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Population of Principal Islands—Bohol, 243,148; >bu, 592,247; Jolo, 44,718: Leyte, 337,641; Luzon, 5,798,507; Marinduque-, 50,601; Mindanao, 499,634, >f whom 252,940 are uncivilized; Negros, 460,776 [21,217 uncivilized); Panuy, 74;;,040 (14,933 uncivilized); Samar, 222,690.

ISLAND OF PORTO RICO. Porto Rico, according to the decision of the United States Supreme court in the insular cases May 27, 1901, is a territory appurtenant and belonging to the United States, but not a part of the United States within the revenue clause of the constitution. The island was ceded to the United States by Spain Dec. 10, 1898. and was under military rule until the Foraker law went Into effect May 1, 1900. (For the provisions of that law see The Daily News Almanac for 1901.) In accordance with the third section of that act, the legislative assembly of Porto Rico having put into operation a system of local taxation to nueet the necessities of government, President McKlnley on the 25tU of July, 1901—the anniversary of the landing of American troops on the island in 1898—proclaimed free trade between the United States and Porto Rico.

Government—Civil government, under the provisions of the Foraker act, was established May 1, 1900. The upper house consists of eleven members, six of whom are "cabinet" officers appointed by the president; the lower house Is made up of thirty-five* delegates elected by the people every two years. The governor, who is appointed by the president, has practically tbf same duties as the governor of any other territory of the United States. The present officers are: Governor, Regis H. Post; secretary, William F. Willoughby; resident commissioner in the United States, Tulio Larrinaga.

Area And Population—The area of Porto Rico' is about 3,600 square miles and the population, as shown by the military census of 1889, is 953,243. Of these 941,751 are natives. The whites number 589,426 and the coloned 303,817. The colored are subdivided into 304,352 mestizos. 59,390 negroes and 75 Chinese. By departments the population Is: Aguadllla, 99.645; Arecibo, 162,308; Bayamon, 147,681; Guayama, 111,986; Humacao, 100,866; Mayaguez, 127,566; Ponce, 203,191. The cities having more than 5,000 inhabitants are: San Jaan, 32,048; Ponce. 27,952: Mayaguez, 15,187; Arecibo, 8,008; Aguadllla, 6.425; Yauco, 6,108; Caguas, 5,450; Guayama, 5,334.

Commerce—For the year ended June 30. 1907, the total domestic exports from Porto Rico to foreign countries were $4,899,372, and to the United States $22,065,245. Foreign imports amounted to $3,580,887, and Imports from the United States amounted to $25,320,465. Of the exports Spain took $861,634; Cuba, $1,906,002; Franco. $975,462; Germany, $128,460; Austria-Hungary. $274,932.

The leading articles of export are coffee, oranges, brown sugar and tobacco.

Annexed to the United States Aug. 12, 1896.
Created a territory June 14, 1900.
Governor—Walter F. Frear,
Secretary—Henry E. Cooper.
Population—According to the federal census of

1900 the total population of the territory is 154,001. In 1890 It was 89,990. The only large city is Honolulu, which in 1900 had a population of 39,306. By island divisions the population Is as follows: Hawaii, 46,843; Kauai and Niihau, 20,734; Lanai and Maui, 25,416; Oahu, 58,504; Molokal, 2,504.

Commerce With The United States—The total value of the shipments of merchandise from Hawaii to the United States for the twelve months ended June 30, 1907, was $29,054,581. Brown sugar was the principal item, amounting to 804,249,041 pounds, valued at $26,860,002. The other articles of Importance were: Coffee, $128,875; hides ami skins, $141,883; fruits, $363,969; raw wool, $54,548; rice, $147,439. The total value of the shipments of merchandise from the United States to Hawaii was $14,124,376. The principal articles were: Iron, steel and machinery, $1,836,930; leather and manufactures of, $513,686; oils, $1,039,2^3; provisions, $616,282; tobacco, $509,940; lumber and manufactures of wood, $936,036; wool, manufactures of, $261,195; wines and liquors, $558,009.


Purchased from Russia In March, 1867.

Organized as noncontiguous territory July 27, 186)$.

Made a civil and judicial district June 6, 1900.

Governor—W. B. Hoggatt.

