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The congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall he valid to all intents and purposes as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states or by conventions in threefourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the congress; provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article, and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate,


Section I. 1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this constitution as under the confederation.

2. This constitution and the laws of the I'nited States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made or which shall be made r.r der authority of the United States, shall be the mpreme law of the land, and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

3. The senators and representatives before mentioned and the members of the several state legislatures and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound, by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution, but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.


The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the states present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth.

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. Proposed by congress and ratified by the legislatures of the several st'ites, pursuant to article V. of the original constitution—For the first twelve, 1 stat. at large, 21. Thirteenth proposed, 13 Id., 567; proclaimed. Id., 774. Fourteenth proposed. 14 Id., 358; proclaimed, 15 Id., 706, 708. Fifteenth proposed, 15 Id., 346.

I. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

II. A well-regulat?d militia being necessary to the security of- a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be Infringed.

III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in wartime but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persona, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated, and no warrants shall Issue but upon prohahle cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.

V. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise Infamous crime unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or In the militia, when In actual service, in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for I he same offense to be twice put in jeopardy

of life or limb; nor shall be compelled In any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without Just compensation.

VI. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial- jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be Informed of the nature and, cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the _ witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses In his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

VII. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed $20, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of the common law.

VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual pun ishmeuts inflicted.

IX. The enumeration in the constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

X. The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution nor prohibited by it to the states are preserved to the states respectively or to the people.

XL The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

XII. Section 1. The electors shall meet In then respective states and vote by ballot for president and vice-president, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as president, and in distinctballots the person voted for as vice-president, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as president and of all persons voted for as vice-president, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate; the president of Ihe senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for president shall be the president, if such number lie a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest nvmbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as president, the house of representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, for president. But In choosing the president the votes sh.ill be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the house of representatives shall not choose a president whenever the ripht of choice shall devolve upon them before the fourth day of March next following, then the xiee-president shall act as president, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the president.

Section 2. The person having the greatest number of votes as vice-president shall be the vicepresident, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list th'« senTtte shall choose a vice-president. A quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators and a majority of the whole numoer shall be necessary to a choice.

Section 3. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office or president shall be eligible to that of vice-president of the United States.

XIII. Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime. whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

XIV. Section* 1. All persons born or naturalized In the United States and subject to the Jurisdiction thereof are citizens ol the I'nited States and of the 3tate wherein they reside. No state shall ma toe or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities ol citizens of the I'nited States, nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its Jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. lint when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for president and vice-president of the United States, representatives in congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state or the members of the legislature thereof Is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being 21 years of age and citizens of the United States, or In any way abridged, except for participation In rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall ?>e reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole, number of male citizens 21 years of age in such state. Section 3. No person shall be a senator or

representative In congress or elector of president and vice-president, or hold any office, civil or military, under the I'nited States, or under any state, who. having previously taken the oath as a member of congress or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the constitution of the United States, shall have engaged In insurrection or rebellion against tine same or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. Hut congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each iiouae, remove "such disability.

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for pavment of pensions and bounties for services In suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the i'nited States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation Incurred In aid of Insurrection or rebellion against the United States or any. claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave, but all such debts, >t>ligations and claims shall bo held illegal and void.

Section 5. The congress shall have the power to enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions of this article.

XV. Section I. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2. The congress shall have power to enforce tliis article by appropriate legislation.


In the annual record target practice of the ves:els of the United States navy In 1907 the Atlantic leet had a standing of 59.346 per cent of the lighest flna*l merit and the Pacific fleet 59.241 per ent. In the squadrons the second of the Pacific leet was first with a record of 74.866, and In the livisions the fourth of the Pacific fleet had 76.696. following Is the record of the vessels singly, the rophy winners being marked t and the "star" hips, or those having a final merit of 85 per cent f the mark given the trophy winners in the repective classes, being marked t:

Vessels competing for the battle-ship trophy:

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Vessels competing for the

1. Princeton? 73.395 6.

2. Wilmington 62.130 7.

3. Paducuh 57.968

4. Dubuque 52.7f*

5. Yankton 51.217 10.

Vessels competing for the

and torpedoes lioth counted):

1. Preblet 78.822 | 8.

2. Stocktont 78.511 9.

3. Wilkest 74.061 10.

4. De Longt 72.213 11.

5. Hullt 70.727 12.

6. Paul Jones 65.212 13.

7. Blakely 63.713

(Guns only counted.)

1. Hull 76.544 8.

2. Worden 71.303 9.

3. Blakely 70.701 10.

4. Preble 68.218 11.

5. Paul Jones 67 615 12.

6. Stockton 64.96") 13.

7. Barry 64.259

(Torpedoes, only counted.)

