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Stick" or "Ell and Yard" in the belt of Orion, also called the "Kings," is just 3° long or V&° each way from the central star (see star table). In the case of a star whose dec. brine* it nearer to the zenith than the horizon at meridian passage, it will be best to use its zenith

distance as a means of locating it. The difference between the lat. and dec. = zenith distance. If dec. be greater than lat. then such difference is to be counted northward from the zenith; otherwise southward.

MERIDIAN PASSAGE, RISING AND SETTING OF PLANETS.

Month. Dat.

Jan. 1..

11..

21.. Feb. 1..

11..

21.. Mch. 1..

11..

21.. April 1..

11..

21.. May 1.

11..

21.. June 1..

11..

21.. July 1..

11..

21.. AUK.^..

21.. Sept. 1..

11..

21... Oct. 1..

11...

21... Nov. 1...

11...

21.. Dee. 1...

11...

21...

81...

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Dlam. Distance Period eter. from of rev.

Name. Miles. sun.Miles. Days.

Sun 866.400

Mercury 3,030 36,000.000 88

Venus 7,700 67,200.000 225

Earth 7.918 92,900,000 365

Mars 4.230 141,500,000 687

Jupiter 86,500 483,300,000 4.333

Saturn 73,000 886,000,000 10,759

Uranus 31,900 1,781,900,000 30,687

Neptune 34,800 2,791,600,000 60,181

The sun's surface is 12,000 and its volume 1,300,000 times that of the earth, but the mass is only 332,000 times as great and its density about one-quarter that of the earth. The force of gravity at the surface of the sun is twentyseven times greater than that at the surface of the earth. The sun rotates on its axis once in 25.3 days at the equator, but the time is longer at the higher latitudes, from which fact it Is presumed that the sun is not solid, at least "as to its surface.

THE EARTH AND THE MOON.

Earth—The equatorial diameter of the earth Is

7.026.5 miles and the polar diameter 7,899.5 miles; equatorial circumference, 25,000. The linear velocity of the rotation of the earth on its axis at the equator is 24,840 miles a day, or 1,440 feet a second; Its velocity in its orbit around the sun Is approxlmatelv nineteen miles per second, the length of the orbit being about 560,000,000 miles. The superficial area of the earth according to Encke, the astronomer, is 197,108.580 square miles, of which two-thirds Is water and onethird land. The planetary mass is about 256,000.000 cubic miles.

Moon—The moon has a diameter of 2,162 miles, a circumference of about 6,800 miles and a surface area of 14,685,000 square miles. Her mean distance from the earth is 238.840 miles. The volume of the moon is about l-49th that of the earth and the density about 3 2-5 that of water. The time from new moon to new moon is 29 days 12 hours 44.03 minutes. The moon has no atmosphere and no water.

VELOCITY OF LIGHT.

Light travels at the rate of 186,300 miles per second. It requires 8 minutes and 8 seconds for light to come from the sun to the earth.

NUMBER OF THE STARS.

According to the best astronomers the number of stars that can be seen bv a person of average eyesight is only itvmt 7.000. The number vis- I

ible through the telescope has been estimated bv J. E. Gore at 70,000,<>00 and by Profs. Newcomb and Young at 100,000,000,

TIME AND STANDARDS OF TIME.

Various kinds of time are in use in this country:

1. Astronomical Time or Mean Solar Time— This is reckoned from noon through the twentyfour hours of the day and is used mainly by astronomical observatories and in official astronomical publications. It is the legal time of the Dominion of Canada, though "standard" and "mean" time are in general use there as in this country.

2. Mean Local Time—This is the kind that was in almost universal use prior to the introduction of standard time. This time is based upon the time when the mean sun* crosses the meridian and the day begins at midnight. When divided into civil divisions—years, months, weeks, days, etc.—it is sometimes called civil time.

3. Standard Time—For the convenience of the railroads and business in general a standard of time was established by mutual agreement in 1S83 and bj this calculation trains are now run and local time is regulated. By this system the United States, extending from 65° to 125° west longitude, is divided into four time sections, each of 15° of longitude, exactly equivalent to one hour (7H° or 30m. on each side of a meridian), commencing with the 75th meridian. The urst or eastern section includes all territory between the Atlantic coast and an irregular line drawn from Buffalo to Charleston, S. C, the latter city

STANDARDS

The following is the table of times, based upou

Canada:

being its southernmost point. The second or central section includes all the territory between this eastern line and another irregular line extending from Bismarck, N. D., to the mouth of the Rio Grande. The third or mountain section includes all the territory between the last-named line and nearly the western borders of Idaho, Nevada and Arizona. The fourth or Pacific section includes all "the territory of the United States between the boundary of the mountain section and the Pacific coast. Inside of each of these sections standard time is uniform and the time of each section differs from that next to it by exactly one hour, as shown on the map.

