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WORK OF THE 59TH CONGRESS--SECOND SESSION.

Session began Dec. 3, 1906; ended March 4, 1907. Total appropriations, $919,948,679.63.

has reached the age of 62 years or over, shall be Age disability pension bill passed by senate Jan. I entitled to receive a Pension as follows: In case

11, 1907; by house seb. 5, 1907; approved Feb. such person has reached the age of 62 years, $12 6, 1907. '

per month; 70 years, $15; 75 years or over, $20. Christopher Columbus menuorial hill passed by sen Rank in service will not be considered in applicaete March 3, 1907; by house same date; ap tions filed under this act. Persons now receiving proved Merch 4, 1907.

pensions and who are eligible may apply under the Denatured alcohol bill passed by house Feb 7. new law, but no' person receiving a greater pen

1907; by senate March 1, 1907; approved March sion under any other law than he would be enti2, 1907.

tled to under this act shall be pensionable under Expatriation bill passed by house Jan. 21, 1907; its provisions. Double pensions are prohibited.

by senate March 1, 1907: approved March 2, 1907. (See Citizenship in the United States.'')

PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURAL BANK. Foundation for promotion of industrial peace bill

For the purpose of aiding in the establishment passed by senate Feb. 27, 1907; by house March

and operation of an agriculiural bank in the Phil1, 1907; approved March 2, 1907.

ippines, the Fhilippine commission is empowered Immigration bill passed (at first session) by sen

to guarantee an income of not exceeding 4 per cent ate May 23, 1906; by house June 25, 1906; agreed

per anrum upon cash capital invested in it. "The to in conference at second session and approved

guaranty shall be made to a company organized Feb. 20, 1907.

under the laws of the Philippine islands, with its Philippine agricultural bank bill passed by senate

principal othices in Manila. The bank shall not Feb. 25, 1907; by house March 3, 1907; approved

grant loans except to those engaged in agriculture March 4, 1907.

and for the sole purpose of assisting agriculture in Political contributions by corporations bill passed

the islands. No loan exceeding $5,000 shall be made by aenate June 9, 1906 (first session); by house

except upon the written authority of the secretary Jan. 21, 1907; approved Jan. 26, 1907.

of finance and justice of the islands. Interest on Kailway employes' sixteen-hours bill passed by

loans shall not exceed 10 per cent per annum. senate Jan. 10, 1907; by house Feb. 23, 1907; approved March 4, 1907.

POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS BY CORPORASpecial delivery stamp bill passed by house Feb.

TIONS. 18, 1907; by senate March 1, 1907; approved

It shall be unlawful for any national bank, or March 2, 1907. Writs of error in criminal cases bill passed by

any corporation organized by authority of any laws senate Feb. 13. 1907; by house on same date.

of congress, to make money contribution in con(For work ot first session of 59th congress, see

nection with any election to any political office. The Daily News Almanac and Year-Book for 1907,

It shall also be unlawful for any corporation what

ever to make a mney contribution in connection page 167.)

with any election at which presidential and viceSALARIES OF CONGRESSMEN.

presidential electors or a representative in con

gress is to be voted for or any election by, any On and after Merch 4, 1907, the compensation of state legislature of a United States senator. Every the speaker of the house of representatives, the corporation violating this law shall be subject to a vice-president of the United States and the heads fine not exreeding $5,000, and any director or of of execctive departments who are members of the ficer of any corporation who shall consent to such president's cabinet shall be at the rate of $12,000 contribution shall upon conviction be fined not per annum each, and the compensation of senators, more than $1,000 nor less than $250, or by imprisrepresentatives in congress, delegates from terri onment for not more than one year, or by both fine tories and resident commissioner from Porto Rico and imprisonment. shall be at the rate of $7,500 per annum each. (Sec. 4 of the legislative, executive and judicial

DENATURED ALCOHOL. appropriation bill, approved Feb. 26, 1907.)

