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fenders against the law and they have accom
lished much, while where the administration of the law has been defective it has been changed. But the laws themselves are defective. Three years ago a public-lands commission was appointed to scrutinize the law and defects and recommend a remedy. Their examination specifically showed the existence of great fraud upon the public domain and their recommendations for changes in the law were made with the design of conserving the natural resources of every part of the public lands by putting it to its best use. Especial at. tention was called to the prevention of settlement by the passage of great areas of public land into the hands of a few men and to the enormous waste caused by unrestricted grazing upon the open range. The recommendations of the public lands commission are sound, for they are especially in the interest of the actual home maker, and where the small home maker cannot at present utilize the land they provide that the government shall keep control of it so that it may not be monopolized by a few men. The congress has not yet acted upon these recommendations, but they are so just and proper, So essential to our national welfare, that I feel confident, if the congress will take time to consider them, that they will ultimately be adopted.
Some such legislation as that proposed is essential in order to preserve the great stretches of public grazing land which are unfit for cultivation under present methods and are valuable only for the forage which they supply. These stretches a mount in all to some 300,000,000 acres and are open to the free grazing of cattle, sheep, horses and goats without restriction. Such a system, or rather such lack of system, means that the range is not so much used as wasted by abuse. As the west settles the range becomes more and more overgrazed. Much of it cannot be used to advantage unless it is fenced, for fencing is the only way by which to keep in check the owners of nomad flocks which roam hither and thither, utterly destroying the pastures and leaving a waste behind so that their presence is incompatible with the presence of home makers. The existing fences are all illegal. Some of them represent the improper exclusion of actual settlers, actual home makers, from territory which is usurped by great cattle companies. Some of them represent what is in itself a proper effort to use the range for those upon the land and to prevent its use by nomadic outsiders.
All these fences, those that are hurtful and those that are beneficial, are alike illegal and must come down. But it is an outrage that the law should necessitate such action on the part of the administration. The unlawful fencing of public lands for private grazing must be stopped, but the necessity which occasioned it must be provided for. The federal government should have control of the range, whether by permit or lease, as local necessities may determine. Such control could secure the great benefit of legitimate fencing, while at the same time securing and promoting the settlement of the country. In some places it may be that the tracts of range adjacent to the homesteads of actual settlers should be allotted to them severally or in common for the summer grazing of their stock. Elsewhere it may be that a lease system would serve the purpose, the lease to be temporary and subject to the rights of settlement and the amount charged being large enough mere. ly to permit of the efficient and beneficial control of the range by the government and of the payment to the county of the equivalent of what it would otherwise receive in taxes. The destruction of the public range will continue until some such la w's as these are enacted. Fully to prevent the fraud in the public lands which, through the joint action of the interior department and the department of justice, we have been endeavoring to prevent, there must be further legislation, and especially a sufficient appropriation to permit the department of the interior to examine certain classes of entries on the ground before they pass into private ownership. The government should part with its title only to the actual home maker, not to the profit maker, who does not care to make a T:ome, Our prime object is to secure the rights
and guard the interests of the small ranchman, the man who plows and pitches hay for himself. It is this small ranchman, this actual settler and home maker, who in the long run is most hurt by permitting thefts of the public land in whatever form.
PRESERVE THE FORESTS. Optimism is a good characteristic, but if carried to an excess it becomes foolishness. We are prone to speak of the resources of this country as inexhaustible; this is not so. The mineral wealth of the country, the coal, iron, oil, gas and the like, does not reproduce itself, and therefore is certain to be exhausted ultimately, and wastefulness in dealing with it to-day means that our descendants will feel the exhaustion a generation or two before they otherwise would. But there are certain other forms of waste which could be entirely stopped. The waste of soil by washing for instance, which is among the most dangerous of all wastes now in progress in the United States, is easily preventable, so that this present enormous loss of fertility is entirely unnecessary. The preservation or replacement of the forests is one of the most important means of preventing this loss. We have made a beginning in forest preservation, but is only a beginning.
