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The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America, in congress, July 4, 1776. When in the course of human events, it be- | ing armies without the consent of our legislacomes necessary for one people to dissolve the tures. political bands which have connected them with He has affected to render the military inde. another, and to assume among the powers of the pendent of and superior to the civil power, carth the separate and equal station to which He has combined with others to subject us to a the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle jurisdiction foreign to our constitutions and unthem, a decent respect to the opinions of man acknowledged by our laws, giving his assent to kind requires that they should declare the causes their acts of pretended legislation: which impel them to the separation.

Tor quartering large bodies of armed troops We hold these truths to be self-evident: That

among us; all men are created equal; that they are endowed For protecting them by a mock trial from 'puuby their Creator with certain inalienable rights; ishment for any murders which they should comthat among these are life, liberty and the pursuit mit on the inhabitants of these states; of happiness. That, to secure these rights, gov. For cutting off our trade with all parts of the ernments are instituted among men, deriving their world; just powers from the consent of the governed; For imposing taxes on us without our consent; that, whenever any form of government becomes For depriving us in many cases of the benefits destructive of these ends, it is the right of the of trial by jury; people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for new government, laying its foundation on such pretended offenses; " principles, and organizing its powers in such For abolishing the free system of English law's form. as to them shall seem most likely to effect in a neighboring province, establishing therein an their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundwill dictate that governments long established aries so as to render it at once an example and should not be changed for light and transient fit instrument for introducing the same absolute causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown rule into these colonies; that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while For taking away our charters, abolishing our evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by most valuable laws and altering fundamentally a bolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. the forms of our governments; But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, For suspending our own legislatures and de. pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a de claring themselves invested with power to legissign to reduce them under absolute despotism, it late for us in all cases whatsoever. is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such He has abdicated government here by declaring government, and to provide new guards for their | us out of his protection and

war against future security. Such has been the patient suffer us. iny of these colonies, and such is now the neces He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts,

ty which constrains them to alter their former burnt our towns and destroyed the lives of our systems of government. The history of the pres people. ent king of Great Britain is a history of re He is at this time transporting large armies peated injuries and usurpations, all having in di of foreign mercenaries to complete the work of rect object tbe establishment of an absolute tyr death, desolation and tyranny already begun, anny over these states. To prove this. let facts with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely be submitted to a candid world.

paralleled in the most barbarons ages and toHe has refused his assent to laws the most tally unworthy the head of a civilized nation. wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has constrained cur fellow citizens taken He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of captive upon the high seas to bear arms against immediate and pressing importance, unless sus. their country, to become the executioners of their pended in their operation till his assent should friends and brethren or to fall themselves by their be obtained, and, when go suspended, he has ut hands. terly neglected to attend to them.

He has excited domestic insurrection amongst He has refused to pass other laws for the ac us and bas endeavored to bring on the inhabi. commodation of large districts of people, unless tants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages. those people would relinquish the right of repre whose known rule of warfare is an undistinsentation in the legislature-a right inestimable guished destruction of all ages, sexes and conto them and formidable to tyrants only.

ditions. He has called together legislative bodies, at In every stage of these oppressions we have peplaces unusual, uncomfortable and distant from titioned for redress, in the most humble terms; the repository of their public records, for the sole our repeated petitions have been answered only purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with by repeated injury. A prince whose character is his measures.

thus marked by every act which may define a He has dissolved representative houses repeat tyrant is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. edly for opposing with manly firmness his inva Nor have we been wanting in attention to our sions on the rights of the people,

British brethren, We have warned them, from He has refused for a long time after such dis time to time, of attempts by their legislature to solutions to cause others to be elected; whereby extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We the legisiative powers, incapable of annihilation, have reminded them of the circumstances of our have returned to the people at large for their ex emigration and settlement here. We have appealed ercise; the state remaining, in the meantime, ex to their native justice and magnanimity, and we posed to all the dangers of invasion from without have conjured them by the ties of our common and convulsions within

kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which He has endeavored to prevent the population of would inevitably interrupt our connections and tbese states; for that purpose obstructing the correspondence. They, too, have been deaf to the laws for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to voice of justice and consanguinity. We must, pass otbers to encourage their migration hither, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which deand raising !he conditions of new appropriations nounces our separation, and hold them, as we of lands.

hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war; in He has obstructed the administration of justice peace, friends. by refusing his assent to laws for establishing We, therefcre, the representatives of the United judiciary powers.

