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March 18—Railways of Canada ordered to reduce passenger fares to 3 cents a mile. v

March 21—New Transvaal parliament opened; Gen. Beyers elected speaker.'

March 22—Evacuation of Manchuria completed by Russians.

March 23—Celebration of De Ruyter centenary begun in Amsterdam.

March 27—Peasant disorders began in Roumania.

Marefa 30—Sydney Oliver appointed governor of Jamaica to succeed Gov. Swettenham.

April 11—Lord Cromer resigned as British agent in Egypt; succeeded by Sir Eldon Gorst.

April 18—King Edward and King Victor Emmanuel met at Gaeta, Italy.

May 2—King Edward and President Fallleres exchanged visits in Paris.

May 10—Son born to Queen Victoria of Spain.

May 13—Bill establishing colonial ministry passed by German reichstag.

May 14—German-American commercial agreement approved by reichstag.

May 18—Herr Dernburg appointed head of German ministry for colonies. ■

May 21—Birrell Irish home-rule bill rejected by Irish nationalist convention; bill withdrawn by British prime minister June 3.

Korean emperJapanese

May 31—Chinese rebels defeated in a battle near Amoy.

July 18—Korean ministry resigned; or abdicated July 19.

July 20—Korean riots suppressed by troops.

July 22—Tunnel through Tauren mountains in Tyrol, Austria, completed.

Aug. 5—Emperor William and czar met on yacht Standart off Swhieinunde.

Aug. 12—Three persons killed and hundreds wounded in a strike riot in Belfast; Ireland.

Aug. 14—King Edward and Emperor William met at Wilhelmshohe.

Aug. 15—King Edward and Emperor Francis Joseph met near Ischl.

Aug. 16—Pure-food bill passed by British house of commons.

Aug. 31—Anglo-Russian treaty signed in St. Petersburg.

Sept. 7—Anti-Japanese riots in Vancouver. B. C.

Sept. 20—Dowager empress of China announced plan for constitutional form of government.

Sept. 28—Sir John Bell elected lord mayor of London.

Oct. 28—Michelsen cabinet In Norway resigned; new cabinet formed by Foreign Minister Lovland.

Nov. 11—Emperor and Empress of Germany arrived in England.

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CLIMATOLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES.

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COLD SPRING OF 1907.

The temperature of the third decade of March. 1907, averaged 12 degrees to 21 degrees above the normal generally east of the Rocky mountains. In the eastern states this remarkable and probably unprecedented ten-day period of March heat was due to the passage of two well-marked warm waves that advanced from the great plains to the Atlantic coast. These warm waves had their origin in a heated area that set in over the middle western and southwestern states from the 16th to the 18th and continued In that region for about ten days, with maximum temperatures of 90 degrees to 100 degrees in Oklahoma and Kansas. The first offshoot from this heated area advanced over the Mississippi valley on the 21st and reached the Atlantic coast on the 22d, attended at many points by the highest temperatures on record for March. At Washington, D. C, 90 degrees or higher was reached on three days, the highest, 93 degrees, being registered on the 23d. This was 10 degrees above the highest March temperature previously recorded .for Washington. The second warm wave of this decade advanced from the eastern Roi-ky mountain slope to the Atlantic coast from the 24th to 29th, with temperatures at many points that exceeded those of any previous March. On the 29th the heated area In the middle west and southwest was dissipated by an area of high barometer from the Pacific. This high area was attended by a cold wave that carried the frost line to northern Florida by April 1.

APRIL.

April was exceptionally cold from the Rocky mountains to the Atlantic coast, and at many points average and minimum temperatures were the lowest recorded in many years. Frosts were frequent in the gulf and south Atlantic states during the first and second decades of the month. On the 3d light frost occurred over the Floridn peninsula as far south as the twenty-eighth parallel, and was noted on the 14th and 15tli in northern Florida. After the 10th frost was frequent in parts of the north Pacific states. At the close of the month freezing temperature was reiwrted In northwestern Texas. In the latter portion of the third decade wintry weather prevailed in Europe and snow fell in Germany and thence over the northern portion of the Italian peninsula. Snowfalls over interior and eastern districts of the United States were the heaviest in many years, if not for the whole i>eriod of observation; during the third decade one inch to twelve inches of snow fell in the Dakotas. Minnesota, Wisconsin, upper Michigan and northern lower Michigan. During this period snow and sleet storms occurred in the states of the middle Mississippi valley and iieavy rains in the southwestern states. At New Orleans, La., a depth of nearly seven inches of rain was recorded on the 25 th.