At present lumbering is the fourth greatest industry in the United States, and yet, so rapid has been the rate of exhaustion of timber in the l'nited States in the past and so rapidly is the remainder being exhausted, that the country is unquestionably on the verge of a timber famine which will be felt in every household in the land. There has already been a rise in the price of lumber, but there is certain to be a more rapid and heavier rise in the future. The present annual consumption of lumber is certainly three times as great as the annual growth, and if the consumption and growth continue unchanged practically all our lumber will be exhausted in another generation, while long before the limit to complete exhaustion is reached the growing scarcity will make itself felt in many blighting ways upon our national welfare. About 20 per cent of our forested territory is now reserved in national forests, but these do not include the most valuable timber lands, and in any event the proportion is too small to expect that the reserves can accomplish more than a mitigation of the trouble which is ahead for the nation.
Far more drastic action is needed. Forests can be lumbered so as to give to the public the full use of their mercantile timber without the slightest detriment to the forest, any more than it is a detriment to a farm to furnish a harvest, so that there is no parallel between forests and mines, which can only be completely used by exhaustion. But forests, if used as all our forests have been used in the past and as most of them are still used, will be either wholly destroyed or so damaged that many decades will have to pass before effective use can be made of them again. All these facts are so obvious that it is extraordinary that it should be necessary to repeat them. Every business man in the land, every writer in the newspapers, every man or woman of an ordinary school education, ought to be able to see that immense quantities of timber are used in the country, that the forests which supply this timber are rapidly being exhausted and that, if no change takes place. exhaustion will come comparatively soon and that the effects of it will be felt severely in the everyday life of our people. Surely, when these facts are so obvious, there should be no delay in taking preventive measures.
Yet we seem as a nation to be willing to proceed in this matter with happy-go-lucky indifferonce even to the immediate future. It is this attitude which permits the self-interest of a very few persons to weigh for more than the ultimate interest of all our people. There are persons who find it to their immense pecuniary benefit to destroy the forests by lumbering. They are to be blamed for thus sacrificing the future of the nation as a whole to their own self-interest of the moment, but heavier blame attaches to the people at large for permitting such action, whether in the White mountains, in the southern Alleghenies or in the Rockies and Sierras. A big lumbering company, impatient for immediate returns and not caring to look far enough ahead, will often deliberately destroy all the good timber in a region, hoping afterward to move on to some new country. The shiftless man of small means, who does not care to become an actual home maker but would like immediate profit, will find it to his advantage to take up timber land simply to turn it over to such a big company and leave it valueless for future settlers. A big mine owner, anvious only to develop his mine at the moment, will care only to cut all the timber that he wishes without regard to the future-probably not looking ahead to the condition of the country when the forests are exhausted, any more than he does to the condition wlien the mine is worked out.
PUBLIC OPINION TO BLAME. I do not blame these men nearly as much as I blame the supine public opinion, the indifferent public opinion, which permits their action to go unchecked. Of course to check the waste of timber means that there must be on the part of the public the acceptance of a temporary restriction in the lavish use of the timber in order to prevent the total loss of this use in the future. There are plenty of men in public and private life who actually advocate the continuance of the present system of unchecked and wasteful extravagance, using as an argument the fact that to check it will of course mean interference with the ease and comfort of certain people who now get lumber at less cost than they ought to pay, at the expense of the future generations. Some of these persons actually demand that the present forest reserves be thrown open to destruction, because, forsooth, they think that thereby the price of lumber could be put down again for two or three or more years.
Their attitude is precisely like that of an agitator protesting against the outlay of money by farmers on manure and in taking care of their farms generally. Undoubtedly, if the average farmer were content absolutely to ruin his farm, he could for two or three years avoid spending any money on it, and yet make a good deal of money out of it. But only a savage would, in his private affairs, show such reckless disregard of the future; yet it is precisely this reckless disregard of the future which the opponents of the forestry system are now endeavoring to get the people of the United States to show.