Notwithstanding anything contained in the act SPECIAL DELIVERY STAMPS.

entitled "An act for the withdrawal from bond

tax free of comestic alcohol when rendered unfit After July 1, 1907, when in addition to the for beverage or liquid medicinal uses by mixture stamps required to transmit any letter or package with suitable denaturing materials," approved June of mail matter through the mails there shall be 7, 1906, domestic alcohol when suitably denatured attached to the envelope or covering 10 cents' worth may he withdrawn from bond without the payment of ordinary stamps of any denomination, with the of internal-revenue tax and used in the manufacwords "special delivery" or their equivalent writ. ture of ether and chloroform and other definite ten or printed on the envelope or covering, the chemical substances where the alcohol is changed said letter or package shall be delivered in all re into some other chemical substance and does not spects as though it bore a regulation “special de appear in the finished product as alcohol. Rum of livery" stamp.

not less than 150 degrees proof may be withdrawn

for denaturation only in accordance with the provi. CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS MEMORIAL. sions of the act of June 7, 1906, and of this act. There shall be erected in the city of Washing

The act provides for the establishment under the ton, D. C., a suitable memorial to Christopher Co

supervision of the commissioner of internal revlumbus, for which $100,000 is appropriated. For

enue of central denaturing bonded warehouses. the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the act a commission, consisting of the chairman of WRITS OF ERROR IN CRIMINAL CASES. the senate committee on library of the 59th con A writ of error may be taken by the United gress, the chairman of the committee on library of States from the District or Circuit courts direct to the house of representatives of the 59th congress,

the Supreme court of the United States in all crimthe secretary of state, the secretary of war and inal cases in the following instances: the supreme knight of the Order of the Knights of From a decision or judgment quashing. setting Columbus, shall be created with full authority to aside or sustaining a demurrer to any indictment select a site and design and superintend the con or to any count thereof. where such decision or struction of the memorial.

judgment is based upon the invalidity or construc

tion of the statute upon which the indictment is. AGE DISABILITY PENSIONS.

founded. Any person who served ninety days or more in From a decis:on arresting a judgment of convic. the army or navy of the United States in the civil tion for insufficiency of the indictment, where such war or sixty days in the war with Mexico, who decision is based upon the invalidity or construc

1 tle mmerce, toonger than li ha

shall of the period oberen

tion of the statute upon which the indictment is Whereas, the president desiring that this award founder.

shall form the nucleus of a fund the income of From the decision or judgment sustaining a spe which shall be ex;ended for bringing together in cial plea in bar, when the defendant has not been conference at the city of Washington, especially put in jeopardy.

during the sessions of congress, representatives of The writ of error in all such cases shall be taken labor and capital for the purpose of discussing inwithin thirty days and shall have precedence over dustrial prcblems, with the view of arriving at a all other cases. No such writ of error shall be al. better understanding between employers and emlowed the United States where there has been a ployes, and thus promoting industrial peace; verdict in favor of the defendant.

therefore,

Be it enacted, etc., That the chief justice of the

United States, the secretary of agriculture, and HOURS OF WORK FOR RAILWAY EMPLOYES. the secretary of commerce and labor, and their

It shall be unlawful for any common carrier in successors in office, together with a representative any territory cr tlle District of Columbia, or en

of labor and a representative of capital and two gaged in interstate commerce, to require or permit

persons to represent the gereral public, to be ap'any employe to remain on duty longer than sixteen

pointed by the president of the United States, are consecutive hours, and whenever he shall have

hereby created trustees of an establishment by the been on duty for that length of time he shall be name of the Foundation for the Promotion of Inrelieved and not be permitted to resume work until

dustrial Peace, with authority to receive the Nobel he has had at least ten consecutive hours off duty;

peace prize awarded to the president and by him and no such employe who has been on duty sixteen

devoted to this foundation, and to administer it lours in the aggregate in any twenty-four-hour

in accordance with the purposes herein defined. period shall be allowed again to go on duty with

Any vacancies occurring in the number of trustees out having had at least eight consecutive hours off

shall be filled in like manner by appointment by duty. No operator, train dispatcher or other em

the president of the United States. ploye who by the use of the telegraph dispatches,

Sec. 2. That it sliall be the duty of the trustees reports, transmits, receives or delivers orders per

herein mentioned to invest and reinvest the printaining to the movements of trains shall be per cipal of this foundation, to receive any additions mitted to remain on duty more than nine hours in which may come to it by gift, bequest, or devise, any twenty-four-hour period in towers, offices and

and to invest and reinvest the same; and to pay stations operated night and day, nor more than over the income from the foundation and its addithirteen hours in places operated only in the day tions, or such part thereof as they may from time time, except that in cases of emergency employes to time apportion, to a committee of nine persons, may remain on duty for four additional hours in

to be known as the industrial peace committee,' the twenty-foui on not exceeding three days in any

to be selected by the trustees, three members of week. The provisions in the act shall not apply

which committee shall serve for the period of one in any case of unavoidable accident nor to the

year, three members for the period of two years, crews of wrecking or relief trains. The penalty

and three members for the period of three years; for each violation of the law is a fine of not ex three members of this committee to be representa ceeding $500.