MAT.

In extreme western districts May temperature was about or slightly above the normal. Duriug the early portion of May heavy frosts occurred in northern districts of the United States and light frosts in northwestern Texas. Oklahoma, Arkansas. Tennessee and the interior of the middle Atlantic states. In the second decade of the month light to heavy frosts were reported in the lake region and north central valleys, and light frost in Arkansas, Tennessee and Interior districts of the middle Atlantic states. In the third decade cold weather records for the season were broken in some sections of the Interior central, east central and northeastern states. On the 27th a temperature of 42 degrees was noted at St. Louis—the lowest noted for that date and place In seventy one years. On the same day the temperature was below freezing in southwestern Kansas. From the 20th to 22d a frost-bearing cool wave swept from the northwestern states over the lake region. Ohio valley and the middle Atlantic states.

In the second decade excessive rainfalls occurred in the central and lower Mississippi vallev and the e.ist gulf states. In the third decade heavv rains caused the oyerUow of many streams in Texas. On

the 3d and 4th snow fell from the states of the lower Missouri valley over the upper lake region, northern Illinois and northern Ohio, breaking generally in that region the snowfall record for May. At Omaha four inches fell on the 3d and at Chicago the fall amounted to 0.8 of an inch. In the second decade snow fell in the lower Missouri valley on the 14th and in the upper Mississippi and Ohio valleys and the lake region on the 15th. Snow was reported in the third decade of May from the middle and northern Rocky mountain districts over the great lakes.

JUNE.

The remarkable period of cold weather east of the Rocky mountains which began in April came to a close in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana in the early part of June. From the lake region and the Ohio valley eastward to the Atlantic It continued until about the middle of the month, thus completing a period of continuous cold weather in those districts which is unparalleled in the history of the weather service. April was the coldest month of that name in thirty-two years. May the coldest May in twenty-five years, and the cold period was not broken until the early part of the second decade of June. Light snow was recorded at Cleveland, O., on the 5th of that month and frosts occurred east of the Rocky mountains, as follows: Week ended June 3, light to heavy frosts were general in the lake region, Ohio valley, New England and the middle Atlantic states, light frosts also occurring as far south as western North Carolina, northern Alabama and Arkansas; week ended June 10, light frosts occurred in the western portion of the upper lake region and In the lower lake region; week ended June 17, light frosts occurred In exposed localities in the lower lake region and the northern part of the middle Atlantic states on the 12th and 13th.

After June the weather conditions were nearly normal and so favorable in most places that the anticipated failure of the crops did not occur. They were, as a matter of fact, close to If not above the average for the entire country.

PREVIOUS COLD SEASONS.

Prof. A. J. Henry in an article dated June 24.

1907, and printed in the Monthly Weather Review.

says: ''Tradition and record both point to 1816

as the coldest continuous spell of summer weather

ever experienced in this country. Dire accounts at the unseasonable weather of that year are probably familiar to most persons, but, unfortunately, the complete story of the year has not been told. Tl»e writer has collected the record of thermometrlc observations made in the United States from April to September, 1816, and presents them in a table given herewith. For comparative purposes slmilat records for more recent years, especially for the spring of 1857 and April and May. 1907, have been added.

"There was nothing out of the ordinary In the winter and autumn of 1816. but beginning in April It was noted that-the season did not advance with its accustomed celerity. May was unseasonably cool, but, as may be gleaned from the few comparative means available, not much worse than May of 1907. The culmination of untoward conditions appears to have' been reached in the fore part of June, when there seems to have been a depression of temperature attended by snow and ice in the St. Lawrence valley, northern New York and northern New England, which was then and still is unparalleled for the season.

"The month of July was colder than any July since that time, but there appears to have been sufficient heat for the ripening of wheat and rye. The latter part of June also probably furnished a number of days of summer heat. August was likewise a cool month, but the deficiency of temperature was hardly half as much as In July. September was nearly normal, and by October normal weather prevailed, after five consecutive months of cool weather. The records established In 1816 for June and July stand for all stations, except Brunswick, Me., at which place June and August, 1859, were colder than the corresponding months of 1816.