The only trouble with the movement for the preservation of our forests is that it has not gone nearly far enough and was not begun soon enough. It is a most fortunate thing, however, that we began it when we did. We should acquire in the Appalachian and White mountain regions all the forest lands that it is possible to acquire for the use of the nation. These lands, because they form a national asset, are as emphatically national as the rivers which they feed and which flow through so many states before they reach the ocean.
WOULD REPEAL WOOD-PULP DUTY. There should be no tariff on any forest product grown in this country; and, in especial, there should be no tariff on wood pulp; due notice of the change being of course given to those engaged in the business so as to enable them to adjust themselves to the new conditions. The repeal of the duty on wood pulp should if possible be accompanied by an agreement with Canada that there shall be no export duty on Canadian pulp wood.
MINERAL LANDS. In the eastern United States the mineral fuels have already passed into the hands of large private owners and those of the west are rapidly following. It is obvious that these fuels shouli be conserved and not wasted and it would be well to protect the people against unjust and extortionate prices. So far as that can still be done. What has been accomplished in the great oil fields of the Indian Territory by the action of the administration offers a striking example of the good results of such a policy. In my judgment the government should have the right to keep the fee of the coal, oil and gas fields in its own possession and to lease the rights to develop them under proper regulations; or else, if the congress will
not adopt this method, the coal deposits should be sold under limitations, to conserve them as public utilities, the right to mine coal being separated from the title to the soil. The regulations should permit coal lands to be worked in sufficient quantity by the several corporations. The present limitations have been absurd, excessive and serve no useful purpose, and often render it necessary that there should be either fraud or else abandonment of the work of getting out the coal.
PANAMA CANAL PROGRESS. Work on the Panama canal is proceeding in a highly satisfactory manner. In March last John F. Stevens, chairman of the commission and chief engineer, resigned and the commission was reor ganized and constituted as follows: Lieut.-Col. George W. Goethals, corps of engineers, U. S. army, chairman and chief engineer; Maj. D. D. Gaillard, corps of engineers, U. S. army; Maj. William L. Sibert, corps of engineers, U. s. army; Civil Engineer H. H. Rousseau, U. S. navy; J. C. S. Blackburn; Col. W. C. Gorgas, U. S. army, and Jackson Smith, commissioners. This change of authority and direction went into effect on April 1 without causing a perceptible check to the progress of the work. In March the total excavation in the Culebra cut, where effort was chiefly concentrated, was 815,270 cubic yards. In April this was increased to '879,527 cubic yards. There was a considerable decrease in the output for May and June owing partly to the advent of the rainy season and partly to temporary trouble with the steam-shovel men over the question of wages. This trouble was settled satisfactorily to all parties and in July the total excavation advanced materially and in August the grand total from all points in the canal prism by steam shovels and dredges exceeded all previous United States records, reaching 1,274,404 cubic yards.
In September this record was eclipsed and a total of 1,517,412 cubic yards was removed. Of this amount 1,481,307 cubic yards were from the canal prism and 36,105 cubic yards were from accessory works. These results were achieved in the rainy season with a rainfall in August of 11.89 inches and in September of 11.65 inches. Finally, in October, the record was again eclipsed, the total excavation being 1,868,729 cubic yards; a truly extraordinary record, especially in view of the heavy rainfall, which was 17.1 inches. In fact, experience during the last two rainy seasons demonstrates that the rains are a less serious obstacle to progress than has hitherto been supposed.