tives of labor, three to be representatives of capi. tal, each chosen for distinguished services in the

industrial world in promoting righteous industrial FOUNDATION FOR THE PROMOTION OF IN

peace, and three members 'to represent the general DUSTRIAL PEACE.

public. Any vacancies which may occur in this Trustees-Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller, presi committee shall be filled by selection and appoint

dent; Seth Low of New York, representing the ment in the manner prescribed for the original general public, treasurer; John Mitchell of the appointment of the committee, and when the comUnited Mine Workers of America, representing

mittee has first been fully selected and appointed labor, secretory; Thomas G. Bush of Birming

each member thereafter appointed shall serve for ham, Ala., representing general public; Marvin a period of three years or the unexpired portion A. Hughitt, representing capital, and Secretaries of such term. James Wilson and Oscar Solomon Straus.

Sec. 3. That the industrial peace committee Industrial Peace Committee-Archbishop John Ire herein constituted shall arrange for an annual con

land, Marcus M. Marks of New York, Ralph M. ference in the city of Washington, D. C., of repEasley of New York, Elbert H. Gary, chairman resentatives of labor and capital for the purpose finance committee United States Steel Corpora

of discussing industrial problems, with the view tion; Lucius Tuttle, president of Boston & Maine of arriving at a better understanding between emrailroad; J. Gunby Jordan of Columbus, Ga.; ployers and employes; it shall call special conSamuel Gompers, president of the American Fed ferences in case of great industrial crises and at eration of Labor: Daniel Keefe, president of the

such other times as may be deemed advisable, and Longshoremen's association, and Warren S. Stone,

take such other steps as in its discretion will propresident International Brotherhood of Locomo

mote the general purposes of the foundation, subtive Engineers.

ject, however, to such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the trustees. The committee shall

receive suggestions for the subjects to be discussed: The origin and purpose of the "Foundation for

at the annual or other conferences and be charged the Promotion of Industrial Peace' are fully

with the conduct of the proceedings at such conshown in the following bill passed by congress ferences. The committee shall also arrange for the March 2, 1907:

publication of the results of the annual and speWhereas, Alfred Bernard Nobel of the city of

cial conferences. Stockholm, in the kingdom of Sweden, having by Sec. 4. That all expenditures authorized by the his last will and testament provided that the trustees shall be paid exclusively from the accrued residue of his estate shall constitute a fund the

income and not from the principal of the foundaincome from which shall be annually awarded in

tion. prizes to those persons who have during the year Sec. 5. That the trustees herein named are aucontributed most materially to benefit mankind. thorized to hold real and personal estate in the and having further provided that one share of said District of Columbia to an amount not exceeding income shall be awarded to the person who shall $3,000,000, and to use and dispose of the same have most or best promoted the fraternity of na

for the purposes of this foundation. tions and the abolishment or diminution of stand Sec. 6. That the principal office of the foundaing armies and the formation and increase of peace tion shall be located in the District of Columbia, congresses; and,

but offices may be maintained and meetings of the Whereas, the Norwegian parliament having, un trustees and committees may be held in other der the terms of said foundation, elected a com places, to be provided for in by-laws to be adopted mittee for the distribution of the peace prize, and from time to time by the trustees, for the proper this committee having in the year 1906 awarded execution of the purposes of the foundation. the aforesaid prize to Thecdore Roosevelt, presi Sec. 7. That the Foundation for the Promotion dent of the United States, for his services in be- 1 of Indirstrial Peace is hereby authorized and emhalf of the peace of the world; and,

powered, at its discretion, to co-operate with any

Kaance commuttle, preordan of

institutions or societies having similar or like pur | entering the United States in violation of law poses.

and such as become public charges from causes Sec. 8. That this act shall take effect imme existing prior to their landing, shall be deported diately on its passage.

at any time within three years after their arrival. IMMIGPATION LAW OF THE UNITED STATES.

