808 49.700,946 Netherlands.

12,648 782,863 795,511 5.591.701 36,128,064 41,719,765 Portugal ....

35,490 802,952 838,442 5,423,132 9.144,316 14,567, +48 Russia.....

8,660.395 102.320 8,762,715 129,194,297 2,050.000 131.244,297 Spain.

194.783 80,580 275.363 18,618,086 291.946 18,910,032 Turkey...

1,157,860 464,220 1.622.080 24.028,900 15.758,740 39,787,610 United States......

3,025.600 729,272 3,754,872 83,941,510* 8.821.062 92,762,572 *In 1906. Includes protectorates and dependencies of all kinds. According to latest available cen. Sus figures and estimates.

WAR IN CENTRAL AMERICA.

War between Honduras and Nicaragua began Choluteca. April 12 they captured the seaport Feb. 19. 1907, the former country being the ag Amalpa. in which the Honduran president, Manuel gressor. The cause of the hostilities was a dis Bonilla, had taken refuge. The latter escaped to pute over some territory which had been awarded the American cruiser Chicago. The Americans had to Nicaragua and also the political ambitions of landed marines to protect the property of Amerthe presidents of Salvador and Honduras. In the ican citizens and by direction of the government encounters that followed the Nicaraguan troops at Washington intervened to put an end to the were uniformly successful. March 26 they cap

war. April 24 a treaty of peace was signed by tured Tegucigalpa after winning a victory over the envoys of Nicaragua and Salvador and a prothe combined forces of Honduras and Salvador at visional government was established in Honduras

RESTRICTING POWER OF HOUSE OF LORDS.

The following resolution introduced by Premier Campbell-Bannerman was passed by the house of commons June 26. 1907. by a vote of 432 to 147:

"That in order to give effect to the will of the people, as expressed by their elected representa

tives, it is necessary that the power of the other house to alter or reject bills passed by this house should be so restricted by law as to secure that within the limits of a single parliament, the final decision of the house of commons shall prevail *

NEW RUSSO-JAPANESE CONVENTION.

The government of his majesty the emperor of, as the special conventions concluded between Japan Japan and the government of his majesty the em and Russia. peror of all the Russias, desirous of consolidating Article II.-The two high contracting parties the peaceful and friendly relations which have recognize the independence and territorial integrity been so happily re-established between Japan and of the empire of Chica and the principle of equal Russia, and wishing to avert for the future all opportunity in that which concerns the commerce cause of misunderstanding in the relations of the and industry of all the nations in that empire, and two empires, have agreed on the following condi pledge themselves to sustain and defend the main. tions:

tenance of the status quo and respect for this prinArticle 1.-Each of the high contracting parties ciple by all pacific means in their power. pledges itself to respect the present territorial in in witness thereof the undersigned, being autegrity of the other and all the rights accruing thorized by their respective governments, have to either party from the treaties, conventions and signed this convention and have affixed thereto contracts in force between them and China, copies their seals. of which have been exchanged between the con Done at St. Petersburg the 30th day of the tracting parties (in so far as these rights are not seventh month of the 40th year of Meiji, correincompatible with the principle of equal opportu- sponding to the 17th (30th) of July, 1907. nity) and from the treaty signed at Portsmouth on (L. S.)

I. MOTONO. Sept. 5 (23d of August, old style), 1905, as well (L. S.)

ISWOLSKY.

IRISH ADMINISTRATION BILL.

May 7. 1907. the liberal government introduced in, lic works, education and local government works the house of commons an Irish measure designed, and agriculture. according to its sponsors, to lead to ultimate home 4. The imperial government retains full power rule. The bill provided for the following changes over the Supreme court, constabulary, land comin the administration of Ireland.

mission and prisons. 1. The head of the administration will be the 5. The lord lieutenant has the veto power over lord lieutenant, as now, but all religious disability measures passed by the council. will be removed.

6. The sum of $20,000,000 annually will be paid 2. The administration will be in the hands of a into the Irish treasury from the imperial treasury council of 106 members, 82 elected and 24 nomi. to be expended under the direction of the council. nated by the crown. In the election women and 7. The Irish treasury is to be created by the peers will have the right to vote.

council, with an Irish treasurer at its head. The 3. The council will have control of finances, pub- | council has no power to levy taxes.

THE JAPAN-KOREA AGREEMENT.