Work on the locks and dams at Gatun, which began actively in March last, has advanced so far that it is thought that masonry work on the locks can be begun within fifteen months. In order to remove all doubt as to the satisfactory character of the foundations for the locks of the canal, the secretary of war requested three eminent civil engineers, of special experience in such construction, Alfred Noble, Frederic P. Stearns and John R. Freeman, to visit the isthmus and make thorough personal investigations of the sites. These gentlemien went to the isthmus in April and by means of test pits which had been dug for the purpose they inspected the proposed foundations and also examined the borings that had been made. In their report to the secretary of war, under date of May 2, 1907, they said: “We found that all of the locks of the dimensions now proposed will rest upon rock of such character that it will furnish a safe and stable foundation." Subsequent new borings, conducted by the present commission, have fully confirmed this verdict. They show that the locks will rest on rock for their entire length. The cross section of the dam and method of construction will be such as to insure against any slip or sloughing ofl. Similar examination of the foundations of the locks and dams on the Pacific side are in progress. I believe that the locks should be made of a width of 120 feet.
Last winter bids were requested and received for doing the work of canal construction by contract. None of them was found to be satisfactory and all were rejected. It is the unanimous opinion of the present commission that the work can be done
states to shg to get the fores
better, more cheaply and more quickly by the government than by private contractors. Fully 80 per cent of the entire plant needed for construction has been purchased or contracted for; machine shops have been erected and equipped for making all needed repairs to the plant; many thousands of employes have been secured; an effective organization has been perfected; a recruiting system is in operation which is capable of furnishing more labor than can be used advantageously; employes are well sheltered and well fed; salaries paid are satisfactory, and the work is not only going forward smoothly, but it is producing results far in advance of the most sanguine anticipations. Under these favorable conditions a change in the method of prosecuting the work would be unwise and unjustifiable, for it would inevitably disorganize existing conditions, check progress and increase the cost and lengthen the time of completing the canal.
The chief engineer and all his professional associates are firmly convinced that the 85 feet level lock canal which they are constructing is the best that could be desired. Some of them had doubts on this point when they went to the isthmus. As the plans have developed under their direction their doubts have been dispelled. While they may decide upon changes in detail as construction advances they are in hearty accord in approving the general plan. They believe that it provides a canal not only adequate to all demands that will be made upon it, but superior in every way to a sea-level canal. I concur in this belief.
URGES POSTAL BANKS. I commend to the favorable consideration of the congress a postal savings bank system, as recommended by the postmaster-general. The primary object is to encourage among our people economy and thrift and by the use of postal savings banks to give them an opportunity to husband their re. sources, particularly those who have not the facilities at hand for depositing their money in savings banks. Viewed, however, from the experience of the past few weeks, it is evident that the advantages of such an institution are still more farreaching. Timid depositors have withdrawn their savings for the time being from national banks, trust companies and savings banks; individuals have hoarded their cash and the workingmen their earnings; all of which money has been withheld and kept in hiding or in the safe-deposit box to the detriment of prosperity. Through the agency of the postal savings banks such money would be restored to the channels of trade, to the mutual benefit of capital and labor.
WOULD EXTEND PARCEL POST. I further commend to the congress the consid. eration of the postmaster-general's recommendation for an extension of the parcel post, especially on the rural routes. There are now 38,215 rural routes, serving nearly 15,000,000 people who do not have the advantages of the inhabitants of cities in obtaining their supplies. These recommendations have been drawn up to benefit the farmer and the country storekeeper; otherwise, I should not favor them, for I believe that it is good policy for our government to do everything possible to aid the small town and the country district. It is desirable that the country merchant should not be crushed out.
FOURTH-CLASS POSTMASTERS. The fourth-class postmasters' convention has passed a very strong resolution in favor of placing the fourth-class post masters under the civil-service law. The administration has already put into effect the policy of refusing to remove any fourthclass postmasters save for reasons connected with the good of the service, and it is endeavoring so far as possible to remove them from the domain of partisan politics. It would be a most desirable thing to put the fourth-class post masters in the classified service. It is possible that this might be done without congressional action, but, as the matter is debatable, I earnestly recommend that the congress enact a law providing that they be included under the civil-service law and put in the classified service.
