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WISCONSIN PUBLIC-UTILITY LAW.
Approved and in
The public-utility law of Wisconsin vests in the railroad commission of the state the power to supervise and regulate every public utility in the state. The term "public utility" as used in the act means every corporation, company, individual, association of individuals, their lessees, trustees or receivers appointed by any court whatsoever aud every town, village or city that owns, operates or controls any plant or equipment within the state for the conveyance of telephone messages or for the production, transmission, delivery or furnishing of heat, light, water or power, either directly or indirectly, to or for the public. Following are the main requirements of the law:
Every public utility is required to furnish reasonably adequate service and facilities. The charges must be reasonable and just.
The joint use for a reasonable compensation of conduits, subways, poles or other equipments over, on or under any highway must be granted whenever public necessity and convenience require it.
The commission shall value all the property of every public utility actually used and useful for the convenience of the public.
Every public utility shall keep and render to the commission uniform accounts of all business transacted and the commission shall prescril>e the forms of all books, accounts and papers required to be kept. No other books or accounts than those so prescribed shall be kept. The accounts shall be closed June 30 of each year and the balance sheet taken therefrom shall be filed with the commission.
The agents and accountants of the commission shall have access to the books and records of all public utilities.
Every public utility shall carry a depreciation account whenever the commission shall determine that such can be reasonably required. The commission shall provide for such depreciation In fixing the rates, tolls and charges to be paid by the public.
Each public utility shall furnish the commission with detailed information as to (1) the depreciation per unit. (2) the salaries and wages separately per unit. (3) legal expenses per nnit, (4) taxes and rentals separately per unit, (5) the quantity and value of material used per unit, (6) the receipts from residuals, by-products, services or other sales separately per unit, (7) the total and net cost per unit. (8) the gross and net profit per unit. (9) the dividends and interest per unit. (10) surplus or reserve per unit, and (11) the prices paid per unit by consumers.
The commission shall publish annual reports showing its proceedings and tabulating the information obtained from the public utilities; it shall also publish In its annual reports the value of all the property of every public utility as to whose rates and regulations any hearing has been hold.
No facts or information shall be withheld by the commission from the public longer than ninety days nor be so withheld except in the Interest of the public.
The commission shall ascertain and fix adequate and serviceable standards for the measurement of quality, pressure, initial voltage or other condition pertaining to the product or service rendered by any public utility and prescribe reasonable regulations for testing and measuring such product or service. The commission shall provide for the testing of any and all appliances used for the measuring of any product or service of a public utility. Any consumer or nser may have any such appliance tested upon the payment of the fee fixed by the commission.
Every public utility shall file with the commission, within a time to be fixed by the commission, .schedules which shall be open to public inspection showing all rates, tolls, charges and regulations which it has established for any service performed by It within the state. A copy of so much of these schedules as the commission may deem necessary shall be printed In plain type-and kept on file in every station or office of such public utility where payments are made by consumers and shall be open to the public for Inspection. No other
effect July 9, 1907.
rates or charges shall be made than those specified in the schedules until the same are lawfully changed.
For the purpose of making any investigation with regard to any public utility the commission shall have power to appoint agents and the commission may conduct any number of such Investigations contemporaneously through different agents.
Upon a complaint made against any public utility by any mercantile, agricultural or manufacturing society or by any body politic or municipal organization or by any twenty-five persons, firms or corporations, that any of the rates, tolls, charges or schedules or any joint rate or rates or regulations are in any respect unreasonable or unjustly discriminatory, the commission shall proceed to make such investigation as it may deem necessary. But no order affecting the matter complained of shall he made without a public hearing. Ten days' notice of such hearing shall be given and both the public utility and complainant shall be entitled to be heard and shall have process to enforce the attendance of witnesses.
If upon such investigation the rates, charges or regulations shall be found to be unjust or unreasonable or in any way in violation of this act the commission shall have power to fix and order substituted therefor such rates, tolls, charges or regulations as shall be just and reasonable. The public utility, if found to be at fault, shall pay the expenses of such investigation.