1. Preble 92.962

2. Truxtun 85.243

3. Wilkes 82.640

4. De Long 82.0*2 11.

5. Stockton 81.896 12

6. Macdonough ....72.321 13.

7. Blakely 62.003

funhoat trophy: 'aragua 36.1S1

Pampanga 32.524

Arayat 30.514

Klcano 29.304

Kalnbow 19.954

torpedo trophy (guns

Macdonough .. .60.418

Worden 58.659

Truxtun 56.128

Barry 54.408

Whipple 39."65

Strlngham 11.568

Macdonough .. .50.215

Wilkes 39.746

De Long 32.739

Whipple 19.053

Truxtun 17.775

Stringham 13.442

Hull 62.003

Paul Jones 62.003

Wrhlpple 62.003

Barrv 41.273

Worden 39.683

Stringham 10.318

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Area* sq. miles


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Money in circulation . .dols.

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war...., dols.

Navy dols.

Pensions dols.

Imports, mdse dols.

ExportSj mdse dols

Production of gold dols.

Silver dols.

Coal tons

Petroleum gallons

Pig iron tons

Steel tons

Copper tons

Minerals, value dols.

Wool lbs.

Wheat bushels

Corn bushels

Cotton bales

Cane sugar ton

Rhilroads miles

Postofflces No.

Postoffice receipts dols

Newspapers No.

Telegraph lines miles

Messages No.

Telephone lines miles

Telephones No.

Patents issued No.

Immigrants No.

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•Exclusive of Alaska and insular possessions. tNo official figures for other than census years. XAll kinds. ESTIMATES TRUE VALUE OF PROPERTY IN TEE UNITED STATES (1901).

[Report of census bureau.]

Real property Farm lmple- Mfg. maehln- Gold and

and Improve- ments and ery, tools and silver coin

State or territory. Total. ments.* Live stock, machinery, implements, and bullion.

Maine $775,622,722 $421,690,961 $26,203,025 $9,242,856 $40,223,927 $14,053,983

New Hampshire 516,809,204 272,629,666 16,046,227 6,421,244 26,518,039 8,203,172

Vermont 360.330,089 194,931,444 22.585,624 7.915.414 14,304,651 6,726.289

Massachusetts 4,956,578,913 3,243,498,159 35,986,572 9,270,398 239,267,199 71.662.525

Rhode Island 799,349,601 523,417.256 5,604.873 1.333.784 58,140,761 10,218,578

Connecticut 1,414,635.063 850,340,718 17.451,207 5.195.715 98,683,323 20,391,447

New England 8,823,325,592 5.506,508,204 123,877,528 38,379,411 477.137,900 131,255,994

New York 14,769,042,207 9,151,979.081 189,662.043 58.806,300 486,774,713 412.832,428

New Jersev 3,235,619.973 1,900,273.091 32.319,327 9.796,532 180,212,427 40,863,293

Pennsylvania 11,473,620.306 6.591.055,583 160,190.227 54,175,943 515,945,638 16t.383.753

Southern N. Atlantic 29,478,282,486 17,643.307,755 382,171,597 122,778,775 1,182,932,778 622,079,474

North Atlantic dlvisiop 38,301.608,078 23,149,815.959 506,049.125 161.158,186 1.660,070,678 753,335,468

Delaware * 230,260,976 134.431.240 67553.949 2,287,336 12.471,865 3.735.338

Marvland 1,511,488.172 904.469,735 31.397,196 9,176.116 54,750,990 27,193,340

District of Columbia... 1.040,383,173 830.214.062 1,050,000 142,863 7.668,599 7,216.326

Virginia 1,287,970,180 674.544.741 53.776,806 10.985.397 36.040,103 '35.570.48S

West Virginia 840.000.149 364.305.954 36.387,109 5.786.402 25,466,119 19,260,508

Northern S. Atlantic. 4,910,102,650 2,907,995,732 129,165,060 28,378,114 136,397,676 92,976.001

North Carolina 842,072,218 399,567,905 48,658.045 10,331,877 42,238,322 36,669.724

South Carolina 585,853,222 252,766.767 31.457.603 7,412,083 48,144,618 24,891.557

Georgia 1,167,445,671 563,155,476 57,293.670 11.153,042 46,756,710 42,509,939

Florida 431,409,200 223,396.227 15,528,803 2.338.576 10,428.895 11.374,000

Southern S. Atlantic. 3,026,780,311 1,438,886,375 152,938,121 31,235.578 147,568,545 114.445.220

South Atlantic division 7,936,882,961 4.346.882.107 282.103.181 59.613.692 283,966,221 207.421.221