States of America, in general congress assembled, He has made judges dependent on his will alone appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for for the tenure of their offices and the amount and the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name payment of their salaries,

and by the authority of the good people of these He has erected a multitude of new offices and colonies, solemnly publish and declare that these bent bither swarms of officers to harass our peo united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free ple and eat out their substance.

and independent states; that they are absolved He has kept among us. in times of peace, stand from all allegiance to the British crown, and that

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Tbe total in this talle includes 2.364.993, of whom 2,310,300 serti II.


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4,371,5 sons. The us: Lumber of individuals is estimated

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There are seventy-eight national cemeteries
the tnited States, in which 317.836 soldiers
sailors who fell in the civil war are buried. Among
the more important are the following:

Known Unknot.
dead. dead.

1 Ba Andersonville,

....12,793 Antietam, Md...

.. 2.853 1,35 :...5. Te: Arlington, Va.


4,349 Mouna Cat. II. Peaufort. S.C

... 4.748

4.493 NESTE TO.. Chette. La

6.837 5.674 Post Gate. Ta.. Chattanooga, T

.. 7.999 4.963 Sone River Tenn City Point, Va.

.. 3.778 1.374 kshus Miss,.. Corinth, Miss...


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Capital punishment prevails in all of the states in Torra in 1872 and restored in 1878. It was also
and territories of the union except Michigan, Wis. I abolished in Colorado, hut was restored in 19
con. Rhode Island and Maine. It was abolished in New York and Ohio execution is by electrice

4.930 8.584

.. 5.160


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all political connection between them and the New Jersey:
state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally Richard Stockton,
dissolved; and that as free and independent John Witherspoon.
states they have full power to levy war, conclude Francis Hopkinson,
peace, contract alliances, establish commerce and John Hart,
to do all other acts and things which independent Abraham Clark.
states may or right do. And for the support of

Delaware: this declaration, with a firm reliance on the pro

Cæsar Rodney. tection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge

George Read. to each other our lives, our fortunes and our sa

Thomas McKean. cred honor. The foregoing declaration was, by order of con

Pennsylvania: gress, engrossed and signed by the following mem

Robert Morris, bers:


Benjamin Rush,
New Hampshire:
. William Ellery.

Benjamin Franklin.
Josiah Bartlett,

John Morton, .
William Whipple,
Roger Sherman,

George Clymer,
Matthew Thornton. Samuel Huntington,

James Smith, Massachusetts Bay:

William Williams,

George Taylor,
Samuel Adams,
Oliver Wolcott.

James Wilson,
John Adams,
New York:

George Ross.
Robert Treat Paine. William Floyd.. Maryland:
Elbridge Gerry.
Philip Livingston,

Samuel Chase,
Rhode Island, Etc.:
Francis Lewis,

William Paca,
Stephen Hopkins,
Lewis Morris.

Thomas Stone,

Charles Carroll of Car

George Wythe,
Richard Henry Lee,
Thomas Jefferson,
Benjamin Harrison,
Thomas Nelson, Jr..
Francis Lightfoot Lee,

Carter Braxton,
North Carolina:
William Hooper,
Joseph Hewes,
John Penn.
South Carolina:

Edward Rutledge,
Thomas Heyward, Jr.,
Thomas Lynch, Jr.,
Arthur Middleton.

Button Gwinnett,
Lyman Hall,
George Walton.


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Military and naval forces employed by the government since 1775. War.