Any public utility and any person or corporation in interest being dissatisfied with any order made by the commission fixing rates, charges and regulations, may begin an action in the Circuit court for Dane county to set aside Buch order. All such actions shall have precedence over any civil case of a different nature pending in such court. Either party may appeal to the Supreme court.
No franchise shall be granted to any person or corporation to operate any plant for the production, transmission or furnishing of heat, light, water or power in any municipality where there is in operation under an indeterminate permit as provided in this act a public utility engaged in a similar service without first securing from the commission a declaration after a public hearing of all parties interested that public convenience and necessity require such second public utility.
Every license, permit or franchise hereafter granted to any public utility shall have the effect of an Indeterminate permit subject to the provisions of this act and subject to the provision that the municipality in which the majority of its property is located may purchase the property of such public utility actually used and useful for the convenience of the public at any time. paying therefor just compensation to be determined by the commission. Every municipality is authorized to purchase such public utility and every such public utility is required to sell such property at the value and according to the terms and conditions fixed by the commission.
Every municipal council shall have the power to determine by contract, ordinance or otherwise the quality and character of each kind of product or service to be furnished or rendered by any public utility within the municipality and to require'such additions to the physical plant of the utility as may be reasonable and necessary In the interest of the public.
No public utility or any agent or officer thereof or any agent or officer of any municiparlty constituting a public utility shall offer or give for any purposes to any political committee or any member or employe thereof, to any candidate for or incumbent of any office or position under the constitution or laws or under any ordinance of any municipality of this state, or to any person at the request or for the advantage of all or any of them, any frank or any privilege withheld from any person for any product or service produced, transmitted, delivered, furnished or rendered by any public utility, or the conveyance of any telephone message or communication or any free product or service whatsoever. No political committee and no candidate for office shall ask for or accept any such frank, privilege or free service from any public utility.
Any violation of the provisions of this section shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison not more than five years nor less than one year or by fine not exceeding $1,000 nor less than $200.
If any public utility or its agent or any officer of a municipality constituting a public utility shall directly or indirectly or by any device whatsoever charge any person or corporation a greater or less compensation for any service rendered than that prescribed in the published schedules or tariffs or than it charges any other person or corporation for a like and- contemporaneous service, such public utility shall be deemed guilty of unjust discrimination, which is hereby prohibited and declared unlawful and upon conviction thereof shall forfeit and pay Into the state treasury not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 for each offense; and such agent or officer so offending shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $100 for each offense.
It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation knowingly to solicit or accept any rebate or concession in respect to any service rendered by any public utility. Any one violating this provision of the law shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and be subject to a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $1,000 for each offense.
If any public utility shall do anything prohibited by this act or omit to do anything required by the law to be done, such public utility shall be liable to the person, firm or corporation injured
thereby in treble the amount of damages sustained in consequence of such violation.
Any officer, agent or employe of any public utility or of any municipality constituting a public utility as defined in this act who shall fall or refuse to fill out and return any blanks as required by this act, or shall fail or refuse to answer any question therein propounded, or shall knowingly make a false answer, or shall refuse on proper demand to exhibit any book, paper, account or record in his possession, or who shall fall to keep his accounts as required by the commission, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and be subject to a fine of not less than $1,000 for each offense.
A penalty of not less than $500 nor more than $1,000 shall be recovered from the public utility for each offense when such officer, agent or employe acted in obedience to the instruction or request of such public utility or general officer thereof.
If any officer of any town, village or city constituting a public utility as defined in the act shall do or permit to be done any act that is prohibited or shall omit to do any act that is required, for every such violation, failure or refusal such officer shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and he subject to a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $500.
Every day during which any public utility or any officer, agent or employe thereof shall fail to observe and comply with any order of the commission shall constitute a separate and distinct violation of such order.
Every public utility .shall give notice to the commission of any accident attended by loss of human life upon its premises and the commission, if It deems it necessary, shall make an investigation thereof.
CONSERVATION OF THE NATION'S RESOURCES.
Nov. 16, 1907, President Roosevelt sent letters of invitation to the governors of all the states and territories to meet him at the white house in May, 1908, to consider the question of means to conserve the natural resources of the country. His letter was as follows:
"The natural resources of the United States were, at the time of settlement, richer, more varied and more available than those of any other equal area on the earth. The development of these resources has given us for more than a century a rate of increase of population and wealth without parallel in history. It is obvious that the prosperity which we now enjoy rests directly upon these resources. It is equally obvious that the vigor and success which we desire and foresee for this nation in the future must have this as its ultimate material basis.