Ohio 5,946.969,466 3.383,834.60S 173.847,240 38.549.941 216,947,620 90,599.335

Indiana 3,105,781,739 1.760.05S.958 151,798,200 29,374,682 84,079,065 52.137,773

Illinois 8,816,556,191 5,468.492,926 268.731.540 48,593.486 227.543.320 150,074,503

Michigan 3,282,419.117 123.265,031 31.363.928 87,255.370 52.261,341

Wisconsin 2.838.678.239 1.682,068.672 131.790.769 32,347.828 87.122,618 44,588,620

Eastern North Central 23,990,404,752 14,313,751,65! 849.432.780 180.229,865 702,947,993 389.661.578

Minnesota 3,343,722.076 1.982,552.889 126,353.319 35,673,607 45.121,997 35,947.501

Iowa 4,048,516,076 2,491,273,897 335,681,475 64,498,622 30,413,593 44,450.260

Missouri 3,759.597,451 2,233,763,541 204,030,528 32,137,971 92.524,919 82.726,049

North Dakota 735,802,909 371,303,432 65.582,944 18,260,984 1.910,251 7,930.310

South Dakota 679,840.939 381,435 856 89,192.677 13.841,321 2.723,430 8,290,763

Nebraska 2,009,563,633 1,086.579,628 188,527,537 27,125,233 24,803,815 21,728,589

Kansas , 2,253.224.243 1,135,004.695 228,644.982 31.967.789 21.425.718 30,775,625

Western N. Central.. 16,830,267,327 9,681,915,441 1,238.013,462 223,505,527 218,923,723 235,849,097

North Central division, 40,820.672.079 23,995.667,095 2,087,446,242 403.735,392 921,871,716 625,510,675

Kentuckv 1,527,486,230 859,247,997 91,489,357 17,682.829 30,907,185 41,372,698

Tennessee 1,104.223.979 557.504.977 76,205,984 17,413,988 24,108,906 39,275,807

Alabama 965.014,261 446,747,512 50,746,958 10,251,443 42,387,488 35,095,727

Mississippi 688.249,022 279,513,715 66,718,297 11,326,725 19,093,957 28,898,636

Eastern S. Central... 4,284,973,492 2,143,014,201 285,160,596 56,674.985 116,497,536 144,642,S68

Louisiana 1.032,229,006 489,295,161 45.000.956 32.623.258 48,584,306 31,828,795

Arkansas 803.907.972 397,239,116 54,956,832 10.237,570 15,869,560 24,550,073

Indian Territory 459,021,355 216,761.600 49.026.248 7,878,960 2.276,402 8,827.829

Oklahoma 636.013,700 358.088.178 72.617.501 13.146.030 3,649.170 9,867,165

Texas 2,836,322,003 1,554.714.941 286.691,300 37,379.975 43.462,409 63,820,910

Western S. Central.. 6,767,494.036 3,016,098,996 508,292,837 101,265,793 113,841,847 138,894,802

South Central division. 10,052,467,528 5,159.113,197 793.453.433 157,940.778 230,339,383 283,537,670

Montana 746,311.213 328,554,427 53.168,425 5,321,317 7,842,513 6,967,216

Idaho 342,871,863 147,771.554 25,944.298 4,781,769 3,313,940 3,800.525

Wyoming 329.572,241 131,628,903 35.965.009 1,785.089 986.456 2.160,996

Colorado 1.207.542.107 637,662.744 57.362,874 5,352,441 44,520,856 15,828.519

New Mexico 332,262,650 154.644.570 30,294,584 1,272,299 1,638,826 3.920,371

Rocky Mountain 2,958,560,074 1,400,262,198 202,735,190 18,512,915 58,302,591 32,677,627

Arizona 306.302.305 156,425,691 16,582,642 1,134,026 3.598,484 2,970,628

Utah 487,768,615 258.595.674 20.435,227 3,598.244 8,470,645 6,331.183

Nevada 220,734,507 122.296.975 14,917,223 971.729 717,016 930,105

Basin and plateau... 1,014,805^427 537,318,340 51,935,092 5,703,999 12.786,145 10,232,006

Washington 1,051,671.432 546,503,248 30,620.408 7.530,973 32,069,434 13,793.355

Oregon 852,053,232 541.457,965 36,011,028 7,461,912 13,655,213 11,625.311

California ■ 4,115.491,106 2.664.472.025 83.438.037 23.332,016 84,692,799 60,469.970

Pacific 6,019,215,770 3,752,433,238 150,069,473 38.324,901 130,417,446 85,888.636

Western division 9,992,581,271 5,690,013.776 404,739,755 62.541,815 201,506,182 128,798,269

Continental U. S 107,104,211,917 62,341,492,134 4,073,791,736 844,989.863 3,297.754,180 1,998,603.303

•Exclusive of railroads and telegraph and telephone systems, which in certain states are classed as real property.

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