Date. Regulars. Militia. Revolution ....

1775-83 130,711 164,080 Northwestern Indian....


3,520 France ..........

1798-1800 Tripoli ....

1801-05 Indian (Harrison).



660 War of 1812.......

1812-15 85,000 471,622 Creek Indian.....



13,181 Seminole ..


5,911 Winnebago. (Wis.).

1827 Sac and Fox (111.).

1831 Black Hawk........


5,126 Cherokee removal...


9,494 Seminole (Fla.).

1835-42 11,169

29,953 Sabine Indian...


3,106 Creek (Ala.).....



12,483 *Patriot” (frontier)


1,500 Seminole (Fla.)...

1842-58 Mexico ................

1846-48 30,954 73,776 Cayuse Indian (Ore.)


1,116 Texas Indian....


1,415 Apache (Utah)......


1,061 California Indian

1849 55

265 Utah Indian......


530 Oregon, Washington



6,379 Comanche ..........


503 Seminole ..............


2.687 Civil war.....

1861-66 126,587 · 2,545,754 Spanish-American ......

1898-99 57,329 223, 235 Philippine ............:

1899-1902 76,416

50,052 Pekin (China) expedition.....



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540 5,145


2,687 2,778,304 312,523 140,038


Total ...........................

540,351 3,627,660 203,828 ......

4,371,839 The total in this table includes re-enlistments. The total number of individuals is estimated at 3.304,993, of whom 2,213,363 served in the civil war.


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There are seventy-eight national cemeteries in the United States, in which 317,836 soldiers and Cemetery. sailors who fell in the civil war are buried. Among Fredericksburg, Va...... the more important are the following:

Gettysburg, Pa.......

Known Unknown Hampton, Va..... Cemetery.

dead. dead. Jefferson Barracks. Mo, Andersonville, Ga...

....12,793 921 Marietta, Ga....... Antietam, Md..

..... 2,853 1,818 Memphis, Tenn...... Arlington, Va....

....11,915 4,349 Mound City, Ill.. Beaufort, s. C....

4,748 4,493 Nashville, Tenn.... Chalmette. La...

6,837 5,674 Poplar Grove, Va.. Chattanooga, Tenn

.... 7,999 4,963 Stone River, Tenn... City Point, Va...


1,374 Vicksburg, Miss.....: Corinth, Miss.......

....... 1,789 3.927 | Winchester, Va...

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Capital punishment prevails in all of the states and territories of the union except Michigan, Wisconsin, Rhode Island and Maine. It was abolished

in Iowa in 1872 and restored in 1878. It was also abolished in Colorado, but was restored in 1901. in New York and Ohio execution is by electricity.


welfare and our posterity: nited States of

for elegislature: hall be a rep of 25 seatstates. a not

September 17, 1787. PREAMBLE. We, the people of the United | justice shall preside, and no person shall be conStates, in order to form a more perfect union, victed without the concurrence of two-thirds of establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, pro. the members present. vide for the common defense, promote the general 7. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall welfare and secure the blessings of liberty to our not extend further than to removal from ottice and selves and our posterity, do ordain and establish disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of this constitution for the United States of America: honor, trust or profit under the United States, but ARTICLE I.

the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable

and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted

punishment according to law shall be vested in a congress of the United States.

Section IV. 1. The times. places and manner of which shall consist of a senate and house of rep

holding elections for senators and representatives resentatives.

shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature Section II. 1. The house of representatives shail

thereof, but the congress may at any time, by be composed of members chosen every second year law, make or alter such regulations, except as to by the people of the several states, and the electors the places of choosing senators. in each state shall have the qualifications requisite

2. The congress shall assemble at least once in for electors of the most numerous branch of the

every year, and such meeting shall be on the first

Monday ir December, unless they shall, by law, 2. No person shall be a representative who shall

appoint a different day. not have attained to the age of 25 years and been

Section V. 1. Each house shall be the judge of seven years a citizen of the United States, and

the elections, returns and qualifications of its own wbo shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of

members, and a majority on each shall constitute that state in which he shall be chosen.

