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The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America, in congress, July 4,1776.

When, in tin- course of human events, it be>inea necessary for one people to dissolve the jlitical bands which have connected them with lOther, and to assume among the powers of the irth the separate and! station to which le laws of nature and of nature's God entitle ieia. a decent respect to the opinions of mannd requires that they should deciare the causes tiieh impel them t" the separation. We hold those truths to he self-evident: That 1 men are created equal; that they are endowed

their Creator with certain inalienable rights; at among these are life, liberty and the pursuit

happiness. That, to secure these rights, govlments are instituted among men, deriving their *t powers from the consent of the governed; at, whenever any form of government becomes Btructive of these ends, it is the right of the jple to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a .v government, laying its foundation on such nciples, and organizing its powers in such m, as to them shall seem most likely to effect •lr safety and happiness. Prudence, Indeed, 1 dictate that governments long established uld not be changed for light and transient ises; and accordingly all experience hath shown t mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Is are sulTerable, than to right themselves by dishing the forms to which they are accustomed. : when a long train of abuses and usurpations, suing invariably the same object, evinces a dei to reduce them under absolute despotism, it their right, it Is their duty, to throw off such ernmenF, and to provide new guards for their ire security. Such has been the patient sufferof these colonies, and such is now the neces

which constrains them to alter their former ems of government. The history of the pressing of Great Britain is u history of reted injuries and usurpations, all having in dl

ohject the establishment of an absolute tyry over these states. To prove this, let facts submitted to a candid world. e has refused bis assent to laws the most lesome and necessary for the public good. 3 has forbidden his governors to pass laws of ledlate and pressing import unco, unless Susie d in their operation till his assent should tbtained, and, when eo suspended, he has utr neglected to attend to them. ; has refused to pass other laws for the acmodatlon of large districts of people, unless e people vtould relinquish the right of repreit Ion in the legislature—a right inestimable hem and formidable to tyrants only.

has called together legislative bodies, at ^s unusual, uncomfortable and distant from repository of their public records, for the sole )se of fatiguing them into compliance with nea su res.

has dissolved reoresentatlvo houses repeat

for opposing with manly firmness his inva

on the richts of the people.

has refused for a long time after such disions t^ cause others to be elected; whereby egislative powers, incapable of annihilation, returned to the people at large for their ex?; the state remaining, in the in antime, ex! to all the dangers of invasion from without convulsions "within. has endeavored to prevent the population of

states; for that purpose obstructing the for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to others to encourage their migration hither. "jiising1 the conditions of new appropriations ids.

has obstructed the administration of justice 'fusing his assent to laws for establishing nry powers.

has made judges dependent on his will alone ie tenure of their offices and the amount and ?nt of their salaries.

has erected a multitude of new offices and iither swarms of officers to harass our peoul eat out their substance, has kept among us, in times of peace, stand-'

ing armies without the consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the military Independent of and superior to the civil power.

He has combined with others to Bubject us to u jurisdiction foreign to our constitutions and unacknowledged by our laws, givlug his assent to their acts of pretended legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;

For protecting them by a mock trial from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states;

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;

For imposing taxes on us without our consent;

For depriving us in many cases of the benefits of trial by Jury;

For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses;

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging Its boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for Introducing the same absolute rule Into these colonies;

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments;

For suspending our own legislatures and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here by declaring us out of bis protection and waging war against us. *

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns and destroyed the lives of our people.

He Is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the work of death, desolation and tyranny already begun, with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled In tiie most barbarous ages and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained oir fellow citizens taken captive upon the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren or to fall themselves by their hands.

He has excited domestic insurrection amongst us and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages. whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress. In the most humble terms; our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. \. prince whose character Is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant Is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native Justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably Interrupt our connections and correspondence. Thej, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war; In peace, friends.

We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in general congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent stares; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that

all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be. totally dissolved; and that as free and independent states they have full power to levy war. conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce and to do all other acts and things which independent states may' of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor.

The foregoing declaration was, by order of congress, engrossed and signed by the following members: JOHN HANCOCK. New Hampshire: • William Ellery.

Josiah Bartlett. Connecticut:

William Whipple. Roger Sherman,

Matthew Thornton,

Massachusetts Bay:

Saiuuel Adams.

John Adams,

Robert Treat Paine.

Elbridge Gerry. Rhode Island. Etc.:

Stephen Hopkins,

Samuel Huntington,
William Williams.
Oliver Wolcott.
New York:
William Floyd,
Philip Livingston,
Francis Lewis.
Lewis Morris.

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Military and naval forces employed by the War. Date.

