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erned. not of the present governmeno Lhassa.ither

stipne Britisto send tracting there for all way beto

The two high contracting parties engage to re It is clearly understood that Buddbists, subjects spect the territorial integrity of Tibet and to ab of Great Britain or of Russia, may enter into distain from all interference in its internal adminis. rect relations on strictly religious matters with the tration.

dalai lama and the other representatives of In conformity with the admitted principle of the Buddhism in Tibet; the governments of Great Brit. suzerainty of China over Tibet, Great Britain and ain and Russia engage, as far as they are conRussia engage not to enter into negotiations with cerned, not to allow those relations to infringe the Tibet except through the intermediary of the Chi. stipulations of the present arrangement. nese government. This engagement does not ex The British and Russian governments respectively clude the direct relations between British commer engage not to send representatives to Lhassa. cial agents and the Tibetan authorities provided The two high contracting parties engage neither for in article V. of the convention between Great i to seek nor to obtain, whether for themselves or Britain and Tibet of the 7th of September, 1904, and their subjects, any concessions for railways, roads. confirmed by the convention between Great Britain telegraphs and mines or other rights in Tibet. and China of the 27th of April, 1906; nor does it The two governments agree that no part of the modify the engagements entered into by Great revenues of Tibet, whether in kind or in cash, shall Britain and China in article I. of the said conven be pledged or assigned to Great Britain or Russia tion of 1906.

I or to any of their subjects.

Theek nor to obtconcessions rights in Tibet of the

entered

said conven

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to any of their

JAPANESE TROUBLES ON THE PACIFIC COAST.

The exclusion of Japanese from the public schools of San Francisco, Cal., in the fall of 1906, which led to emphatic denunciation by President Roosevelt in his message to congress, was followed early in 1907 by action on the part of the government to compel the local authorities to adopt a different line of policy, Jan, 17 the United States district attorney, Robert T. Devlin, applied to the California Supreme court for a writ of mandate compelling the San Francisco board of education to admit Keikichi Aoki, a 10-year-old Japanese boy, to the Redding primary school. He also began suit in the United States Circuit court for the same purpose. These proceedings promised at one time to be of great interest, as they involved the determination of certain state rights, the enforcement of the treaty of the United States with Japan and the constitutionality of a law of California.

EXCLUSION LAW. The action of congress in passing an amendment to the immigration law by which Japanese laborers are virtually excluded from the United States and the explanation of the San Francisco authorities that their chief objection was to the presence of adult Japanese in the public schools made these legal steps unnecessary. March 14 President Roosevelt ordered the suits against the San Francisco school board dismissed and at the same time began the enforcement of the new exclusion law. (For text of this law see page 77 of this volume.) The first cases under this enactment came before the secretary of commerce and labor April 6, when five Japanese laborers were excluded. Many who sought admission by way of Canada and Mexico were turned back in the course of the year.

The agitation against Japanese laborers on the

VANCOUVER RIOTS. In Bellingham, Wash., Sept. 5, a mob attacked the lumber mills along the water front and drove out the Japanese and Hindoos working there. Six of the latter were so badly injured that they had to be taken to a hospital. Most of the others escaped across the border to Canada. The agitation against the orientals was not, however, confined to the United States. In Vancouver on Sept. 7 there was a parade and antioriental demonstration in which 10,000 men took part. At its conclusion the effigy of Lieut.-Gen. Dunsmuir of British Columbia was burned and the agitators made a raid upon the Chinese quarters of the city. Two thousand Chinese were driven from their homes and $5,000 worth_of property destroyed. Later in the night fifty Japanese stores and offices had their windows smashed. The laboring classes of Vancouver had been much excited by the report that Japanese were to be shipped into British Columbia at the rate of 1,000 a month. The particular ground for this. belief was the arrival of the steamer Kumeric from Honolulu carrying 1.300 Japanese, followed by the Indiana with a smaller number. These steamers had been chartered by Hawaiians interested in the exportation of Japanese from the islands and each Japanese had been provided by them with the $25 requisite for all immigrants under the Canadian law. On the following day the mob attacked 500 Japanese land. ing from a steamer and in the riot Baron Ishii, chief of the bureau of foreign commerce, and Saburo Hisamidzu, consul at Seattle, were mistreated.