''In view of these evident facts it seems to me time for the country to take account of its natural resources and to inquire how long they are likely to last. We are prosperous now; we should not forget that it will be just as important to our descendants to be prosperous In their time.
"Recently I declared there is no other question now before the nation of equal gravity with the question of the conservation of our natural resources and I added that it is the plain duty of those of us who for the moment are responsible to take inventory of the natural resources which have been handed down tp us, to forecast the needs of the future and so handle the great sources of our prosperity as not to destroy in advance all hope of the prosperity of our descendants.
"It is evident the abundant natural resources on which the welfare of this nation rests are becoming depleted, and. In not a few cases, are already exhausted. This Is true of all portions of the United States; it Is especially true of the longer settled communities of the east.
"The gravity of the situation must, I believe.
appeal with special force to the governors of the states because of their close relations to the people and the responsibility for the welfare of their communities. I have therefore decided in accordance with the suggestion of the inland waterways commission to ask the governors of the states and territories to meet at the white house on May 13, 14 and 15 to confer with the president and with each other upon the conservation of natural resources.
"It gives me great pleasure to invite you to take part in this conference. I should be glad to have you select three citizens to accompany you and to attend the conference as your assistants or advisers. I shall also invite the senators and representatives of the 60th congress to be present at the sessions so far as their duties will permit.
"The matters to be considered at this conference are not confined to any region or group of states, but are of vital concern to the nation as a whole and to all the people. Those subjects include the use and conservation of the mineral resources, the resources of the land and the resources of the waters in every part of our territory.
"In order to open discussion I shall invite a few recognized authorities to present brief descriptions of actual facts and conditions, without argument, leaving the conference to deal with each topic as It may elect. The members of the inland waterways commission will be present in order to share with me the benefit of information and suggestion and, if desired, to set forth their provisional plans and conclusions.
"Facts which I cannot gainsay force me to believe that the conservation of our natural resources Is the most weighty question now beforo the people of the United States. If this is so the proposed conference, which is the first of its kind, will be among the most important gatherings in our history in its effect upon the welfare oi all our people. THEODORE ROOSEVELT."
THE PLAGUE IN INDIA.
For the six months ended June 30, 1907. returns showed a total of 1,060.067 deaths from the plague in India. In the latter part of the year the re
ports Indicated that the pestilence was decreasing, though the number of victims continued to be large.
IMPORTANT LEGAL DECISIONS IN 1907.
[Compiled from "Case and Comment** and other sources.]
ACQUIRING TEBBITORY BY TREATY.
Warren B. Wilson of Illinois as a taxpayer sought to restrain the secretary of the treasury from paying out money for the purchase of the Panama canal zone and for the construction of the Panama canal. His suit was dismissed on demurrer. The court denied that the plaintiff's arguments had any merit and held that it was too late in the history of the United States to question its right of acquiring territory by treaty. The contention that the United States has no power to engage In the construction of the canal because the canal zone Is no part of the territory of the United States Is met by the terms of the treaty. The court says: "It is hypercritical to contend that the title of the United States Is imperfect and that the territory described does not belong to this nation because of the omission of some of the technical terms used In ordinary conveyances of real estate."
ASSIGNMENT OF W'AGES.
An assignment of wages to be earned in the future under an existing employment was held in the case of Rodijkeit vs. Andrews In Ohio to be valid.
WAGES OF DISCHARGED SERVANTS.
Where a servant is employed for an entire term at wages payable in installments at specified intervals he is entitled, upon being wrongfully discharged, to treat the contract as existing and to sue at each period of payment for the salary then due. according to the decision in the North Carolina case of Smith vs. Cashle and C. R. & L. company.
Where a contract for service Is an entire one and not severable and a servant is discharged for disobedience of the reasonable orders of the master he is held In the case df Von Heyne vs. Tompkins. Minnesota, not to be entitled to recover for his services.