ANARCHISTS NOT. ADMITTED. The immigration law as revised by the 59th con No person who disbelieves in or who is opposed gress provides for a poll tax of $4 for every alien to all organized government, or who is a mem-, entering the United States. This tax is not levied ber of or affiliated with any organization enterupon aliens who shall enter the United States after taining and teaching such belief in or opposition an uninterrupted residence of at least one year, to all organized government, or who advocates immeriiately preceding such entrance, in Canada, or teaches the duty, necessity or propriety of the Newfoundland, Cuha or Mexico, nor upon aliens in unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or transit through the United States, nor upon aliens officers, either of specific individuals or of ofarriving in Guam, Porto Rico or Hawaii. The ficers generally, of the government of the United money collected from poll taxes is to go into the States, or of any other organized government, betreasury and constitute a permanent appropriation cause of his or their official character, shall be for defraying the expenses of regulating immi- permitted to enter the United States or any tergration.

ritory or place subject to the jurisdiction thereot. Wherever the president 'shall be satisfied that

COMMISSION OF INVESTIGATION. passports issued by any foreign government to its citizens to go to any country other than the United Section 39 of the act creates a commission conStates or to ally insular possession of the United sisting of three senators, three meinbers of the States, or to tile canal zone, are being used for the house of representatives and three persons to be purpose of enabling the holders to come to the appointed by the president of the United States. continental territory of the United States to the This commission is to make full inquiry by subdetriment of labor conditions therein, the president committee or otherwise into the subject of immay refuse to permit such citizens of the country migration. It is authorized to send for persons or issuing such passports to enter the continental ter papers, travel in the United States or in foreign ritory of the United States from such other coun countries, examine witnesses and to employ the try or from sich insular possessions or from the necessary clerical help. It shall report to concanal zune. [This paragraph was designed to pre gress the conclusions reached by it and make vent the landing of Japanese laborers on the Pa such recommendations as it may deem proper. cific coast from the Hawaiian islands. ]

The president is also authorized in the name of

the United States to call, in his discretion, an CLASSES EXCLUDED.

international conference, to assemble at such The following classes are excluded from ad

point as may be agreed upon, or to send special mission into the United States: All idiots, im commissioners to any foreign country, for the purbeciles, feeble-minded persons, epileptics, insane pose of regulating by international agreement, persons and persons who have been insane within subject to the advice and consent of the senate tive years; persons who have had two or more at of the United States, the immigration of aliens tacks of insanity at any time previously; pau to the United States; of providing for the menpers; persons likely to become a public charge; tal, moral and physical examination of such aliens professional beggars; persons afflicted with tuber by American consuls or other officers of the govculosis or with a loathsome or dangerous con ernment at the ports of embarkation or else. tagious disease; persons who have committed a where; of securing the assistance of foreign gov. felony or other crime involving moral turpitude; ernments in their own territories to prevent the polygamists or persons who believe in the prac evasion of the laws of the United States governtice of polygamy; anarchists or persons who be. ing immigration to the United States; of entering lieve in or advocate the overthrow by force or into such international agreements as may be propviolence of the government of the United States, er to prevent the immigration of aliens who, under or of all governments, or of all forms of law, the laws of the United States, are or may be or the assassination of public officials; prostitutes, | excluded, and of regulating any matters pertainor women and girls coming into the United States ing to such immigration. for any immoral purpose; contract laborers who

[Under this section the following commissioners have been induced to migrate to this country by

were appointed in March, 1907: Senators William offers of employment or in consequence of agree P. Dillingham of Vermont, Henry Cabot Lodge ments of any kind, verbal or written, express or

of Massachusetts and Asbury C. Latimer of South implied, to perform labor in this country of any

Carolina, to represent the senate; Representatives kind, skilled or unskilled; any person whose tick

B. F. Howell of New Jersey, A. P. Gardner of et or passage is paid for with the money of an

Massachusetts and J. L. Burnett of Alabama, to other, or who is assisted by others to come, unless

represent the house of representatives,' and Lait is satisfactorily shown that such person does

bor Commissioner Charles P. Niell of Texas, Prof. not belong to one of the foregoing excluded classes Jeremiah W. Jenks of Cornell university, New and that said ticket or passage was not paid for

York, and Ira E. Bennett of California, to repby any corporation, society, municipality or for

resent the country at large.] eign government, directly or indirectly; all children under 16 years of age unaccompanied by one