The governor-general of Canada at once expressed his regrets to the Japanese government and steps were taken to prevent a recurrence of the rioting. An investigation was made and in November the damage claims of the Japanese were settled by the payment of $10,775 to the fifty-six persons who had sustained losses through the riots.

JAPANESE IN THE UNITED STATES. In 1900 there were in the United States, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, 25,077 Japanese. Of these 10,151 lived in California, 5.617 in Washington, 2,501 in Oregon, 1,281 in Idaho, 2,441 in Montana and 228 in Nevada, the remainder being scattered through the other states. The Japanese in Hawaii numbered 61,111 in 1900. After the close of the war between Japan and Russia the emi. gration of Japanese to the United States largely increased and it is estimated that the figures for 1900 have been more than doubled.

1

.

San Francisco by mobs, as well as the enforcement of the exclusion law, caused considerable resentment in Japan, leading to much loose talk of war, especially in Europe, but the authorities in Tokyo and Washington were in accord and there was at no time in 1907 any serious danger of an armed clash between the two nations. The sending of an American battle-ship squadron for a cruise in Pacific waters also caused some comment late in the year until it was explained that it was simply for training purposes and had nothing to do with the relations of Japan and the United States.

GENERAL FOREIGN EVENTS OF 1907. Jan. 16–Election of President Figueroa of Salva- | Feb. 11–Cabinet crisis in Holland. dor announced.

Feb. 12-British parliament opened by King Ed. Jan. 20–Count Okuma resigned presidency of Japa ward. nese progressive party.

Feb. 19-German reichstag opened by kaiser. Jan. 23-Augustine Birrell made chief secretary for March 2-Socialists defeated in London county

Ireland to succeed James Bryce, appointed am council election. bassador to the United States

March 3-Canada's new Sunday law put into effect. Jan. 29-Revoltini province of Kediri, island of March 8-Female suffrage bill killed in British Java, announced; many Dutch officials killed.

house of commons, Feb. 9-13-Demonstrations by female suffragists in March 11-M. Petkoff, premier of Bulgaria, assas. London,

sinated; succeeded by M, Coudev, March 16.

March 18—Railways of Canada ordered to reduce May 31–Chinese rebels defeated in a battle near passenger fares to 3 cents a mile.

Amoy. March 21-New Transvaal parliament opened: Gen. | July 18-Korean ministry resigned; Korean emperBeyers elected speaker.

or abdicated July 19. March 22-Evacuation of Manchuria completed by

July 20–Korean riots suppressed by Japanese

troops. Russians.

July 22–Tunnel through Tauren mountains in Tyrol, March 23—Celebration of De Ruyter centenary be.

Austria, completed. gun in Amsterdam,

Aug. 5–Emperor William and czar met on yacht March 27–Peasant disorders began in Roumania. Standart off Swinemunde. Mareh 30—Sydney Oliver appointed governor of Ja. Aug. 12-Three persons killed and hundreds woundmaica to succeed Gov. Swettenham.

ed in a strike riot in Belfast; Ireland. April 11-Lord Cromer resigned as British agent in

Aug. 14–King Edward and Emperor William met Egypt; succeeded by Sir Eldon Gorst.

at Wilhelmshohe. April 18–King Edward and King Victor Emmanuel

Aug. 15-King Edward and Emperor Francis Joseph met at Gaeta, Italy.

met near Ischl. May 2-King Edward and President Fallieres ex

Aug. 16—Pure-food bill passed by British house of

commons. changed visits in Paris.

Aug. 31-Anglo-Russian treaty signed in St. PetersMay 10—Son born to Queen Victoria of Spain.

burg. May 13–Bill establishing colonial ministry passed Sept. 7-Anti-Japanese riots in Vancouver, B. C. by German reichstag.