OKLAHOMA, ALASKA, HAWAII. Oklahoma has become a state, standing on a full equality with her elder sisters, and her future is assured by her great natural resources. The duty of the national government to guard the personal and property rights of the Indians within her. borders remains of course unchanged.
I reiterate my recommendations of last year as regards Alaska. Some form of local self-government should be provided, as simple and inexpensive as possible; it is impossible for the congress to devote the necessary time to all the little details of necessary Alaskan legislation. Road building and railway building should be encouraged. The governor of Alaska should be given an ample appropriation wherewith to_organize a force to preserve the public peace. Whisky selling to the natives should be made a felony. The coal-land laws should be changed so as to meet the peculiar needs of the territory. This should be attended to at once, for the present laws permit individuals to locate large areas of the public domain for speculative purposes and cause an immense amount of trouble, fraud and litigation. There should be another judicial division established. As early as possible lighthouses and buoys should be established as aids to navigation, especially in and about Prince William sound, and the survey of the coast completed. There is need of liberal appropriations for lighting and buoying the southern coast and improving the aids to navigation in southeastern Alaska. One of the great industries of Alaska, as of Puget sound and the Columbia, is salmon fishing. Gradually, by reason of lack of proper laws, this industry is being ruined; it should now be taken in charge and effectively protected by the United States government.
THE EXPOSITION OF 1909. The courage and enterprise of the citizens of the far northwest in their projected Alaska-YukonPacific exposition, to be held in 1909, should receive liberal encouragement. This exposition is not sentimental in its conception, but seeks to exploit the natural resources of Alaska and to promote the commerce, trade and industry of the Pacific states with their neighboring states and with our insular possessions and the neighboring countries of the Pacific. The exposition asks no loan from the congress, but seeks appropriations for national exhibits and exhibits of the western dependencies of the general government. The state of Washington and the city of Seattle have shown the characteristic western enterprise in large donations for the conduct of this exposition, in which other states are lending generous assistance.
The unfortunate failure of the shipping bill at the last session of the last congress was followed by the taking off of certain Pacific steamships, which has greatly hampered the movement of passengers between Hawaii and the mainland. Inless the congress is prepared by positive encouragement to secure proper facilities in the way of shipping between Hawaii and the mainland, then the coastwise shipping laws should be so far relaxed as to prevent Hawaii suffering as it is now suffering. I again call your attention to the capital importance from every standpoint of making Pearl harbor available for the largest deep-water vessels and of suitably fortifying the island.
REPORT ON PHILIPPINES LATER. The secretary of war has gone to the Philippines. On his return I shall submit to you his report on the islands.
CITIZENSHIP FOR PORTO RICO, I again recommend that the rights of citizenship be conferred upon the people of Porto Rico.
URGES A BUREAU OF MINES. A bureau of mines should be created under the control and direction of the secretary of the interior, the bureau to have power to collect statistics and make investigations in all matters pertaining to mining and particularly to the acci. dents and dangers of the industry. If this cannot now be done, at least additional appropriations should be given the interior department to be used for the study of mining conditions, for the prevention of fraudulent mining schemes, for carrying on the work of mapping the mining districts, for studying methods for minimizing the accidents and dangers in the industry; in short, to aid in all proper ways the development of the mining in. dustry.
FUNDS FOR HERMITAGE. I strongly recommend to the congress to provide funds for keeping up the Hermitage, the home of Andrew Jackson; these funds to be used through the existing Hermitage association for the preservation of a historic building which should be ever dear to Americans.
I further recommend that a naval monument be established in the Vicksburg National park. This national park gives a unique opportunity for commemorating the deeds of those gallant men who fought on water, no less than of those who fought on land, in the great civil war.
PROVISION FOR THIRTEENTH CENSUS. Legislation should be enacted at the present session of the congress for the thirteenth census. The establishment of the permanent census bureau a flords the opportunity for a better census than we have ever had, but in order to realize the full advantage of the permanent organization ample time must be given for preparation.