Revolution 1775-83

Northwestern Indian 1790-95

France 1798-1800

Tripoli 1801-05

Indian (Harrison) 1811-13

War of 1812 1812-15

Creek Indian 1813-14

Seminole ., 1817-18

Winnebago (Wis.) 1827

Sac and Fox (111.) 1831

Black Hawk 1832

Cherokee removal..-. 1833-39

Seminole (Fla.) 1835-42

Sabine Indian 1836-37

Creek (Ala.) j - -.. 1836-37

"Patriot" (frontier) 1838-39

Seminole (Fla.) 1842-58

Mexico 1846-48

Cayuse Indian (Ore.) 1848

Texas Indian 1849-56

Apache (Utah) 1849-55

California Indian - 1849 55

Utah Indian 1851-53

Oregon. Washington Indian 1851-56

Comanche 1854

Seminole 1855-58

Civil war 1861-66

Spanish-American 1898-99

Philippine 1899-1902

Pekin (China) expedition 1900-04

Total - 540.351 3,627,660 203,828 4,371,839

The total In this table includes re-enlistments. The total number of Individuals Is estimated at 3.304,993, of-whom 2,213,363 served in the civil war.

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September Preamble. We, the people of the United

tales, In order to form u more perfect union, establish Justice, Insure domestic tranquillity, provide for tbe common defense, promote the general ivi'ifare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution for the United States of America: ARTICLE I. Section I. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested In a congress of tbe I'nlted States, which shall consist of a senate aud house of representatives. Section II. 1. The house of representatives shall be composed of meml>ers chosen every second year iiv the people of the several states, and tlie electors in each state shall have tbe qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

2. Xo person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the age of 25 years and been seven years a citizen of tbe I'nlted States, and who shall not, when elected. t»e an inhabitant of that state In which he shall be chosen.

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this union according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons. Including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall he made within three years after the first meet Ing of the congress of the I'nlted States, and with in every subsequent term of ten years. In such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every 3f>.O00, hut each state shall have at least one representative, and until such enumeration shall be made the state of Xew Hampshire shall he entitled to choose three; Massachusetts, eight; Rhode I-land nnd Providence Plantations, one; Connecticut, five; New York, six; New Jersey, four; Pennsylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Maryland, six; Virginia, ten; North Carolina, five; South Carolina, 5ve, and Georgia, three.

4. When vacancies happen In the representation 'rom any state the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

.*). The house of representatives shall choose heir sneaker and other officers and shall have the ole power of impeachment.

Section III. 1. The semte of the United States hnll be composed of two senators from each state, boson by the legislature thereof, for six years, nd each senator shall haw one vote.

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in nnsequenee of the first election they shall be dlided, as equally as may be. into three classes. he seats of the senators of the first class shall be acated at the expiration of the second year; of ie second class, at the expiration of the fourth

ar, and of the third class, at the expiration of lie sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen .'ery second year, and If vacancies happen by •sir-nation or otherwise, during the recess of the p-islat'ir.* of any st-'ite, tbe executive thereof may ake temporary appointments until the next meet# of the legislature, which shall then fill such icancies.

3. No person shall he a senator who shall not ive attained the age of 30 years and been nine irs a citizen of the I'nlted States, and who shall it. when elected, be an inhabitant of that stale r which he shall be chosen.

4. The vice-president of the United States shall president or the senate, but shall have no vote

iless they be equally divided. ~i. The senate shall choose their other officers d al«o a president pro tempore in the absence of e vice-president or when he shall exercise the ofe of president of the United States.

5. The senate shall have tbe sole power to try [ Impeachments. When slt'ing for that purpose ey shall be on oath or affirmation. When the csldent of the United States is tried the chief

17, 1787.

Justice shall preside, and no person shall I* convicted without the coneurience of two-thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment, in cases of Impeachment, shall not extend further than to removal from-office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the l'ulted States, but the partv convicted shall, nevertheless. Ik* liable and subject to Indictment, trial, Judgment and punishment according to law

Section IV. 1. The times, place* and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof, but the congress may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators.

2. The congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday if December, unless they shall, by law. appoint a different day.

Section V. 1. Each house shall be the Judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of Its own members, and a majority o» each shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may lie authorized to compel the attendance of absent members. In such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide.

2. Each house .nay determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

3. Each house shall keep a Journal of Its proceedings, and from time to time publish the sani.*, excepting such parts as may. In their judgment, require secrecv; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the Journal.

4. Neither house, during the session of congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two bouses shall be sitting.

Section VI. 1. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained bv law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses and in going to or returning from the same, and for any speech or debate lu either house they shall not be questioned In any other place.

2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which ho was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have beeji Increased, during such time, and no person holding any office und.'i* the United States shall be a member of either house during his continuance In office.

Section VII. 1. All bills for raising a revenue shall originate in the house of representatives, but the senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.

2. Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives and the senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the president of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign It, but if not, he shall return it. with his objections, to that house in which it shall have origi nated. who shall enter the objections at large on their journal and proceed to reconsider it. If. after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill. It shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the Journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after It shall have been presented to him. the same shall be a law, In like manner as If he had signed it, unless the congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution or vote to which the concurrence of the senate and house of representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the president of the Upited States, and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by twothirds of the senate and house of representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in case of a bill.