Sept. 20—Dowager empress of China announced May 14-German-American commercial agreement plan for constitutional form of government. approved by reichstag.

Sept. 28—Sir John Bell elected lord mayor of LonMay 18–Herr Dernburg appointed head of German don. ministry for colonies.

Oct. 28-Michelsen cabinet in Norway resigned; May 21-Birrell Irish 'home-rule bill rejected by new cabinet formed by Foreign Minister Lovland.

Irish nationalist convention; bill withdrawn by Nov. 11-Emperor and Empress of Germany arrived British prime minister June 3.

in England.

ARMIES AND NAVIES OF THE WORLD.
[Data chiefly from the Statesman's Year-Book and Brassey's Naval Annual for 1907.]

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CLIMATOLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES.

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suas noted oth frost "At thered in norra decade

The following table of average rainfall, highest and lowest temperatures, based upon observations of thirty-six or fewer years at selected stations in the several states and territories of the United States, was compiled from the records of the weather bureau for The Chicago Daily News Al- manac by the United States weather bureau, Washington, D. C.:

Alt. ab. No. Temperature. Av, preeea level of

cipitaStations.

(feet). yr. Max. Year. Min. Year. tion.t Alabama-Mobile ......

12 36 102 1901 -1 1899 62.0 Montgomery ...........

162 34 107 1881 -5 1899 51,2 Arizona-Yuma ......... 137 31 118 1878 22 1883 3.1 Arkansas-Little Rock.. 297 27 106 1901 -12 1899 49.9 California-San F'ncisco 9 36 101 1904 29 1888 22.3

San Diego'... ...... 10 35 101 1883 32 1894 10.0 Colorado-Denver ......5.183 35 105 1878 --29 1875 14.0

Pueblo ..... .......4,690 18 104 1902 -27 1899 12.0 Connecticut-N. Haven 10 34 100 1881 -14 1873 47.2 Dist. Col.-Washington 12 36 104 1881 -15 1899 43.5 Florida-Jacksonville .. 8 35 104 1879 10 1899 53.2

Key West.. ..... 22 36 100 1886 41 1886 38.7 Georgia-Atlanta ......1,033 28 100 1887 -8 1899 49.4 Savannah ...

21 36 105 18798 1899 50.3 Illinois-Cairo ......... 314 35 106 1901 -16 1884 41.7 Chicago ......

603 36 103 1901 -23 1872 33.3 Springfield ...

582 27 107 1901 -22 1884 37.0 Indiana-Indianapolis . 706 33 106 1901 --25 1884 41.5 Iowa-Des Moines...... 632 28 109 1901 --30 1884 32.4 Kansas-Dodge City....2,484 32 108 1876 --26 1899 20.8 Kentucky-Louisville .. 394 34 107 1901 -20 1884 44.3 Louisiana-New Orleans 2 36 102 1901 7 1899 57.4

Shreveport ............ 179 34 107 1875 -5 1899 45.7 Maine-Eastport ....... 5 34 93 1901 -21 1884 43.3

Portland .............. 11 35 97 1898 -17 1872 42.5 Maryland-Baltimore ... 8 34 104 1898 --7 1899 43.2 Massachusetts-Boston.. 11 36 101 1880 -13 1882 43.4 Michigan-Alpena

582 34 98 1901 -27 1882 33.2 Detroit ............... 579 36 101 1887 -24 1872 32.2 Marquette ............

628 32 108 1901 -27 1875 32.6 Minnesota-St. Paul.... 711 34 104 1901 -41 1888 28.7

Moorhead ............. 904 26 102 1894 -48 1887 24.9 Mississippi-Vicksburg.. 94 34 101 1881 -1 1899 53.7 Missouri-St. Louis.... 455 36 107 1901 -22 1884 37.2 Montana-Helen ......4,013 27 103 1886 -42 1893 12.8

Havre ................2,477 26 108 1900 --55 1887 13.7 Nebraska-No. Platte..2,803 32 107 1877 -35 1899 18.9