INTEREST IN PUBLIC HEALTH. There is a constantly growing interest in this country in the question of the public health. At last the public mind is awake to the fact that many diseases, notably tuberculosis, are national scourges. The work of the state and city boards or health should be supplemented by a constantly increasing interest on the part of the national government. The congress has already provided a bureau of public health and has provided for a hygienic laboratory. There are other valuable laws relating to the public health connected with the various departments. This whole branch of the government should be strengthened and aided in every way.
GOVERNMENT COMMISSIONS. I call attention to two government commissions which I have appointed and which have already done excellent work. The first of these has to do with the organization of the scientific work of the government, which has grown up wholly without plan and is in consequence so unwisely distributed among the executive departments that much of its effect is lost for the lack of proper co-ordination. This commission's chief object is to introduce a planned and orderly development and operation in the place of the ill-assorted and often ineffective grouping and methods of work which have prevailed. This cannot be done without legislation, nor would it be feasible to deal in detail with so complex an administrative problem by specific provisions of law. I recommend that the president be given authority to concentrate related lines of work and reduce duplication by executive order through transfer and consolidation of lines of work.
The second committee, that on department methods, was instructed to investigate and report upon the changes needed to place the conduct of the executive force of the government on the most economical and effective basis in the light of the best modern business practice. The committee has made very satisfactory progress. Antiquated practices and bureaucratic ways have been abolished and a general renovation of departmental methods has been inaugurated. All that can be done by executive order has already been accomplished or will be put into effect in the near future. The work of the main committee and its several assistant committees has produced a wholesome a wakening on the part of the great body of officers and employes engaged in government work.
In nearly every department and office there has been a careful self-inspection for the purpose of remedying any defects before they could be made the subject of adverse criticism. This has led individuals to a wider study of the work on which they were engaged and this study has resulted in increasing their efficiency in their respective lines of work. There are recommendations of special importance from the committee on the subject of
personnel and classification of salaries which will require legislative action before they can be put into effect. It is my intention to submit to the congress in the near future a special message on those subjects.
CAMPAIGN EXPENSES. Under our form of government voting is not merely a right but a duty, and, moreover, a fundamental and necessary duty if a man is to be a good citizen. It is well to provide that corporations shall not contribute to presidential or national campaigns and furthermore to provide for the publication of both contributions and expenditures. There is, however, always danger in laws of this kind, which from the very nature are difficult of enforcement, the danger being lest they be obeyed only by the honest and disobeyed by the unscrupulous, so as to act only as a penalty upon honest men. Moreover, no such law would hamper an unscrupulous man of unlimited means from buying his own way into office. There is a very radical measure which would, I believe, work a substantial improvement in our system of conducting a campaign, although I am well aware that it will take some time for people so to familiarize themselves with such a proposal as to be willing to consider its adoption.
The need for collecting large campaign funds would vanish if congress provided an appropriation for the proper and legitimate expenses of each of the great national parties, an appropriation ample enough to meet the necessity for thorough organization and machinery, which requires a large expenditure of money. Then the stipulation should be made that no party receiving campaign funds from the treasury should accept more than a fixed amount from any individual subscriber or donor, and the necessary publicity for receipts and expenditures could without difficulty be provided.
NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART. There should be a national gallery of art established in the capital city of this country. This is important not merely to the artistic but to the material welfare of the country, and the people are to be congratulated on the fact that the movement to establish such a gallery is taking definite form under the guidance of the Smithsonian institution. So far from there being a tariff on works of art brought into the country, their importation should he encouraged in every way. There have been no sufficient collections of objects of art by the government, and what collections have been acquired are scattered and are generally placed in unsuitable and imperfectly lighted galleries.