Section VIII. The congress shall have power—

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States, but all duties. Imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States.

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States.

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several states and with the Indian tribes.

4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States.

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof and of foreign coiu, and tix the standard of weights and measures.

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States.

7. To establish postofflees and postroads.

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.

9. To constitute tribunals Inferior to the Supreme court. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas and offenses against the law of nations.

10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal and make rules concerning captures on land and water.

11. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years.

12. To provide and maintain n navy.

13. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces.

14. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions.

15. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by congress.

16. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over su?h district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states and the acceptance of congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased, by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be. for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards and all other needful buildings: and,

17. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers and all other powers vested by this constitution In the government of the United States or in any department or officer thereof.

Section IX. 1. The migration or Importation of such persona as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding $10 for each person.

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not he suspended, unless when. In cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No preference shall be given, by any regulation of commerce or revenue, to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another.

6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law, and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States, and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of congress, accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign state.

Section X. 1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

2. No state shall, without the consent of the congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its Inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and imposts laid by any state on Imports or exports shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the congress. No state shall, without the consent of congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state or with a foreign power or engage in war, unless actually invaded or In such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.


Section I. 1. The executive power shall be vested In a president of the United States of America. He shall hold his oflice during the term of four years, and together with the vice-president, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

2. Each state shall appoint. In such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators and representatives to which the state may be en titled in the congress, but no senator or representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an elector.

3. The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify and transmit sealed to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate. The president of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted. Theperson having the pre:;tost number of votes shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if there be more than one who have such majority and have nn equal number of votes, then tlie housa of representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for president; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said house shall, in like manner, choose the president. Rut In choosing the president the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a mem* her or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case after the choice of the president the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the vice-president. Rut If there should remain two or more who have equal votes the senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the vice-president. [The foregoing provisions were changed by the 12th amendment.J

4. _Trne congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

5. No jerson except a natural-born citizen or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this constitution shall be eligible to the office of president; neither shall any person 1* eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of 35 years and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

6. In case of the removal of the president- from office or of his death, resignation or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the vice-president; and the congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability both of the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall then act as president, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed or a president shall lie elected.

7 The president shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any othei emolument from the United States or any of them. 8. Before he enters on the execution of his office he shall take the following oath or affirmation:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the constitution of the United States.

Section II. 1. The president shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of the United States and of the militia of the several states when called into the actual service of the United States. He may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have the power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States except in cases of impeachment.

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to make treaties, [irovided two-thirds cf the senators present concur, und he shall nominate, and, by and with the ad rice and consent of ihe senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public* ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme court and all other officers )f the United States whose appointments are not lereln otherwise provided for and which shall be ■stabllshed by law. But the congress may, by aw, vest the appointment of such inferior oficers as they shall think proper in the president ilone, in the courts of law or in the heads of demrtments. 3. The president shall have power to fill up all acancies that may happen during the recess of he senate by granting commissions, which shall xpire at the end of their next session. Section III. He shall, from time to time, give o the congress information of the state of the nlon and recommend to their consideration such leasures as he shall judge necessary and exedient. He may, on extraordinary occasions, concne both houses or either of them, and in case f disagreement between them, with respect to je time of adjournment, he may adjourn them > such time as he shall think proper. He shall »ceive ambassadors and other public ministers. !e shall take care that the laws be faithfully cecuted, and shall commission all officers of the nited States.

Section IV. The president, vice-president and all vil officers of the United States shall be removed om office on impeachment for and conviction of eason, bribery or other high crimes and mis'meanors.


Section I. The judicial power of the United

ates shall be vested in one Supreme court and

such inferior courts as the congress may, from

lie to time, ordain and -establish. The judges,

both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a com pensatlon, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Section II. 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States and treaties made or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states; between a state and citizens of another state; between citizens of different states; between citizens of the same state, claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof and foreign states, citizens or subjects.

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls and those In which a state shall be a party the Supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with su*h exceptions and under such regulations as the congress shall make.

3, The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, Bhall be by jury, and such trials sJiall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed, but when not committed within any state the trial shall be at such place or places as the congress may by law have directed.

Section III. 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them or In adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act or on confession in open court.

2. The congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.


Section I. Full faith and credit shall be given In each state to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner In which su^h acts, records and proceedings shall be proved and the effect thereof.

Section II. 1. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges, and Immunities of citizens in the several state*.

2. A person charged in any state with treason, felony or other crime, who shall flee from justice and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.

3. No person held to service or labor in one state under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

Section III. 1. New states may be admitted by the congress of this union, but no new state shall he formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state, nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the congress.

2. The congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needfnl rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States, and nothing In this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state.

Section IV. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion, and on application of the legislature or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.

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