Area And Population—Area, 577.390 square miles; population in 1900, 63,592; estimated population in 1906, 82,516.

Commerce With The United States—The total value of the shipments of domestic merchandise from the mainland of the United States to Alaska in the year ended June 30, 1907, was $17,811,098. The principal articles were: Animals, $411,825; breadstuff s, $689,826; manufactures of cotton, $644,445; eggs, $364,717; fruits and nuts, $514,181; manufactures of Iron and steel. $3,852,679; leather manufactures, $481,420. Total value of shipments of domestic merchandise from Alaska to the mainland, $12,106,824. The main articles were: Copper ore. $1,267,621; canned salmon, $8,423,146; fish of all kinds, Including salmon, $9,145,250; whalebone, $367,872.

Gold Shipments—From Alaska to the mainland, $18,583,702; from the mainland to Alaska, $«42,214, of which $812,567 was In coin. The total gold shipments, including foreign gold, to the United States were $25,430,852.


Acquired by United States, January, 1900.

Area, including Manua and several other small islands, 79 square miles.

Population, about 4,000.

Pango-Pango harbor acquired by United States in 1872.

GUAM. Ceded to United States by Spain Dec. 10, 1898. Area about 200 square miles. Population, about 9,000.

First American governor, Capt. R. P. Leary, U. S. N.


In April, 1904, Andrew Carnegie placed in the hands of a commission the sum of $5,000,000 to be known as "the hero fund." Its purpose is to reward with medals and money the men and women who perform heroic deeds, or, in case they lose their lives, to care for.those dependent upon tbem. Only such as follow peaceful vocations on sea or land in the United States and Canada are eligible to become beneficiaries of the fund. The headquarters of the commission is in Pittsburg, Pa., and F. M. Wilmot Is the secretary. The first awards of medals and money were made In May, and others in October, 1905. The names of the recipients In that year will be found on page 360 of The Dally News Almanac and Year-Book for 1906 and of those in 1906 on page 247 of the volume for .1907.

The following awards were announced Jan. 16, 1907: Cline Horton of Astoria, 111., bronze medal for

saving Ralph p. Baxter from drowning in Spring

lake, Dec. 11, 1905. John H. Young of Bryant, 111., bronze medal for

saving Albert Brookham from drowning, July 10,

1004. Widow of James Lukins of Petersburg, III., silver

medal and $500. Lukins was drowned June 24, .

1904, In trying to ^nve the life of a boy. Theodore Boettecher of Belleville. 111., sliver medal

and $850 for preventing a mine explosion and

saving a fellow miner, Nov. 16, 1905. Leo H. Nokes of Sac City. Iowa, bronze medal for

saving a little girl from being run over by a

train, April 27, 1906.

Widow of Herman Zick of Athens, Wis., silver medal and $1,500. Drowned while trying to save a comrade from death, June 10, 1905. Morris A. Nourse of Des Moines, Iowa, bronze medal for saving a schoolboy from drowning, July 19, 1905. Mrs. Mary G. Black of Gardiner, Ore., silver medal for trying to save u woman from drowning. Both were saved from death by Mrs. Black's dog. Jeremiah M. Donovan of Oswego, N. Y., bronze medal and $500 for rescuing six men from a schooner, Oct. 20, 1905. Samuel M. Stowe of Oregon City, Ore., bronze medal lor saving a young man from drowning, July 20, 1906. Thomas A. Harris of Ogden. Utah, bronze medal and $2,000 for rescuing from drowning a young woman, March 25, li>ot>. George H. Poell of Grand Island, Neb., bronze medal and $250 for rescuing a child from in front of a locomotive, June 20, 1905. Widow of Herman J, Fetzel of St. Louis, silver medal and $1,500. Petzel lost his life in trying to save a man from drowning, July 4, 1:H)5 • Father of Luther H. Wagner of Milton, Pa., silver ^niedal and $25. The son lost his life in trying to save a young woman from drowning, Feb 9. 1906. Parents of Benjamin F. Willetts of Rushville, Mo., a silver medal and an annuity of $360. Willetts was drowned June 23, 1905, in trying to save three companions from drowning. He was the sole support of his parents. Father of Miss Jewel H. Reed of St. Louis, silver medal. Miss Reed was burned to death in trying to save two women from a burning dwelling, Jan. 6, 1000. Charles L. Ilaynes of Emporia, Kas., silver medal for rescue of drowning companion. Aug. 26, 19U6. Widow of James H. Harris of Trenton, Tenn., silver medul and $1,500. Mr. Harris was drowned June 9, 1900, in trying to rescue his cousin. Awards announced May 15, 1907: Earl D. Spencer of North Dighlon, Mass., bronze medal for saving Frank Perry from drowning, Jan. 17, 1006. Thomas B. Bockwich, Waterbury, Conn., bronze medal for caving child from drowning, Jau. 1, 1906. Malcolm C. Auerbach, Ocean City, N. J., bronze medal for making attempt to save man from drowning, July 7. 1907. Lyndon B. Phifer, Rich Hill, Mo., bronze medal and $2,000 for educational purposes for saving boy of 5 from being run over by a train on a bridge. Jessie R. Nelson, Washington, D. C, bronze medal and disablement benefit of $250 for saving child from being run over by a street car. She was badly injured. Benton S. Gregory, 11 years old, Laceyville, Pa., bronze medal and $2,000 for educational purposes for saving man from drowning. June 2!(, 1906. Oliver L. Schmuck, Hanover, Pa., killed in Chi l'si house fire at Cornell university, Dec. 7, 1906, in trying to save a roommate; silver medal awarded to his father. » Clarence J. Pope, East Orange, N. J., silver medal for trying to save life of James McCutcheou at Chi PsI house fire. Henry M. Curry, Pittsburg, Pa., silver medal, also