THE BIOLOGICAL SURVEY. The biological survey is quietly working for the good of our agricultural interests and is an excellent example of a government bureau which conducts original scientific research the findings of which are of much practical utility. For more than twenty years it has studied the food habits of birds and mammals that are injurious or beneficial to agriculture, horticulture and forestry, has distributed illustrated bulletins on the subject and has labored to secure legislative protection for the beneficial species. The cotton-boll weevil, which has recently overspread the cotton belt of Texas and is steadily extending its range, is said to cause an annual loss of about $3,000,000. The biological survey has ascertained and given wide publicity to the fact that at least forty-three kinds of birds prey upon this destructive insect. It has discovered that fifty-seven species of birds feed upon scale insects-dreaded enemies of the fruit grower. It has shown that woodpeckers as a class, by destroying the larvæ of wood-boring insects, are so essential to tree life that it is doubtful if our forests could exist without them.
It has shown that cuckoos and orioles are the natural enemies of the leaf-eating caterpillars that destroy our shade and fruit trees; that our quails and sparrows consume annually hundreds of tons of seeds of noxious weeds; that hawks and owls as a class (excepting the few that kill poultry and game birds) are markedly beneficial, spending their lives in catching grasshoppers, mice and other pests that prey upon the products of husbandry. it has conducted field experiments for the purpose
tices very satisfactor practice. Thithe light :
he partaged in and othe pure made
departmetion for could s led in la clasbirds) arling gra the proents for
ingly smalley, which, it is the cost of
of devising and perfecting simple methods for merce, to the shipbuilding industry and to ship holding in check the hordes of destructive rodents owning and navigation which will accompany the -rats, mice, rabbits, gophers, prairie dogs and discharge of these urgent public duties, though ground squirrels-which annually destroy crops they, too, should have weight. worth many millions of dollars, and it has pub The only serious question is whether at this time lished practical directions for the destruction of we can afford to improve our ocean mail service as wolves and coyotes on the stock ranges of the it should be improved. All doubt on this subject is west, resulting during the past year in an esti removed by the reports of the postoffice departmated saving of cattle and sheep valued at upward ment. For the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907, of a million dollars.
that department estimates that the postage colIt has inaugurated a system of inspection at the lected on the articles exchanged with foreign coun. principal ports of entry on both Atlantic and Pacific tries other than Canada and Mexico amounted to coasts by means of which the introduction of $6,579,043.48, or $3.637,226.81 more than the net cost noxious mammals and birds is prevented, thus of the service exclusive of the cost of transporting keeping out the mongoose and certain birds which the articles between the United States exchange are as much to be dreaded as the previously in postoffices and the United States postoffices at troduced English sparrow and the house rats and which they were mailed or delivered. mice.
In other words, the government of the United In the interest of game protection it has co States, having assumed a monopoly of carrying the operated with local officials in every state in the mails for the people, is making a profit of over union, has striven to promote uniform legislation $3,600,000 by rendering a cheap and inefficient serv. in the several states, has rendered important sery ice. That profit I believe should be devoted to ice in enforcing the federal laws regulating inter strengthening our maritime power in those direcstate traffic in game and has shown how game pro tions where it will best promote our prestige. The tection may be made to yield a large revenue to country is familiar with the facts of our maritime the state-a revenue a mounting in the case of Illi impotence in the harbors of the great and friendly nois to $128,000 in a single year.
republics of South America. Following the failure The biological survey has explored the fauna and of the shipbuilding bill we lost our only American flora of America with reference to the distribu line of steamers to Australasia, and that loss on tion of animals and plants; it has defined and the Pacific has become a serious embarrassment to mapped the natural life areas areas in which, by the people of Hawaii and has wholly cut off the reason of prevailing climatic conditions, certain Samoan islands from regular communication with kinds of animals and plants occur-and has pointed the Pacific coast. Puget Sound, in the year, has out the adaptability of these areas to the cultiva lost over half (four out of seven) of its American tion of particular crops. The results of these in steamers trading with the orient. vestigations are not only of high educational value,
RECOMMENDS SUBSIDY PLAN. but are worth each year to the progressive farmers of the country many times the cost of maintain
We now pay under the act of 1891 $4 a statute ing the survey, which, it may be added, is exceed
mile outward to twenty-knot American mail steamingly small. I recommend to congress that this
ships, built according to naval plans, available as bureau, whose usefulness is seriously handicapped
cruisers and manned by Americans. Steamships of by lack of funds, be granted an appropriation in
that speed are confined exclusively to transatlansome degree commensurate with the importance of
tic trade with New York. To stea mships of sixthe work it is doing.