A condition attached to a bequest requiring the beneficiary to attend a certain church was held in the Paulsen case in Wisconsin not to be invalidated by a constitutional provision giving every one the right to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience and providing that he shall not be compelled to attend any place of worship against his consent.
HOURS OF WTORK FOR WOMEN.
In a decision handed down June 14 the New York Court of Appeals held that the penal law providing that women shall be employed in factories only within certain hours was unconstitutional. The court declared that adult women must be recognized as on an equal plane with men in matters of employment and not as a ward of the state. The language of the decision was in part:
"In this section of the labor law It will be observed that women are classed with minors under the age of 18 years, for which there is no reason. The right of the state as parens patriae to restrict or regulate the labor and employment of children is unquestionable: but an adult female is not to be regarded as a ward of the state or in any other light than the man is regarded when the question relates to the business, pursuit or calling. In the gradual course of legislation upon the rights of a woman. In this state, she has come to possess all the responsibilities of the man and she Is entitled to be placed on an equality of rights with the man. Considerations of her physical differences are sentimental and find no proper place in the discussion of the constitutionality of the act." HOMICIDE.
Where two. In furtherance of a common design, enter upon the perpetration of a burglary armed and prepared to kill if opposed and, while so engaged, are discovered, and, in the effort to escape, one of the burglars kills one who Is trying to arrest him, it Is held In Conrad vs. state (Ohio) that both burglars are equally guilty of the homicide, although one of them was not armed with
a deadly weapon and although such killing; was not part of the prearranged plan.
THE FLAG AND ADVERTISING.
In the case of Halter vs. Nebraska it was held by the United States Supreme court that the Nebraska state statute forbidding the use of the American Hag for advertising purposes was valid. The contention that the protection of the national flag against illegitimate uses belonged exclusively to the federal government was overruled. The contention that it was a privilege of American citizenship to flse the flag for advertising merchandise was also denied, as well as the claim that to do this was a right of personal liberty under the constitution. Another contention exclusively made was that the statute invaded property rights without due process of law. An exception made by the statute in favor of newspapers, periodicals, books, pamphlets, etc.. on which representations of the flag were printed disconnected from any advertisement, was held reasonable and valid. STREET-CAR TRANSFERS.
A street-car passenger who Is given an invalid transfer check upon paying his fare and asking for a transfer to which he is entitled was held in an Arkansas case to have no right, upon refusal by the conductor of the connecting carrier to honor It, to refuse to pay his fare, thereby rendering necessary forcible ejection, and hold the carrier liable for the assault: and his remedy was held to be confined to damages for the breach of contract. Including reasonable compensation for the indignity put upon him through the fault of the company.
It was decided by the Supreme court of Massachusetts Oct. 31 that voting machines could not be used in the election of representatives in the state legislature for the reason that the constitution requires that such election shall be by written vote. "The new method," it was declared, "is entirely unlike the writing of a name of a choice of candidates upon a piece of paper and the deposit of the paper in a box. to be taken out afterward and counted. In the use of the machine the voter must trust everything to the perfection of the mechanism. He cannot see whether It is working properly or not. This chance of error, whether greater or less than the chance that a ballot deposited In a box will not be properly counted. Is different from it. It was not within the knowledge or contemplation of the framers of the constitution."
In the Minnesota case of Elwell vs. Comstock it was held that the use of a voting machine at an election does not contravene the constitutional provision that elections shall be by ballot. The court said: "In view of the objects sought to be attained and secured by the framers of the constitution it is unnecessary to consult the lexicographers for a definition of the word 'ballot.' It was not employed in its literal sense, but only for the purpose of designating a method of conducting elections which would Insure secrecy and the integrity of the ballot."
The use of voting machines was held. In United States Standard Voting Machine company vs. Hobson (Iowa) not to be prohibited by a constitutional provision that all elections shall be by ballot. FRATERNITIES IN SCHOOLS.