for trying to save life of James McCutcheon. Gustav Wohl, Hartford. Conn., silver medal for

saving boy from drowning, Dec. 28. U'05. Thomas II. Bums, Lowell. Mass., killed in attempting to save boy from drowning; father awarded silver medal. George II. Williams, silver medal and $1,000 to liquidate mortgage for attempting to save a woman from being run over by an engine, John Morris. 60 years old, was killed in rescuing a woman from being killed by a train; widow is awarded silver medal and $450 a year until she remarries.

Tup sailors who went to the rescue of the passengers of the steamer Larchmont, wrecked in Block Island sound, Feb. 11, 1907, were rewarded thus: Capt, John W. Smith, 53 years old, Block Island,

R. I., gold medal and sum of $4,000 for the edu cation of his two sous. Albert W. Smith, 46 years old, Block Island, R. I., a brother of John W. Smith, gold medal and sum of $-1,000 for the education of his two daughters. George E. Smith, 51 years old. Block Island. R. L, a brother, gold medal and $2,000 for the education of his son. Hurry L. Smith, a nephew, 24 years old, Block Island, R. I., gold medal and $1,000 for the purchase of a home or some other worthy purpose. Earl A. Smith, a nephew, 20 years old, Block Island, R. I., gold medal and $2,000 for the education of his son. Louis N. Smith, a nephew, 19 years old, Block Island, R. I., gold medal and $1,000 for the purchase of a home. Jeremiah M. Littlefleld, 40 years old, Block Island, R. I., brother-in-law of Capt. Smith, gold medal and $2,000 for the education of his son. Edgar Littlefleld, 35 years old. Block Island. It. I.. a "brother of Jeremiah, gold medal and $6,000 for the education of his three children. Awards announced Oct. 18, 1907: William J. Breen, 32 years old, New York city, awarded bronze medal; saved Christopher Powers from drowning in a slip in the Hudson river. Phil G. Prognzer, 34 years old, fireman, New York city, bronze medal; saved Mrs. Annie Gearty from drowning in Atlantic ocean at Coney Island. Leon Harris, 15 years old, Pensacola, Fla., bronze medal and $500 for educational purposes; saved Bernard Z. Johnson from drowning in Pensacola bay. Thomas F. Maher, 39 years old, Boston, Mass.. bronze medal and $1,500 to liquidate mortgage on his property; saved William Fitzgerald, a . boy, from drowning in Dorchester bay. John B. Hill, 38 years old, a negro, Atlanta, Ga.. bronze medal and $500 to reimburse him on account of the loss sustained by being injured; Hill saved several persons during a runaway acdent; he was recovering from an operation and was injured again. Ralph F. Berlin, 22 years old, Santa Rosa island, Florida, bronze medal; saved three from drowning in Pensacola bay. Charles Weiss, 15 years old, Bath Beach, N. Y., bronze medal and $2,000 for educational purposes; saved an unknown woman from drowning in Gravesend bay. Frederick H. Hanker, 11 years old, Ellenvllle. N. Y.. silver medul and $2,000 for educational purposes; saved Lemmons T. Gray, a companion, from drowning in Feerkill creek. Gabriel Farrell, Jr., 20 years old,- Somervllle, Mass., bronze medal and $2,000 for educational purposes; saved two men from drowning In Charles river, Boston. James T. Farrell, 21 years old, a brother of Gabriel, assisted In the above rescue and a "week later died from typhoid fever, contracted, it is said, from water in Charles river; bronze medal awarded to his father. Nels F. Nelson, 28 years old, Boston, Mass., silver medal; rescued Adam Haggerty from pump nom of Boston Athletic association, which was filled with gas; Haggerty died the next day. The following three men assisted Nelson in the rescue of Haggerty and were awarded bronze medals:

William J. Higgins, 39 years old, Boston. Thomas Lawrence, 32 years old, Boston. Thomas F. Taylor, 16 years old, Boston. Mrs. Rosa P. Schaller, 30 years old. New York city, silver medal; saved Miss Ida Weissman of Brooklyn from drowning in Long Island sound at North Beach. Joseph Grady, 17 years old, New York city, silver medal; saved three children from cremation in apartment in East I23d street. New York. Charles W. Haight, 38 years old. West Winfield. N. Y., silver medal; saved child from being run over by train. John C. Burns, 42 years old, Brooklyn, silver medal; saved Julia Puilller. 35 years old, from drowning in Atlantic ocean at Seagirt. N. J. Caroline Stanyon. 35 years old. Mount Vernon. X. Y., major salvation army, silver medal and $500 to reimburse her for loss sustained on ac

count of Injuries: saved a child in a runaway accident and was herself seriously injured.

Robert H. Canfleld. 22 years old. East Orange, N. J., silver medal awarded to young man's father; Cantield was drowned while attempting to rescue several young ladies who had fallen out of a boat in Cayuga lake, New York,

Nelson V. Smith, 34 years old, Lawrence, N. T., silver medal; saved a young woman frgm being run over by a train at Mineola, N. Y.

David Waterman, 63 years old, Rochester, N. Y., silver medal awarded to his brother; Waterman saved Mrs. Margaret Weber from death by a

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fating bodies. The mechanism consists of two flywheels rotated directly by electric motors In opposite directions at a high velocity and mounted so that their gyrostatic action and stored-up energy can be utilized. The wheels are mounted on high-class bearings and are placed in exhausted cases, so that both air and journal friction is reduced to a minimum. Each vehicle is capable of maintaining its balance on an ordinary rail laid upon sleepers on the ground, whether it is standing still or moving in either direction at any rate of speed, though the center of gravity may be as high as eight or ten feet above the rail. The motive power may be steam, petrol, oil or gas. It is claimed that when the invention is perfected so that it can be put to practical use it will result In greater economy in the construction, equipment and operation of railways.

train, but was fatally Injured himself, dying the next day.

Lochlin M. Winn, 30 years old, Anniston, Ala., silver medal; saved three men from drowning in Spencer's mill pond, Clayton, Ala.

Andrew J. Hodger. 45 years old, Santa Fe. Kas.. gold medal and $3,000. Joseph King and William Nunn were caught by a cave-in of sand while at the bottom of a deep well at PiercevtUe, Kas. Nunn was suffocated and King slowly dying. Notwithstanding the fact that another cave-in seemed sure within a short time. Mr. Hodger was lowered into the well and succeeded in saving King and recovering Nunn's body.


Esperanto is an artificial language Invented by Dr. L. L. Zamenliof, a physician of Warsaw, Poland. It Is intended not to displace languages now In use, but to be a second language for communication between persons of different nationalities. The principles upon which it is constructed render it much easier of acquirement than any other language. The roots of its words are chosen from the chief European tongues, embracing in addition some Latin roots and those from the Greek which have already been received Into most languages. From these, by means of a system of prefixes and suffixes, a vast number of words may be formed, giving expression to every conceivable shade of meaning. The memorizing of a few hundred root words places the learner in possession of a vocabulary of several thousand words. The grammatical terminations are few and simple. There are no irregularities or exceptions to grammatical rules. A good knowledge of Esperanto may he acquired in three months.