♦Owing to" the eccentricity of the earth's orbit and the inclination of the equator to the ecliptic, the apparent motion of the sun is retarded or accelerated according to the earth's place in its orbit. Hence, to take the actual sun as a guide would necessitate years, days and their subdivisions of unequal length. Therefore an imaginary or "mean sun" was invented. The difference between apparent and mean time is called the "equation of time" and may amount to a quarter of an hour in tweuty-four hours. It is the difference between the figures in "Sun at noon mark" column in calendar and twelve hours. The figures on a correct sun dial give the apparent time.

OF TIME.

the meridians used by the United States and

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All the calculations In The Daily News Almanac and Year-Book are based upon moan or clock time unless otherwise stated. The sun's rising and setting are for the upper limb, corrected for parallax and refraction. In the case of the moon no correction is needed, as in the sun, for "parallax and refraction"; with her they are of an opi>osite nature and just balance each other. The figures given, therefore, are for the moon's center on a true horizon such as the ocean affords.

The calculations in each of the geographical divisions of each calendar page will apply with sufficient accuracy to all places in the contiguous

North American zones indicated by the headings of the divisions.

The heavy dotted lines show the arbitrary (standard) divisions of time in the United States. The plus and minus marks on either side of the meridian lines show whether it is necessary to add to or subtract from the mean time of points east or west of these lines to arrive at actual standard time. Example: Chicago is ly?" east of the 9uth meridian, therefore Chicago local time — 2l/2 x 4 = 10 = standard time, and for Boston standard (eastern) time, 16m. must be subtracted from mean time.

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*ln Spain the hours are counted from 0 to 24, avoiding the use of a. m. and p. m. CALENDAR FOR 1909.

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RATES OF POSTAGE AND HONEY ORDERS.

The domestic letter rate Is 2 cents an ounce or fraction thereof, and it applies to the island possessions of the United States. Cuba, Canada, Mexico, Shanghai, the Canal Zone and Republic of Panama. The foreign letter rate is 5 cents an ounce or fraction thereof, and it applies to all other foreign countries in the universal postal union.

DOMESTIC.

First Class.—Letters and all written or partly written matter, whether sealed or unsealed, and all other matter scaled or otherwise closed against Inspection, 2 cents per ounce or fraction thereof. Postal cards Issued by the government sold at 1 cent each; double, or reply cards, 2 cents each. Cards must not be changed or mutilated in any nay and no printing or writing other than the address is allowable on the address side. "Private nailing cards" (post cards) require 1 cent postage. These cards must conform in shape and quality and weight of paper used to the cards issued by the Government. Each card must l>e fin unfolded piece >f cardboard not exceeding 3 9-16 by 5 9-16 inches, lot less than 2 15-16 by 4% inches, and must t>ear t the top of the address side the words "Post ard." Advertisements add illustrations may be ■rinted on either side provided they do not Interere with the distinctness of the address or postlark.

Among the articles requiring first-class imstnge re blank forms filled out in writing; certificates, hecks and receipts filled out in writing; copy nanuseript or typewritten) unaccompanied by roof sheets; plans and drawings containing ritten words, letters or figures; price lists conLining written figures changing individual Items; d letters sent singlv or In bulk; typewritten matT and manifold copies thereof, and stenographic >tes.

Second Class.—All regular newspapers, raaganes and other periodicals issued at stated Interils not less frequently than four times a year, hen mailed by publishers or news agents, 1 cent

pound or fraction thereof; when mailed by hers. 1 cent for each four ounces or fractional rt thereof.

Third Class.—Books, circulars, pamphlets and her matter wholly in print (not included in seed-class matter). 1 cent for each two ounces or ictional part thereof. The following named arles are among those subject to third-class rate

postage: Almanacs, architectural designs, blue ints, bulbs, seeds, roots, scions and plants, callars, cards, press clippings with name and date papers stamped or written in, engravings, sani!8 of grain in its natural condition, imitation of ad or type written matter when mailed at postce window In a minimum number of twenty ntical copies separately addressed; insurance ap"•ations and other blank forms mainly in print; nted labels, lithographs, maps, music books. >tographs, tags, proof sheets, periodicals having

character of books, an.! publications which deid for their circulation upon offers of premiums. Oubth Class.—All matter not in the first, secl or third class, which Is, not In its form or Tire liable to destroy, deface or otherwise dam

the contents of the mailbag or harm the per

of any one engaged in the postal service, 1 t an ounce or fraction thereof. Included in rth-elaas mall matter are the following articles: lk books, blank cards or paper, blotters, playing is, celluloid, coin, crayon pictures, cut flowers. al or wood cuts, drawings, dried fruit, dried its. electrotype plates, framed engravings, en>pes, geological specimens, letterheads, cloth is, samples of merchandise, metals, minerals, kins, oil paintings, paper bags or wrapping ?r. photograph albums, printed matter on other erial than paper, queen bees properly packed, fonr»ry\ tintypes, wall paper and wooden rulers ing printed advertisements.

■mailable Matter.—Includes that which is proved by law, regulation or treaty stipulation and

which by reason of illegible or insufficient ads cannot be forwarded to destination. Among articles prohibited are poisons, explosives or

inflammable articles, articles exhaling bad odors, vinous, spirituous and malt liquors, specimens of disease germs, lottery letters and circulars, indecent and scurrilous matter.