Omaha ...............1,042 34 106 1894 -32 1884 30.7 Nevada--Winnemucca 4,335 28 104 1877 -28 1888 8.4 N. Jersey-Atlantic City 9 31 99 1880 -7 1899 40.8 New York-Albany..... 18 33 100 1898 -24 1904 36.4

Rochester ............ 510 35 99 1897 -14 1904 34.3 New Mexico-Santa Fe.6,954 33 97 1878 -13 1883 14.2 N. Carolina--Charlotte.. 725 28 102 1887 -5 1899 49.2

Wilmington .......... 32 36 103 1879 5 1899 51.0 N. Da kota-Bismarck..1,638 32 106 1901 -44 1887 17.6

Ft. Buford (Williston).1,855 24 104 1900 -49 1888 15.1 Ohio-Cincinnati ...... 546 36 105 1901 -17 1899 37.3

Cleveland ... ......... 594 35 99 1881 -17 1873 35.0 Oklahoma - Oklahoma City ..

.......1,195 15 104 1896 -17 1899 31.7 Oregon-Portland ...... 11 34 102 1891 -2 1888 45.1

Roseburg ... ...... 482 29 104 1894 -6 1888 34.4 Pennsylvania - Philadelphia ...

9 36 103 1901 -6 1899 41.2 Pittsburg ............. 697 34 103 1881 -20 1899 36.4 Rhode Isl'd-Block Isl'd 16 26 89 1900 -4 1896 44.4 S. Carolina-Charleston 10 34 104 18797 1899 52.1 S. Dakota Rapid City.3,196 21 106 1900 --34 1899 18.7

Yankton ..............1,186 32 107 1894 --34 1879 25.4 Tennessee-Knoxville . 933 34 100 1887 –16 1884 49.4

Memphis ............. 271 34 104 1901 -9 1899 50.3 Texas-Abilene .........1,718 21 110 1886 -6 1899 34.7

Galveston ............ 6 35 98 1901 8 1899 47.1 'tah-Salt Lake City..4,248 33 102 1889 -20 1883 16.0 Vermont-Northfield ... 739 20 95 1901 -32 1904 33.8 Virginia-Norfolk ...... 11 36 102 1887 2 1895 49.5 Washington-Spokane ..1,883 26 104 1898 -30 1888 18.8 West Virginia — Park

ersburg ............. 616 18 102 1901 -27 1899 40.2 Wisconsin-Milwaukee.. 634 36 100 1901 -25 1875 31.4 Wyoming-Cheyenne ..6,054 34 100 1881 -38 1875 13.6

*Corrected to Dec. 31, 1906. Precipitation normals adopted in 1907.

COLD SPRING OF 1907.

MARCH. The temperature of the third decade of March, 1907, averaged 12 degrees to 21 degrees above the normal generally east of the Rocky mountains. In the eastern states this remarkable and probably unprecedented ten-day period of March heat was due to the passage of two well-marked warm waves that advanced from the great plains to the Atlantic coast. These warm waves had their origin in a heated area that set in over the middle western and southwestern states from the 16th to the 18th and continued in that region for about ten days, with maximum temperatures of 90 degrees to 100 degrees in Oklahoma and Kansas. The first offshoot from this heated area advanced over the Mississippi valley on the 21st and reached the Atlantic coast on the 22d, attended at many points by the highest temperatures on record for March. At Washington, D. C., 90 degrees or higher was reached on three days, the highest, 93 degrees, being registered on the 23d. This was 10 degrees above the highest March temperature previously recorded for Washington. The second warm wave of this decade advanced from the eastern Rocky mountain slope to the Atlantic coast from the 24th to 29th, with temperatures at many points that exceeded those of any previous March. On the 29th the heated area in the middle west and southwest was dissipated by an area of high barometer from the Pacific. This high area was attended by a cold wave that carried the frost line to northern Florida by April 1.