a quorum to do business, but a smaller number 3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be ap

may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorportioned among the several states which may be

ized to compel the attendance of absent members, included within this union according to their re

in such manner and under such penalties as each spective numbers, which shall be determined by

house may provide adding to the whole number of free persons, in 2. Each house may determine the rules of its cluding those bound to service for a term of

proceedings, punish its members for disorderly beyears, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths

havior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall expel a member. be made within three years after the first meet. 3. Each house shall. keep a journal of its proing of the congress of the United States, and with

ceedings, and from time to time publish the same, in every subsequent term of ten years, in such

excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, manner as they shall by law direct. The number

require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the of representatives shall not exceed one for every members of either house, on any question, shall, 30.000. but each state shall have at least one rep at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be enresentative, and until such enumeration shall be tered on the journal. made the state of New Hampshire shall be en 4. Neither house, during the session of congress, titled to choose three: Massachusetts, eight; Rhode shall. without the consent of the other, adjourn Island and Providenre Plantations, one; Connecti for more than three days, nor to any other place cut, five; New York, six; New Jersey, four; Penn than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. sylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Maryland, six; Section VI. 1. The senators and representatives Virginia, ten: North Carolina, five; South Carolina,

shall receive a compensation for their services, to ive, and Georgia, three.

be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treas4. When vacancies happen in the representation ury of the United States. They shall, in all cases, from any state the executive authority thereof

except treason, felony and breach of the peace, hall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

be privileged from arrest during their attendance. 5. The house of representatives shall choose at the session of their respective houses and in heir sneaker and other officers and shall have the going to or returning from the same, and for any ole power of impeachment.

speech or debate in either house they shall not be Section III. 1. The senate of the United States questioned in any other place. hall be composed of two senators from each state. 2. No senator or representative shall, during the hosen by the legislature thereof, for six years, time for which he was elected, be appointed to nd each senator shall have one vote.

any civil office under the authority of the United 2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in States which shall have been created, or the onsequence of the first election they shall be di

emoluments whereof shall have been increased, ided, as equally as may be into three classes. during such time, and no person holding any of he seats of the senators of the first class shall be fice under the United States shall be a member of acated at the expiration of the second year; of either house during his continuance in office. le second class, at the expiration of the fourth Section VII. 1. All bills for raising a revenue par, and of the third class, at the expiration of shall originate in the house of representatives, but he sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen the senate may propose or concur with amendvery second year, and if vacancies happen by ments, as on other bills. signation or otherwise, during the recess of the 2. Every bill which shall have passed the gislatura of any state, the executive thereof may house of representatives and the senate shall, beake temporary appointments until the next meet fore it becomes a law, be presented to the presi

g of the legislature, which shall then fill such dent of the United States; if he approve, he shall icancies.

sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his ob3. No person shall be a senator who shall not jections, to that house in which it shall have origi ive attained the age of 30 years and been nine nated, who sball enter the objections at large on ars a citizen of the United States, and who shall their journal and proceed to reconsider it. If. after it, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall r which he shall be chosen.

agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together 4. The vice-president of the United States shall with the objections, to the other house, by which

president of the senate, but shall have no vote it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved iless they be equally divided. •

by two-thirds of that house it shall become a law. 5. The senate shall choose their other officers But in all such cases the votes of both houses Id also a president pro tempore in the absence of shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the e vice-president or when he shall exercise the of. names of the persons voting for and against the e of president of the United States.

bill shall be entered on the journal of each house 3. The senate shall have the sole power to try respectively. If any hill shall not be returned by I impeachments. When sitting for that purpose the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) ey shall be on oath or affirmation. When the after it shall have been presented to him, the esident of the United States is tried the chief | same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had

speech or debeturning from spective house

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