Dr. Zamenhof's first book was published In 18S7. The spread of the new language was at first slow, owing partially, perhaps, to the failure of Volapuk. As early as 1895 an Esperanto periodical was established In France and the language made rapid progress in that country. It began to win recognition in other continental countries and in 1902 was introduced Into England. Not long thereafter it began to secure a foothold in the United States. The first periodical in America was published in Oklahoma in October. 1906. It is now published In Chicago. The second monthly was issued from Boston in January, 1907. There are at the present time probably thirty publications in various countries devoted to the propagation of Esperanto and printed either wholly or partly In that language. In addition many magazines and other periodicals have departments devoted to Esperanto. Tiie number of persons studying the language at the present time must run into the hundreds of thousands and many men of prominence are giving It their indorsement and support. Clubs have been formed for its study in hundreds of towns and cities in the United States. The formation of state associations lias also begun and one now exists in Illinois. National associations have been formed in many countries. It is now possible to secure an Esperanto correspondent in almost any portion of the world. Three international congresses have been held, the last at Cambridge. England, in 1907. At these gatherings representatives of more than twenty nationalities were present, all proceedings being conducted in Esperanto.

American Esperanto Association—President, Prof. G. B. Viles, Ohio State university. Columbus, O.; secretary, John Fogg Twombly, 34 Green street, Brookline, Mass.

Illinois Esperanto Association—President, Dr. Walter H. Fox, 92 State street, Chicago; secretary, Edwin C. Reed, 204 N. 1st street, Rockford. 111.

Chicago Esperanto Societj'—President. Dr. Walter H. Fox, 92 State street; secretary, J. Howard Pearson, 551 Waller avenue.


Newborn infants, per minute 130 to 140

First year, per minute 115 to 130

Second year, per minute 95 to 110

Third year, per minute 85 to 95

Seventh to fourteenth year, per minute.. 80 to 90

In adult age, per minute 70 to 75

In old age, per minute 60 to 75

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March 19. 1907. Dr. Emile Mauchamp, a French citizen, was murdered by Mohammedan fanatics in Marakesh, or Morocco City, Morocco, and other Europeans were attacked. The hostility of the natives had been aroused by the attempts of the French to establish a wireless telegraph system between the coast cities and by other acts which they resented. The French government in order to obtain reparation sent Gen. Lyautey with 3,000 troops to occupy Oudjah, a Moroccan town near the Algerian frontier, and this was successfully accomplished March 29. At the same time a demand was made upon "the sultan for an indemnity and May 6 It was announced that he had agreed to comply. The French demand Included the settlement of all claims, the carrying out of the Algeciras agreement and the punishment of various troublemakers.

In June Sir Harry MacLean. the British commander of the sultan's body guard, was kidnaped by the bandit Raisuli and the sentiment against Europeans was further inflamed by the efforts to

secure his release. July 31 Moroccan tribesmen raided the town of Casablanca, killing the native guards and seven Europeans. Steps were at once taken by France and Spain, acting under the Algeciras convention, to restore order. Both powers sent warships and landed troops. The latter were attacked by the Moors, whereupon Casablanca was bombarded, many men being killed. The city was occupied jointly by the French and Spanish, but most of the lighting was done by the former. Several battles were fought, in which the Moorish tribesmen lost heavily. Gen. Drude commanded the French land forces and Rear-Admiral Phllibert the naval forces.

By the end of September most of the tribes had accepted the peace terms offered them, agreeing to disarm and indemnify all who had sustained losses through their uprising. In the meantime Mulal Hafid had proclaimed himself sultan at Morocco City and war between him and Sultan Abdul-Aziz began.


President—Frank B. Noves, Chicago Record-Herald.

First Vice-President—Charles H. Clark, Hartford Courant.

Second Vice-President—Rufus N. Rhodes, Birmingham (Ala.) News.

Secretary and General Manager—Melville E. Stone. New York, N. Y.

Assistant Secretary and Assistant General Manager—Charles S. Diehl, Chicago, 111.

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