In the case of Wayland vs. school directors. Involving the right of a school board in Seattle. Wash., to deprive certain students belonging to secret societies or fraternities of certain privileges such as connection with athletic teams and also of the customary graduation honors, the Supreme court of the state sustained the board. The contention was that the school board exceeded its lawful authority in dictating what the children should do or not do out of school hours with their parents' consent. But the court held that the board had not Invaded the homes of pupils nor sought to interfere with the parental custody and control. Under the state law the board was given authority to adopt rules for the well-being of the school and this statutory authority was deemed sufficient to justify the regulations made against fraternities. Because the Seattle hoard did not deny to members of the fraternities the right to continue in school the court distinguished that case from that of state ex rel. Stallard vs. White, in which the Indiana court denied the right of. the board of trustees and faculty of Purdue university, which, is a state agricultural college, to exclude from the university students who were members of a fraternity or who refused to 8hjn a pledge to keep out of such society while In the university. The court held that the Institution had a relation to the public analogous to that of other public schools. In which all the Inhabitants of the state had a common Interest. But in the Seattle case the pupils in the fraternities were not denied the privileges of the school so far as the pursuit of their studies was concerned. In people ex rel. Pratt vs. Wheaton College, 40 111.
186, the power of the college authorities absolutely to prohibit any connection between Greek letter fraternities and the university was upheld; but that case is distinguishable because the Institution involved rested on a private endowment, without aid from taxation or other public source.
SEATS IN STREET CARS.
"A common carrier does not fulfill its legal duty until it provides u seat for each passenger,'* says the Georgia Court of Appeals. The decision was rendered in a suit for damages brought against the Georgia Electric and Railway company of Atlanta by Dr. Oscar Linden, who, it is alleged, was Injured by the sudden starting of a car in which lie was standing. "'There can be no question." the decision continues, "that it is. one of the duties of a common carrier to furnish Its passengers with seats and that such failure to furnish a seat may be proximate cause of an injury."
On Aug. 31, 1907, at St. Petersburg, a convention between Groat Britain and Russia was signed and ratifications were exchanged Sept. 23. The treaty concerns the relations of the two countries with respect to Persia. Afghanistan and Tibet. The essential portions of the document follow: PERSIA.
The governments of Great Britain and Russia having mutually engaged to respect the Integrity and independence of Persia, and sincerely desiring the preservation of order throughout that country and its peaceful development, as well as the permanent establishment of equal advantages for the trade and industry of all other nations; considering that each of them lias, for geographical and economic reasons, a special interest in the maintenance of peace and order in certain provinces of Persia adjoining or in the neighborhood of the Russian frontier on the one hand and-the frontiers of Afghanistan and Baluchistan on the other hand; anil being desirous of avoiding all cause of conflict between their respective interests in the abovementioned provinces of I'ersia, have agreed on the following terms:
Great Britain engages not to seek for herself and not to support in favor of British subjects, or In favor of the subjects of third powers, any concessions of a political or commercial nature, such as concessions for railways, banks, telegraphs, roads, transport, insurance, etc., beyond a line starting from Kasr-i-Shlrin, passing through Ispahan, Yezd, Kakhk and ending at a point on tiie Persian frontier at the intersection of the Russian and Afghan frontiers, and not to oppose, directly or indirectly, demands for similar concessions in this region which are supported by the Russian government. It is understood that the above-mentioned places are included in the region in which Great Britain engages not to seek the concessions referred to.
Russia, on her part, engages not to seek for herself and not to support, in favor of Russian subjects or In favor of the subjects of third powers, any concessions of a political or commercial nature, such as concessions for railways, banks, telegraphs, roads, transport. Insurance, etc., beyond a line going from the Afghan frontier by way of Gazik, Birjand, Kerman and ending at Bunder Ahbas, and not to oppose, directly or indirectly, demands for similar concessions in this region which are supported by the British government. It is understood that the above-mentioned places are included in the region in which Russia engages not to seek the concessions referred to. ,
It Is understood that the revenues of all the Persian customs, with the exception of those of Farslstan and of the Persian gulf, revenues guaranteeing the amortization and the interest of the loans concluded by the government of the shah with the "Banque d'Escompte et des Prets de Perse" up to the date of the signature of the present arrangement, shall be devoted to the same purpose as In the past.