"Passing down the line of years from 1816 It will be found that the next pair of consecutively cold months occurred in 1857. As a cold month, April of that year has not been surpassed in many places during the last ninety-odd years. This is especially tine of the upper Mississippi valley, where the April mean temperature in 1857 at Fort SnelllngMinn., was but four-tenths of a degree above freezing point, or nearly 5 degrees below the April mean of 1907. The month of May. 1857, was not so cold as May, 1907. In the eastern part of the country the month last named was 4 degrees te 8 degrees colder than May, 1857. Considering thV

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entire period. April 1-May 31, there is little difference between the two years.

'"Two years after the cold spring of 1857. in what had tuus far been a normal season, a change of temperature in a single night spread destruction over a large proportion of the wheat fields from eastern Iowa to New York. The corn crop and a great part of the garden truck in the same districts were killed. A killing frost, coming at a time when the wheat was generally considered as past all danger from freezing, overwhelmed the country with astonishment. The areas affected by this destructive freeze were eastern Iowa and

Minnesota, northern and central Indiana and Illinois. Wisconsin, Ohio, Michigan, all of Pennsylvania and New York, except the southeast portions, and northern New England. In some localities thin Ice was formed in vessels and stagnant pools.

"In 1874 and 1875 April and May were both deficient in temperature. April especially, but not so markedly as in 1857 or 1907. Wheat in 1874 was a good crop, the yield per acre in the spring-wheat states being, however, lower than usual. The corn crop was 82.000,000 bushels less than the crop of

1873."

END OF TEE REED SMOOT CASE.

In the United States senate Feb. 20. 1907. it was decided by a vote of 42 to 28 that Reed Smoot, senator from Utah, was entitled to his seat in that body. Efforts were begun shortly after his election in 1903 to have him unseated because of his official connection with the mormon church in I'tah and they were actively continued throughout the first four years of his term. The resolution upon which the vote in the senate was taken was as follows:

"Resolved, That Reed Smoot, a senator from I'tah. be expelled from the senate of the United States."

The roll call resulted as follows:

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SAN FRANCISCO GRAFT CASES.

Eugene E. Schmitz, mayor of San Francisco, Cal., was sentenced July 8. 1907. to five years' imprisonment in the state prison at St. Quentin, having been convicted June 13 of extortion. Schmitz was serving his third term as mayor, having first been elected in 1901 on the union-labor ticket, chiefly through the instrumentality of Abraham Ruef, an attorney. He was re-elected In. 1903 and 1905. In 1902 It became common talk that Ruef. under the guise of legal services, was selling licenses and protecting illegal enterprises through his influence over the mayor. His law practice grew enormously and his monthly income ran into the thousands, but it was not until three years later that it was openly charged that he divided his profits with the mayor and other city officials. In 1906. when the great earthquake and fire nearly destroyed the city, the mayor won much praise for the way in which he handled the affairs of the city in the crisis, but soon the cry of graft became so loud and persistent that an investigation was set afoot. It was backed by-Rudolph Spreckels, James D. Phelan and others, including William J. Langdon, who had been elected district attorney on the union-labor ticket. Abraham Ruef secured the removal of Langdon and had himself appointed In his place.

Mr. Spreckels secured the services of Francis J. Heney. who had done efficient work for the government in the Oregon land-fraud cases, and William J. Burns, a government secret-service agent. Their investigations resulted in steps being taken to prosecute Ruef. the mayor and others. The action of the board of supervisors in removing Langdon and appointing Ruef was taken Into court and declared illegal. Langdon then appointed Heney his assistant as district attorney. Ruef

was indicted for extorting money from the French restaurants and when arraigned for trial May 14 pleaded guilty and subsequently testified against Schmitz and the others against ■ whom charge* had been brought. On the Btrength of his confession and other facts brought to light by the investigators the following men were indicted in May for bribery: Patrick Calhoun, president of the United Railways company; Thornwall Mullalv, his assistant: Tlrey L. Ford and W. M. Abbott, counsel for the company; Abraham Ruef and Mayor Schmitz for bribery In the matter of the overhead trolley franchise and for receiving bribes In the matter of fixing the gas rate at 85 cents Instead of 75 cents; President Louis Glass of the Pacific States Telephone company; Theodore V. Halsey. agent of that company; Frank G. Drum. gas company official; Eugen De Sabla, president of power company; John Marin, gas company official; G. H. Umbesen and W. L. Brobech of the Parkside Transit company.