Special Delivery.—Any article of mailable matter bearing a 10-cent special delivery stamp in addition to the regular postage is entitled to Immediate delivery on Its arrival at the office of address, between the hours of 7 a. in. and 11 p. m., if the office be of the free-aelivery class, and between the hours of 7 a. m. and 7 p. m., if the office be other than a free-delivery office.

Registration.—Alt mailable matter may be registered at the rate of 8 cents for each package In addition to the regular postage, which 'must be prepaid. An indemnity not to exceed $10 for any one piece, or the actual value if less than $10, will be paid for the loss of first-class registered matter.

Limits Of Wkioht.—No package of third or fourth class - matter weighing more than four pounds, except single books, will be received for conveyance by mail. The limit of weight does not apply to second-class matter mailed at the secondclass rate of postage, or at the rate of 1 cent for each four ounces, nor is It enforced against matter fully prepaid with postage stamps affixed at the first-class or letter rate of postage.

Post Cards.—A post card must be an unfolded piece of cardboard not exceeding 3 9-16 by 5 9-16 inches, nor less than 2% by 4 inches In size; It must be in form and quality and weight of paper substantially like the povemment postal cards; it may be of any color not interfering with the legibility of the address; the face of the card may be divided by a vertical line, the right half to be used for the address only and the left for the message, etc.; very thin sheets of paper may be attached to the card, and such sheets may bear both writing and printing; advertisements may appear on the back of the card and on the left half of the face. Cards be.iring particles of glass, metal, mica, sand, tinsel or similar substances are unmailable except in envelopes.

Money-order Fees.—For domestic money orders in denominations of $100 or less the following fees are charged:

For orders for sums not exceeding $2.50 3c

For over $2.50 and not exceeding $5 5c

For over $5 and not exceeding $10 8c

For over $10 and not exceeding $20 10c

For over $20 and not exceeding $30 12c

For over $30 and not exceeding $40 15c

For over $40 and not exceeding $50 18c

For over $50 and not exceeding $60 20c

For over $60 and not exceeding $75 25c

For over $75 and not exceeding $100 30c

Suggestions.—Direct your mail matter to a postoffice, writing the name of the state plainly, and if to a city, add the street and number or postoffice box of the person addressed. Write or print your name and address, and the contents, if a package, upon the tipper left-hand corner of all mail matter. This will Insure the immediate return of all firstclass matter to you for correction, if improperly addressed or insufficiently paid; and if it is not called for at destination it can be returned to you without going to the dead-letter office. If a letter, it will be returned free. Undelivered second, third and fourth class matter will not be forwarded or returned without a new prepayment of postage. When a return card a->twars on this matter either the sender or addressee is requested to send the postage. Register all valuable letters and packages.

FOREIGN.

Mail matter may be sent to any foreign country subject to the following rates and conditions:

Registration.—Eight cents additional to ordinary postage on all articles to foreign countries.

Ox Letters.—Five cents for each ounce or fraction thereof and 3 cents for each additional ounce. Double rates are collected on delivery of unpaid or short-paid letters.

Post Cards.—Single, 2 cents each; with paid reply. 4 cents each.

"private Mailing Cards" "" (Post Cards).—Two cents each, subject to conditions governing domestic post cards.

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Anguilla, W. I.
Antigua, W. I.
Australia.
Bahamas.
Barbados.
Harbuda, W. I.
Belgium.
Bolivia.

British Guiana.
Caicos Islands.
Chile.
China.
Colombia,
Costa Rica.
Danish West Indies.
Denmark.
Dominica. W. I.
Fanning Island.
Foochow, China.
Formosa.
Germany.
Great Britain.
Grenada, W. I.
Grenadines, W. I.
Guatemala.
Honduras, British.
The parcels are sent subject to the following

Eeneral rates and conditions:
imit of weight %.ll pounds

Greatest length .1 feet 0 inches

Postage.... 12 cents a pound or fraction thereof Greatest length and firth combined 6 feet

Except that parcels for Colombia. Costa Rica and Mexico must not measure more than two feet in length or more than four feet in girth.

A parcel must not be posted In a letter box, but must be taken to the postoftice window and presented to the person in charge, between the hours of 9 a. m. and T> p. m., where a record will be made and a receipt given therefor.

INTERNATIONAL MONEY ORDERS.

International money orders are Issued payable in Africa, Algeria, Apia (Samoa). Arabia. Australia, Austria. Azores, Bahamas, Belgium. Beloochlstan, Bermuda. Beirut. Bolivia. Borneo, Bosnia, British Bechuanaland. British Honduras, Bulgaria. Cape Colony, Caroline Islands. Cayman Islands, Ceylon, Chile, China, Cook Islands. Costa Rica, Crete, Cyprus. Danish West Indies, Denmark. Duteh East Indies, Egypt, Falkland Islands. Faroe Islands. Fiji Islands, Finland. Formosa. France, Germany, Gibraltar. Great Britain and Ireland, Helgoland. Hervey Archipelago. Herzegovina, Holland. Honduras, Hongkong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Italy, Jaffa, Japan, Jask (Persia), Java,

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