The following agreement between Japan and Art. 3. Judicial affairs in Korea shall be disKorea was signed by Resident-General Ito and tinguished from ordinary administrative affairs. Premier Yi at Seoul July 24, 1907:

Art. 4. The appointment and dismissal of high The governments of Japan and Korea, animated | Korean officials shall be made subject to the conby the desire to promptly develop the wealth and sent of the resident-general. strength of Korea and increase the welfare of the Art. 5. The government of Korea shall engage Korean people, agree as follows:

as Korean officials Japanese subjects recommendArticle 1. The government of Korea shall follow ed by the resident-general. the guidance of the resident-general in adminis Art. 6. The government of Korea shall not entrative improvements.

gage foreigners without consent of the residentArt. 2. Legislative enactment as well as im general. portant administrative measures by the govern Art. 7. The first clause of the Japan-Korea ment of Korea shall be forthwith approved by the agreement, signed on Aug. 22, 1904, shall be abroresident-general.

gated.

FRANCO-JAPANESE AGREEMENT.

June 9, 1907, the representatives of Japan and teed, particularly in the regions of the Chinese France signed in Paris an agreement the main empire in the vicinity of the territories over which clause of which was as follows:

they have sovereign rights or protection or OC “The governments of France and Japan being cupation, engage mutually to support each other in agreement to respect the independence and in to assure the peace and security of these regions tegrity of China as well as the principle of equal. with the view of the maintenance of the situity in the treatment of that country for the com ation held by each and the territorial rights of merce and subjects of all nations, and having the two contracting parties on the Asiatic conspecial interest in seeing order and peace guaran- | tinent."

JAPAN'S WEALTH AND DEBT.

REICHSTAG ELECTIONS IN GERMANY.

[From consular report.)

Chancellor Bulow dissolved the German reichstag The latest government figures give the wealth of Dec. 13, 1906, for failing to carry out the Japan at the end of 1904 as $145.22 per capita, as government's colonial policy. The election follows:

members of the new reichstag took place Jan. Land ........$3,011,885,500 Merchandise 144,927,500

25 and Feb. 5, 1907, and resulted in a victory for Railroads ... 141,563,500 Metals ...... 29, 289,000

the government, the social democrats, upon whom Buildings ... 981,181,500 Various ..... 1.713,406,500 | the fight was chiefly directed, losing almost half Household

their representatives. The comparative strength effects ..... 488,650,000 Total ......$6,510,403,500

of the leading parties in the new and the old The national debt is given at $991,000,000, which,

reichstag is shown by the following: it is stated, does not include the cost of removing Parties. 1907.1903. | Parties. 1907.1903. the army from Manchuria and other special dis Conservatives... 81 74 Social democrats. 43 79 arming costs yet to be met. so the final debt will Centrum .........108 104 i Poles .....

........... 20 1 6 be brought up to about a billion and an eighth at. National liberals 56 51 | Anti-Semites .... 26 21 least, or one-sixth of the value of all Japan.

Progressives .... 48 36

PROGRESS OF THE REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA.
THE SECOND PARLIAMENT.

tions to the government with a view to establish

ing every where truth and justice. The second Russian parliament or douma, as it

Intrusting these tasks to th: elected repreis generally called from the name of the lower

sentatives, the nation placed upon them by that house, opened March 5, 1907, the date fixed by the

trust a heavy responsibility, and it was their sa. manifesto of the czar dissolving the first douma,

cred duty to use their rights in wise labor for the July 21, 1906. The elections under new regulations

welfare and the strengthening of the Russian took place in January and February and again a

state. Such were our ideas and desires when we large number of radicals and socialists were chosen. Fewer constitutional democrats were elected, but

gave to the nation new principles for the life of

the state. by combining with the Polish nationalists and oth

To our sorrow a considerable section of the secers they succeeded in organizing the douma by

ond douma failed to justify our expectations. It electing Feodor Golovin president, or speaker, and

was not with the will or desire to strengthen RusIvan Chelnikov secretary. The reactionists and

sia and perfect her new administration that many Octoberists numbered 100 and the Polish nationalists and constitutional democrats 170. The re

of the delegates of the nation set to work, but

with a manifest tendency to augment her troubles mainder of the members, numbering approximately

and assist in the disruption of the state. 250, were divided between social revolutionists,

“As a consequence of this activity during these social democrats and the party of toil. The session proved almost as short and barren of

periods of the douma, which constituted an insur

mountable obstacle to fruitful labor, a hostile results as that of 1906. In spite of the efforts of the

spirit was introduced into the douma itself which social democrats to adopt a conservative and con

prevented the union of a sufficient number of its ciliatory policy, most of the time was taken up

members desirous of working for the interests of with attacks on the measures taken by the goy

the country. For this reason the douma either ernment to suppress disorder. One bill was passed

failed to discuss important measures that were to abolish trial by drumhead court-martial, but

drawn up by the government or delayed their dis. this was rejected by the upper house and failed to

cussion, or else rejected them, not even recoiling become law. The torture of prisoners and scandals

from the rejection of laws which punished the in connection with the distribution of famine relief funds formed the subjects of reports and dis

open support of crimes, and particularly the dis

seminators of trouble, having evaded condemnation cussions displeasing to the authorities and socialistic attacks on the army led to threats of disso

for assassinations and acts of violence.