APRIL. April was exceptionally cold from the Rocky mountains to the Atlantic coast, and at many points average and minimum temperatures were the lowest recorded in many years. Frosts were frequent in the gulf and south Atlantic states during the first and second decades of the month. On the 3d light frost occurred over the Florida peninsula as far south as the twenty-eighth parallel, and was noted on the 14th and 15th in northern Florida. After the 10th frost was frequent in parts of the north Pacific states. At the close of the month freezing temperature was reported in northwestern Texas. In the latter portion of the third decade wintry weather prevailed in Europe and snow fell in Germany and thence over the northern portion of the Italian peninsula. Snowfalls over interior and eastern districts of the United States were the heaviest in many years, if not for the whole period of observation; during the third decade one inch to twelve inches of snow fell in the Dakotas. Minnesota, Wisconsin, upper Michigan and northern lower Michigan. During this period snow and sleet storms occurred in the states of the middle Mississippi valley and heavy rains in the southwestern states. At New Orleans, La., a depth of nearly seven inches of rain was recorded on the 25th.

MAY. In extreme western districts May temperature was about or slightly above the normal. During the early portion of May heavy frosts occurred in northern districts of the United States and light frosts in northwestern Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Tennessee and the interior of the middle Atlantic states. In the second decade of the month light to heavy frosts were reported in the lake region and north central valleys, and light frost in Arkansas, Tennessee and interior districts of the middle Atlantic states. In the third decade cold weather records for the season were broken in some sections of the interior central, east central and northeastern states. On the 27th a temperature of 42 degrees was noted at St. Louis-the lowest noted for that date and place in seventy one years. On the same day the temperature was be. low freezing in southwestern Kansas. From the 20th to 22d a frost-bearing cool wave swept from the north western states over the lake region, Ohio valley and the middle Atlantic states.

In the second decade excessive rainfalls occurred in the central and lower Mississippi valley and the east gulf states. In the third decade heavy rains caused the overflow of many streams in Texas. On

Ai frequent"orthernaked, and

Texas, temperates

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the 3d and 4th snow fell from the states of the ever experienced in this country. Dire accounts of lower Missouri valley over the upper lake region, the unseasonable weather of that year are probably northern Illinois and northern Ohio, breaking gen familiar to most persons, but, unfortunately, the erally in that region the snowfall record for May. complete story of the year has not been told. The At Ona ha four inches fell on the 3d and at Chi writer has collected the record of thermometric cago the fall amounted to 0.8 of an inch. In the observations made in the United States from April second decade snow fell in the lower Missouri val to September, 1816, and presents them in a table ley on the 14th and in the upper Mississippi and given herewith. For comparative purposes similar Ohio valleys and the lake region on the 15th. records for more recent years, especially for the Snow was reported in the third decade of May spring of 1857 and April and May, 1907, have been from the middle and northern Rocky mountain dis added. tricts over the great lakes.

“There was nothing out of the ordinary in the

winter and autumn of 1816, but beginning in April JUNE.

it was noted that the season did not advance with The remarkable period of cold weather east of its accustomed celerity. May was unseasonably the Rocky mountains which began in April came cool, but, as may be gleaned from the few comto a close in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and parative means available, not much worse than Louisiana in the early part of June. From the May of 1907. The culmination of untoward condilake region and the Ohio valley eastward to the tions appears to have been reached in the fore Atlantic it continued until about the middle of the part of June, when there seems to have been a demonth, thus completing a period of continuous cold pression of temperature attended by snow and ice weather in those districts which is unparalleled in in the St. Lawrence valley, northern New York the history of the weather service. April was the and northern New England, which was then and coldest month of that name in thirty-two years, still is unparalleled for the season. May the coldest May in twenty-five years, and the "The month of July was colder than any July cold period was not broken until the early part of since that time, but there appears to have been the second decade of June. Light snow was re sufficient heat for the ripening of wheat and rye. corded at Cleveland, O., on the 5th of that month The latter part of June also probably furnished a and frosts occurred east of the Rocky mountains, number of days of summer heat. August was likeas follows: Week ended June 3, light to heavy wise a cool month, but the deficiency of temperafrosts were general in the lake region, Ohio valley, ture was hardly half as much as in July. SeptemNew England and the middle Atlantic states, light ber was nearly normal, and by October normal frosts also occurring as far south as western North weather prevailed, after five consecutive months Carolina, northern Alabama and Arkansas; week of cool weather. The records established in 1816 ended June 10, light frosts occurred in the western for June and July stand for all stations, except portion of the upper lake region and in the lower Brunswick, Me.. at which place June and August, lake region; week ended June 17, light frostsor 1859, were colder than the corresponding months curred in exposed localities in the lower lake re of 1816. gion and the northern part of the middle Atlantic “Passing down the line of years from 1816 it will states on the 12th and 13th.