The result of the trial of Mayor Schmitz has already been given. The next case to be tried was that of Louis Glass of the telephone company. He was charged with having bribed the supervisors to vote against granting a franchise to a rival company. He was found guilty and was sentenced Sept. 4 to serve five years in the state penitentiary. The other cases were pending when this edition of The Daily News Almanac and YearBook went to press.

After the conviction of Mayor Schmitz Charles T. Boxton served temporarily as head of the municipal government. July 16 the board of supervisors elected Edward R. Taylor, a physician an<i lawyer, as mayor and in November he was chosen as such at the regular election.

EVEHTS OF 1907.

FIRE LOSSES AND CASUALTIES. Alpena, Mich., Feb. 19—Cement plant burned; loss.

$400,000. „ ,.

Bangkok. Siam. Jan. 7—Chinese quarter of city

burned; loss, $3,000,000. Birmingham. Ala.. June 28—Chalifoux building

burned; loss, $300,000. Bremen, Germany. May .4—Free Zone warehouse

damaged by fire; loss. $1,500,000. Chicago, Jan. 15—Donohue printing plant burned;

loss, $500,000. •

Chicago. Jan. 22—Tannery at Elston avenue and

Blackhawk street damaged by Are; loss, $250,000. Chicago. Jan 23—Building at 39 Franklin street

burned; loss, $100,000. „

Chicago, Jan. 31—Clark street barn of Union Traction

company burned; loss. $200,000; three men injured. Chicago, Feb. 11—Coliseum annex burned; loss,

$75,000. Chicago. March 24—A. G. Spalding & Bros, burned

out: loss. $350,000. Chicago. March 27—Piano factory of the M. Schulz

company damaged by Are; loss, $200,000. Chicago, April 10— Hollister block, 256 Madison

street, burned: loss. $310,000. •

Chicago. April 22—Giles building, 296 Wabash avenue, burned: loss, $150,000. Chicago. May 1—Lotus lunch club rooms, 155 Wabash avenue, burned out; forty-eight women and

men Injured; loss. $45,000: .

Chicago. May 7—Wollensak building. Canal and

Washington streets, burned; five persons hurt;

loss. $275,000. , . . ,

Chicago. June 6—Barrett tar plant burned; loss.

$300,000. , . .

Chicago. June 14—Olympic theater damaged by

fire; loss. $150,000. Chicago, Aug. 5—Meyereord plant. Lake street and

Willow avenue, burned: loss. $100,000. Chicago, Aug. 20—Plant of American Corn Milling

company, Wallace and 81st streets, burned; loss,

$200,000. Chicago. Aug. 31—Garage at 51 Evanston avenue

burned: loss, $100,000. Chicago. Oct. 31—Building at 223 State street

burned; loss, $500,000. Chicago. Nov. 28—Two breweries damaged; loss,

$275,000. Cincinnati, O.. Aug. 22—Block at Hunt and Broadway streets burned; loss. $1,000,000. Columbus, O., April 9—Columbus Dispatch plant

burned; loss, $250,000. Dover. N. H.. Jan. 26—Cocheco mill burned: six

lives lost; property loss, $500,000. East St. Louis. 111.. Nov. 2—Office building of Morris packing plant burned; loss. $300,000. Englewood, N. J., March 16—Upton Sinclair's

Helicon Hall burned; one man killed and five

injured. Hakodate. Japan, Aug. 26—Fifteen thousand houses - burned and 60,000 persons made homeless; loss,

$15,000,000. Hai-risbnrg. Pa.. Feb. 1—Eight business buildings

burned; loss. $1,000,000. Hutchinson, Kas.. March 25—The Morton Salt block

burned: loss, $500,000. Kansas City, Mo., May 8—University building

burned: loss, $250,000. LaCrosse, Wis.. March 29—Building of LaCrosse

Cracker and Candy company burned; loss, $200,000. Lancaster. Pa.. Jan. 11—S. R. Moss & Co.'s tobacco warehouse burned: loss. $1,000,000. London. England, March 16—Three warehouses in

Finsbury district burned; loss. 41.000.000. Long Branch, N. J., May 30—Four persons burned

to death in residence of Walter * Schiffer. Louisville. Ky., Aug. 30—The Courier-Journal and