It is equally understood that the revenues of the Persian customs of Faraistan and of the Persian gulf, as well as those of the fisheries on the Per
sian shore of the Caspian sea and those of the posts and telegraphs, shall be devoted, as in the past, to the service of the loans concluded by the government of the shah with the Imperial Bank of I'ersia up to the date of the signature of the present arrangement.
The high contracting parties in order to Insure perfect security on their respective frontiers in central Asia and to maintain in these regions a solid and lasting peace have concluded the following convention:
His Britannic majesty's government declare that they have no Intention of changing the political status of Afghanistan.
His Britannic majesty's government further engage to exercise their influence in Afghanistan only in a pacific sense, and they will not themselves take, nor encourage Afghanistan to take, any measures threatening Russia.
The Russian government on their part declare that they recognize Afghanistan as outside the sphere of Russian influence and they engage that ail their political relations with Afghanistan shall be conducted through the intermediary of his Britannic majesty's government; they further engage not to send any agents into Afghanistan.
The government of his Britannic majesty having declared in the treaty signed at Kabul on the 21st of March, 1905, that they recognize the agreement and the engagements concluded with the late Ameer Abdur Rahman, and that they have no intention of interfering in the internal government of Afghan territory. Great Britain engages neither to annex nor to occupy in contravention of that treaty any portion of Afghanistan or to interfere in the internal administration of the country, provided that the ameer fulfills the engagements already contracted by him toward his Britannic majesty's government under the above-mentioned treaty.
The Russian and Afghan authorities, specially designated for the puri>ose on the frontier or in the frontier provinces, may establish direct relations with each other for the settlement of local questions of a nonpolitical character.
His Britannic majesty's government and the Russian government atilrm their adherence to the principle of equality of commercial opportunity in Afghanistan, and they agree that any facilities which may have been or shall be hereafter obtained for British and British-Indian trade and traders, shall be equally enjoyed by Russian trade and traders. Should the progress of trade establish the necessity for commercial agents, the two governments will agree as to what measures shall be taken, due re. gard, of course, being had to the ameer's sovereign rights.
The governments of Great Britain and Russia. recognizing the suzerain rights of China in Tibet and considering the fact that Great Britain by reason of her geographical position has a special Interest in the maintenance of the status quo In the external relations of Tibet, have made the follow1""' arrangement:
The two high contracting parties engage to respect the territorial integrity of Tibet and to abstain from all interference in its internal administration.
In conformity with the admitted principle of the suzerainty of China over Tibet. Great Britain and Russia engage not to enter into negotiations with Tibet except through the intermediary of the Chinese government. This engagement does not exclude the direct relations between British commercial agents and the Tibetan authorities provided for in article V. of the convention between Great Britain and Tibet of the 7th of September, 1904, and confirmed by the convention between Great Britain and China of the 27th of April, 1906; nor does it modify the engagements entered into by Great Britain and China in article I. of the said convention of 1906.
It is clearly understood that Buddhists, subjects of Great Britain or of Russia, may enter into direct relations on strictly religious matters with the dalai lama and the other representatives of Buddhism in Tibet: the governments of Great Britain and Russia engage, as far as they are concerned, not to allow those relations to infringe the stipulations of the present arrangement.
The British and Russian governments respectively engage not to send representatives to Lhassa.
The two high contracting parties engage neither to seek nor to obtain, whether for themselves or their subjects, any concessions for railways, roads. telegraphs and mines or other rights in Tibet.
The two governments agree that no part of the revenues of Tibet, whether in kind or In cash, shall be pledged or assigned to Great Britain or Russia or to any of their subjects.
JAPANESE TROUBLES ON THE PACIFIC COAST.
The exclusion of Japanese from the public schools of San Francisco, Cal.. In the fall of 1906, which led to emphatic denunciation by President Roosevelt in his message to congress, was followed early in 1907 by action on the part of the government to compel the local authorities to adopt a different line of policy. Jan. 17 the United States district attorney, Robert T. Devlin, applied to the California Supreme court for a writ of mandate compelling the San Francisco board of education to admit Keikichi Aoki, a 10-year-old Japanese boy, to the Redding primary school. He also began suit in the United States Circuit court for the same purpose. These proceedings promised at one time to be of great interest, as they involved the determination of certain state rights, the enforcement of the treaty of the United State* with Japan and the constitutionality of a law of California.