be found that the next pair of consecutively cold After June the weather conditions were nearly

months occurred in 1857. As a cold month, April of normal and so favorable in most places that the

that year has not been surpassed in many places anticipated failure of the crops did not occur.

during the last ninety-odd years. This is especialThey were, as a matter of fact, close to if not

ly true of the upper Mississippi valley, where the above the average for the entire country.

April mean temperature in 1857 at Fort Snelling

Minn.. was but four-tenths of a degree above PREVIOUS COLD SEASONS.

freezing point, or nearly 5 degrees below the Apri) Prof. A. J. Henry in an article dated June 24, 1 mean of 1907. The month of May, 1857, was not so 1907. and printed in the Monthly Weather Review, cold as May, 1907. In the eastern part of the says: "Tradition and record both point to 1816 country the month last named was 4 degrees to as the coldest continuous spell of summer weather | 8 degrees colder than May, 1857. Considering the

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entire period, April 1-May 31, there is little difference between the two years.

"Two years after the cold spring of 1857, in what had thus far been a normal season, a change of temperature in a single night spread destruction over a large proportion of the wheat fields from eastern Iowa to New York. The corn crop and a great part of the garden truck in the same districts were killed. A killing frost, coming at a time when the wheat was generally considered as past all danger from freezing, overwhelmed the country with astonishment. The areas affected by this destructive freeze were eastern Iowa and

Minnesota, northern and central Indiana and Illi. nois, Wisconsin, Ohio, Michigan, all of Pennsyl. vania and New York, except the southeast por. tions, and northern New England. In some localities thin ice was formed in vessels and stagnant pools.

"In 1874 and 1875 April and May were both deficient in temperature. April especially, but not so markedly as in 1857 or 1907. Wheat in 1874 was a good crop, the yield per acre in the spring-wheat states being, however, lower than usual. The corn crop was 82,000,000 bushels less than the crop of 1873.”

END OF THE REED SMOOT CASE.

In the United States senate Feb. 20, 1907, it was | Clark, Mont. Frye.

Millard. decided by a vote of 42 to 28 that Reed Smoot, Clark, Wyo. Fulton.

Mulkey. senator from Utah, was entitled to his seat in Crane.

Gallinger.

Nelson. that body. Efforts were begun shortly after his Curtis.

Gamble,

Nixon. election in 1903 to have him unseated because of Daniel.

Heyburn,

Penrose, his official connection with the mormon church in Depew.

Hopkins.

Perkins.
Utah and they were actively continued throughout

Dick,
Kean.

Piles. the first four years of his term. The resolution Dillingham. Knox.

Spooner. upon which the vote in the senate was taken was Dolliver.

Lodge.

Sutherland. as follows:

Flint.
Long

Warner. "Resolved. That Reed Smoot, a senator from Foraker.

McCumber. Warren.
Utah, be expelled from the senate of the United

NOT VOTING—20.
States."
The roll call resulted as follows:

Allison.
McEnery.

Scott.
Bailey
Mallory.

Smoot.
YEAS—28.

Carter.
Martin,

Taliaferro.
Bacon. .
Frazier.
Money.
Cullom.
Morgan.

Teller.
Berry.
Hale.
Newlands.
Dryden.
Patterson,

Wetmore.
Burrows.
Hansbrough, Overman.

Elkins.
Platt.