"The douma did not lend its moral support to the lution as early as April 30. Interpellations were

government in the restoration of order, and Rusnumerous and the cabinet ministers were called

sia continues to suffer the shame of an epoch of upon to explain acts which the members denounced in vigorous terms. The budget and other govern

crimes and disasters.

The examination of the budget created an obment bills were referred to committees which considered them but failed to take any action.

stacle to the timely satisfaction of many of the May 20 it was announced that a conspiracy to

vital needs of the people. The right of interpellakill the czar had been discovered and that a number

tion was transformed by a considerable party in

the douma into a means of fighting against the of social democrats had been concerned in it. June 14 Premier Stolypin demanded that the dou

government and exciting distrust toward it among ma should exclude from its sittings all the mein

large classes of the people. bers of the social democratic faction, numbering

Lastly, an act was committed unheard of in fifty-five, and sanction the arrest of M. Alexinsky,

the annals of history. The judicial authorities disPrince Tzereteli and MM. Dzha pardize, Gerus,

covered a plot by a section of the douma against Ozul. Annikin, Annisimoff, Kirienko, Lomtaschidze.

the state and power of the czar, but when our Lopatkin, Mitroff, Komar, Syeroff, Salmikoff and

government demanded the exclusion, until judg.

ment had been passed, of fifty-five members of Vinogradoff. The prosecutor of the St. Petersburg courts read an indictment charging that fifty-five

the douma implicated in the crime, and the arrest social democrats, as members of the lower house

of those among them most compromised, the douof parliament, had organized themselves into a

ma failed to carry out immediately the lawful decriminal secret organization known as the central

mand of the authorities, which admitted of no

delay. committee of the social democratic party, which

"All this compelled us by ukase to the senate to was acting in concert with other criminal organizations, particularly the military revolutionary

dissolve the second douma, fixing Nov. 14 as the societies throughout Russia, to produce armed up

date of the convocation of the new douma, be

lieving, however, in the patriotism and national risings among the peasantry, soldiers and workmen and overthrow the monarchy and the government.

spirit of our people.

"We find the cause of failure on two occasions He therefore demanded the immediate suspension of the members in order to try them for high

of activity in the douma in the fact that owing

to the work and imperfection of the electoral law treason. DOUMA DISSOLVED.

the legislative institution was composed of mem

bers who were not truly representatives of the The premier's demand was referred to a commit needs and desires of the people; consequently, tee, and as this was looked upon as equivalent to while leaving in force all the rights granted to our a refusal, the czar early Sunday morning, June 16, subjects by the manifesto of Oct. 30, 1905, and affixed his signature to an imperial ukase dissolve the fundamental laws, we have decided to modify ing the douma and at the same time ordering an the procedure in choosing elective representatives election, beginning Sept. 17. under new laws, and of the people to the douma in order that each the assembling of the third douma Nov. 14. Ac-section of the people may have its own representacompanying the ukase was the following manifesto: tives.

“We, Nicholas II., by the grace of God emperor “The douma was summoned to strengthen the of all the Russias, czar of Poland, grand duke of Russian state and ought to be Russian in spirit. Finland, etc.. declare to all our faith ful subjects Other nationalities forming part of our empire that, in conformity with our order and instruc ought to have representatives of their needs in the tions since the dissolution of the first douma, our couma, but they ought not to appear, and shall not government has adopted a series of successive appear, in such number as will make it possible measures to pacify the country and establish the for them to be arbiters on questions which are affairs of state in regular course.

purely Russian. "The second douma convoked by us was sum "Within the confines of the state, where the peomoned to contribute, according to our sovereign ple have not attained sufficient civic development, will, to the pacification of Russia, principally by the elections to the douma must be temporarily the work of legislation, without which the life of suspended. a state and the perfection of its administration "All these electoral modifications could not have is impossible: next by an examination of the bud been introduced in the customary legislative way get of revenue and expenditure, which insures by the douma, whose composition is recognized by regularity in national finance, and finally, by the us to be unsatisfactory, by reason of the imperfecnational use of the right of addressing interpella- tion of the procedure for the election of the mem

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