The action of congress in passing an amendment to the immigration law by which Japanese laborers are virtually excluded from the United States and the explanation of the San Francisco authorities that their chief objection was to the presence of adult Japanese in the public schools made these legal pteps unnecessary. March 14 President Roosevelt ordered the suits against the San Francisco school board dismissed and at the same time began the enforcement of the new exclusion law. (For text of this law see page 77 of this volume.) The first cases under this enactment came before the secretary of commerce and labor April 6, when five Japanese laborers were excluded. Many who sought admission by way of Canada and Mexico were turned back in the course of the year.
The agitation against Japanese laborers on the Pacific coast and attacks on Japanese residents in San Francisco by mobs, as well as the enforcement of the exclusion law, caused considerable resentment In Japan, leading to much loose talk of war, especially in Europe, but the authorities in Tokyo and Washington were in accord and there was at no time in 1907 any serious danger of an armed clash between the two nations. The sending of an American battle-ship squadron for a cruise In Pacific waters also caused some comment late in the year until it was explained that It was simply for training purposes and had nothing to do with the relations of Japan and the United States.
In Bellingham, Wrash., Sept. 5, a mob attacked the lumber mills along the water front and drove out the Japanese and Hindoos working there. Six of the latter were so badly injured that they had to be taken to a hospital. Most of the others escaped across the border to Canada. The agitation against the orientals was not, however, confined to the United States. In Vancouver on Sept. 7 there was a parade and antioriental demonstration In which 10,000 men took part. At its conclusion the efligy of Lieut.-Gen. Dunsmuir of British Columbia was burned and the agitators made a raid upon the Chinese quarters of the city. Two thousand Chinese were driven from their homes and $5,000 worth of property destroyed. Later in the night fifty Japanese stores and offices had their windows smashed. The laboring classes of Vancouver had been much excited by the report that Japanese were to be shipped into British Columbia at the rate of 1.000 a month. The particular ground for this- belief was the arrival of the steamer Kumeric from Honolulu carrying 1.300 Japanese, followed by the Indiana with a smaller number. These steamers had been chartered by Hawaiians interested In the exportation of Japanese from the Islands and each Japanese had been provided by them with the $25 requisite for all immigrants under the Canadian law. On the following day the mob attacked 500 Japanese landing from a steamer and in the riot Baron Ishil, chief of the bureau of foreign commerce, and Saburo Hisamidzu, consul at Seattle, were mistreated.
The governor-general of Canada at once expressed his regrets to the Japanese government and steps were taken to prevent a recurrence of the rioting. An investigation was made and In November th" damage claims of the Japanese were settled bv the payment of $10,775 to the fifty-six persons who had sustained losses through the riots.
JAPANESE IN THE UNITED STATES.
In 1900 there were in the United States, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. 25,077 Japanese. Of these 10,151 lived In Callforpia, 5,617 In Washington. 2.501 in Oregon. 1.281 In Idaho, 2,441 In Montana and 228 in Nevada, the remainder being scattered through the other states. The Japanese in Hawaii numbered 61,111 in 1900. After the close of the war between Japan and Russia the emigration of Japanese to the United States largolv increased and it is estimated that the figures for 1900 have been more than doubled.
GENERAL FOREIGN EVENTS OF 1907.
Jan. 16—Election of President Figueroa of Salvador announced.
Jan. 20—Count Okuma resigned presidency of Japanese progressive party.
Jan. 23—Augustine Blrrell made chief secretary for Ireland to succeed James Bryce, appointed ambassador to the United States
Jan. 29—Revolt in province of Kediri. island of Java, announced; many Dutch officials killed.
.Feb. 9-13—Demonstrations by female suffragists In London.
Feb. 11—Cabinet crisis in Holland.
Feb. 12—British parliament opened by King Edward.
Feb. 19—German reichstag opened by kaiser.
March 2—Socialists defeated in London county council election.
March 3—Canada's new Sunday law put into effect.
March 8—Female suffrage bill killed in British house of commons.
March 11—M. Petkoff, premier of Bulgaria, assassinated; succeeded by M. Coudev, March 16.