Whyte.
Carack.
Hemenway.
Pettus.
Foster.

Proctor.
Clapp.
Kittredge.
Rayner.

So the resolution was rejected, two-thirds of the Clarke, Ark. La Follette.

Simmons.

senators present not voting therefor. Of the fortyClay. Latimer. Smith.

two votes in favor of Mr. Smoot three were cast Culberson. McCreary. Stone.

by democrats. They were Messrs. Blackburn, Dubois. McLaurin. Tilman.

Clark of Montana and Daniel. Senator Teller Du Pont.

was paired in favor of Mr. Smoot. Of the twentyNAYS-42.

eight votes against Mr. Smoot nine were repubAldrich. Beveridge. Bulkeley.

licans. They were Messrs. Burrows, Clapp. Du Allee. Blackburn. Burkett.

Pont, Hale, Hansbrough, Hemenway, Kittredge, Ankeny. Brandegee. Burnham.

La Follette and Smith,

SAN FRANCISCO GRAFT CASES.

pracuda bis intuen protecting and services, trans that

Eugene' E. Schmitz, mayor of San Francisco, was indicted for extorting money from the French Cal., was sentenced July 8, 1907, to five years' restaurants and when arraigned for trial May 14 imprisonment in the state prison at St. Quentin, pleaded guilty and subsequently testified against having been convicted June 13 of extortion. Schmitz Schmitz and the others against whom charges was serving his third term as mayor, baving first had been brought. On the strength of his conbeen elected in 1901 on the union-labor ticket, fession and other facts brought to light by the chiefly through the instrumentality of Abraham investigators the following men were indicted in Ruef, an attorney. He was re-elected in 1903 May for bribery: Patrick Calhoun, president of and 1905. In 1902 it became common talk that the United Railways company; Thornwall Mullaly. Ruef, under the guise of legal services, was sell his assistant; Tirey L. Ford and W. M. Abbott, ing licenses and protecting illegal enterprises counsel for the company; Abraham Ruef and May. through his influence over the mayor. His law or Schmitz for bribery in the matter of the over. practice grew enormously and his monthly income head trolley franchise and for receiving bribes in ran into the thousands, but it was not until the matter of fixing the gas rate at 85 cents inthree years later that it was openly charged that stead of 75 cents; President Louis Glass of the he divided his profits with the mayor and other Pacific States Telephone company; Theodore V. city officials. In 1906, when the great earthquake Halsey, agent of that company; Frank G. Drum. and fire nearly destroyed the city, the mayor won gas company official; Eugen De Sabla, president niuch praise for the way in which he handled of power company; John Marin, gas company of the affairs of the city in the crisis, but soon the ficial: G. H. Umbesen and W. L. Brobech of the cry of graft became so loud and persistent that Parkside Transit company. an investigation was set afoot. It was backed The result of the trial of Mayor Schmitz has by- Rudolph Spreckels, James D. Phelan and oth already been given. The next case to be tried ers, including William J. Langdon, who had been was that of Louis Glass of the telephone comelected district attorney on the union-labor ticket. pany. He was charged with having bribed the Abraham Ruef secured the removal of Langdon supervisors to vote against granting a franchise and had himself appointed in his place.

to a rival company. He was found guilty and was Mr. Spreckels secured the services of Francis sentenced Sept. 4 to serve five years in the state J. Heney, who had done efficient work for the penitentiary. The other cases were pending when government in the Oregon land-fraud cases, and this edition of The Daily News Almanac and YearWilliam J. Burns, a government secret-service Book went to press. agent. Their investigations resulted in steps be After the conviction of Mayor Schmitz Charles ing taken to prosecute Ruef, the mayor and others. T. Boxton served temporarily as head of the The action of the board of supervisors in remov municipal government. July 16 the board of super. ing Langdon and appointing Ruef was taken into visors elected Edward R. Taylor, a physician and court and declared illegal. Langdon then appoint- lawyer, as mayor and in November he was chosen ed Heney his assistant as district attorney. Ruef I as such at the regular election,

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