Evening Times offices burned: loss, $600,000. Manila, P. I.. March 28—Stevenson & Co.'s warehouse burned; loss. $500,000. Manila. P. I.. April 20—Eleven hundred houses

burned: loss. $200,000. Minneapolis, Minn., April 25—Wisconsin Central

freight depot burned: loss. $400,000. Montreal. Que.. Feb. 26—Hochelaga school burned;

seventeen lives lost. Montreal. Que., April 5—Engineering building at

McGlU university burned; loss, $750,000,

Newberry, S. C. March 29—Business section burned; loss, $200,000.

Newport, Ky., Jan. 24—Distillery burned; loss. $250,000.

New York. N. Y.. April 8—City railway car barns burned; loss. $1,500,000.

New York, N. Y., July 28—Twenty persons burned to death and twenty injured in fire at 222 Christie street.

New York. N. Y.. July 29—Steeplechase park buildings on Coney island burned: loss, $1,500,000.

New York. N. Y., Nov. 25—Thirteen lives lost in tenement-house fire.

Old Orchard. Me.. Aug. 16—Many hotels and cottages burned; two lives lost; property loss, $800,000.

Philadelphia. Pa., Jan. 29—Baldwin locomotive works damaged; loss, $1,000,000.

Philadelphia. Pa.. Feb. 8—Country home of John Wauamaker burned; loss. $1,500,000.

Pittsburg. Pa., Feb. 25—Business buildings burned; loss, $350,000.

Pittsburg. Pa.. Aug. 22—Two clothes-pressing establishments burned; loss, $250,000.

Pullman. 111., Feb. 18—Lumber yards burned; loss, $200,000.

Richmond. Va., Jan. 23—Williams and other buildings burned: loss, $295,000.

Rush City. Minn.. May 13—City partly destroyed by fire; loss, $200,000.

San Francisco. Cal.. April 2—Plant of San Francisco Gas and Electric company damaged; loss, $2,500,000.

San Francisco, Cal., April 4—Twenty persons burned to death in Italian hotel fire.

San Jose. Cai., Oct. 12—Arcade building burned; loss, $300,000.

Shelton, Wash., Sept. 5—Fifteen lives lost in hotel fire.

South Boston. Va.. March 28—Tobacco warehouses and other buildings burned; loss. $1,000,000.

Superior. Wis.. Nov. 8—Elevators and docks burned; loss, $2,500,000.

Tokyo, Japan. Jan. 22—Main buildings of department of communications burned; loss, $500,000.

Victoria. B. C. July 24—Five blocks burned; loss, $250,000.

Wuchow. China, Sept. 27—One hundred lives lost and property valued at $250,000 destroyed in fire.

STORMS AND FLOODS.

Alexandria, La., April 5—Twenty-five persons killed by tornado in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama.

Buffalo, N. Y.. Jan. 20-21—Storm in city and vicinity caused several deaths and destroyed property valued at $2,000,000.

Caroline Islands. March 28-29—Between 200 and 300 persons killed by typhoon.

Hongkong, Jan. 28—Fifty Chinese boats sunk by storm; 100 persons drowned.

Illinois, June 8—Thirty persons killed by storm in southern Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky; twenty-one killed at Gradyville, Ky.

Kurrachi, India, June 6—Property valued at $3,000,000 destroyed by cyclone.

Leeds, Ga.. Oct. 8—Fifteen persons killed by tornado in vicinity of Leeds.

Leyte. P. I.. Jan. 10—One hundred lives lost in typhoon.

Medicine Lodge, Kas.. June 24—Twenty-five houses destroyed by tornado: six persons Injured.

Williston. N. D., July 20—Twenty-five persons injured in storm.

Pittsburg. Pa., March 12-15—Fourteen deaths caused by floods; property losses estimated at $10,000,000.

Texas, May 7—Nine persons killed by tornado at Ridgway and Birthright.

Wisconsin, July 3—Twenty-one persons killed by tornado in central counties of the state; property loss, $100,000.

RAILROAD WRECKS. Atchison. Topeka & Santa Fe, in Los Angeles.

Cal., March 23—Six killed and seventeen Injured. Atchison. Topeka & Santa Fe, near Earl, Col.,

June 17—Eighteen injured.

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