teen knots or over only $2 a mile can be paid, and
it is steamships of this speed and type which are OCEAN MAIL SERVICE.
needed to meet the requirements of mail service to I call your especial attention to the unsatisfac
South America, Asia (including the Philippines) tory condition of our foreign mail service, which
and Australia. I strongly recommend, therefore, a because of the lack of American steamship lines
simple amendment to the ocean mail act of 1891 is now largely done through foreign lines and
which shall authorize the postmaster general in his which, particularly so far as South and Central
discretion to enter into contracts for the transpor
tation of mails to the republics of South America, America are concerned, is done in a manner which constitutes a serious barrier to the extension of
to Asia, the Philippines and Australia at a rate
not to exceed $4 a mile for steamships of sixteen our commerce. The time has come, in my judgment, to set to
knots speed or upward, subject to the restrictions work seriously to make our ocean mail service cor
and obligations of the act of 1891. The profit of respond more closely with our recent commercial
$3,600.000 which has been mentioned will fully cover and political development. A beginning was made
the maximum annual expenditure involved in this by the ocean mail act of March 3, 1891, but even
recommendation, and it is believed will in time at that time the act was known to be inadequate
establish the lines so urgently needed. The propoin various particulars. Since that time events have
sition involves no new principle, but permits the moved rapidly in our history. We have acquired
efficient discharge of public functions now inadeHawaii, the Philippines and lesser islands in the
quately performed or not performed at all. Pacific. We are steadily prosecuting the great
MUST MAINTAIN THE ARMY. work of uniting at the isthmus the waters of the Not only there is not now, but there never has Atlantic and the Pacific. To a greater extent than been, any other nation in the world so wholly free seemed probable even a dozen years ago, we may from the evils of militarism as is ours. There never look to an American future on the sea worthy of has been any other large nation, not even China, the traditions of our past. As the first step in which for so long a period has had relatively to that direction, and the step most feasible at the its numbers so small a regular army as has ours. present time, I recomiend the extension of the Never at any time in our history has this nation ocean mail act of 1891. That act has stood for suffered from militarism or been in the remotest some years free from successful criticism of its danger of suffering from militarism. Never at any principle and purpose. It was based on theories of time of our history has the regular army been of the obligations of a great maritime nation, undis a size which caused the slightest appreciable tax puted in our own land and followed by other na upon the taxpaying citizens of the nation. Almost tions since the beginning of steam navigation. always it has been too small in size and underBriefly those theories are, that it is the duty of a paid. Never in our entire history has the nation first-class power so far as practicable to carry its suffered in the least particular because too much ocean mails under its own flag: that the fast ocean care has been given to the army, too much promisteamships and their crews required for such mail nence given it, too much money spent upon it, or service are valuable auxiliaries to the sea power of because it has been too large. But again and a nation. Furthermore, the construction of such again we have suffered because enough care has steamships insures the maintenance in an efficient not been given to it, because it has been too condition of the shipyards in which our battle ships small, because there has not been sufficient prenmust be built.
aration in advance for possible war. Every forThe expenditure of public money for the perform eign war in which we have engaged has cost us ance of such necessary functions of government is many times the amount which, if wisely expended certainly warranted, nor is it necessary to dwell during the preceding years of peace on the regnupon the incidental benefits to our foreign com- | lar army, would have insured the war ending in
given has beepred because it has beet