DIVISION OF INFORMATION. or both of their parents, at the discretion of the Authority is given the commissioner-general of secretary of commerce and labor. Nothing in the immigration to establish under the control of the act shall exclude, if otherwise admissible, persons secretary of commerce and labor a division of convicted of an offense purely political, not in information in the bureau of immigration and volving moral turpitude. Skilled labor may be naturalization, the duty of which shall be to imported if labor of like kind unemployed cannot promote a beneficial distribution of aliens admitbe found in this country. The provisions of the ted into the United States among the several law applicable to contract labor shall not be held states and territories desiring immigration. Corto exclude professional actors, artists, lecturers, respondence shall be had with the proper officials singers, clergymen, professors for colleges or sem of the states and territories and the division shall inaries, persons belonging to any recognized learned gather from all available sources useful informaprofession or persons employed strictly as per tion regarding the resources, products and physsonal or domestic servants.

ical characteristics of each state and territory It is unlawful to assist or encourage the im and shall publish such information in different portation or migration of any alien by promise languages and distribute the publications among of employment through advertisements printed in all admitted aliens who shall ask for such inforany foreign country. This, however, does not ap mation at the immigrant stations. State or ply to states or territories advertising the in territorial agents may, under regulations preducements they offer to immigration thereto. scribed by the commissioner of immigration, be

All aliens brought to this country in violation admitted to such stations for the purpose of preof law shall be immediately sent back to the senting the inducements of the respective states owners of the vessels bringing them. Any alien and territories to aliens to settle therein.

UNITED STATES CIVIL SERVICE.

are: Post to 55:11, 18 to eneral de pare subject to

5 feet and weland 1

Civil-service act approved Jan. 16, 1883. Officers-Three commissioners are appointed by ative capacity and fitness to discharge the duties the president to assist him in classifying the gov. to be performed. It is necessary to obtain an averernment offices and positions, formulating rules age percentage of 70 to be eligible for appointand enforcing the law. Their office is in Washing ment, except that applicants entitled to preference ton, D. C. The chief examiner is appointed by because of honorable discharge from the military the commissioners to secure accuracy, uniformity or naval service for disability resulting from and justice in the proceedings of the examining wounds or sickness incurred in the line of duty boards. The secretary to the commission is ap need obtain but 65 per cent. The period of eligipointed by the president.

bility is one year. General Rules-The fundamental rules governing Qualifications of Applicants-No person will be appointments to government positions are found in examined who is not a citizen of the United the civil-service act itself. Based upon these are | States; who is not within the age limitations premany other regulations formulated by the commis scribed; who is physically disqualified for the serysion and promulgated by the president from time ice which he seeks; who has been guilty of crimito time as new contingencies arise. The present nal, infamous, dishonest or disgraceful conduct; rules were approved March 20, 1903, and went 1. who has been dismissed from the public service into effect April 15, 1903. In a general way they for delinquency and misconduct or has failed to require that there must be free, open exam receive absolute appointment after probation; who inations of applicants for positions in the public is addicted to the habitual use of intoxicating service; that appointments shall be made from liquors to excess, or who has made a false statethose graded highest in the examinations, that ap ment in his application. The age limitations in pointments to the service in Washington shall be the more important branches of the public service apportioned among the states and territories ac are: Postoffice, 18 to 45 years; rural letter carcording to population; that there shall be a pe. riers, 17 to 55; internal revenue, 21 years and riod (six months) of probation before any absolute over; railway mail, 18 to 35; lighthouse, 18 to 50; appointment is made; that no person in the public life saving, 18 to 45; general departmental, 20 service is for that reason obliged to contribute to and over. These age limitations are subject to any political fund or is subject to dismissal for change by the commission. They do not apply to refusing to so contribute; that no person in the applicants of the preferred class. Applicants for public service has any right to use his official the position of railway mail clerk must be at least authority or influence to coerce the political action 5 feet 6 inches in height, exclusive of boots or of any person. Applicants for positions shall not shoes, and weigh not less than 135 pounds in ordibe questioned as to their political or religious be nary clothing and have no physical defects. Apliefs and no discrimination shall be exercised plicants for certain other positions have to come against or in favor of any applicant or employe on | up to similar physical requirements. account of his religion or politics. The classified Method of Appointment-Whenever a vacancy excivil service shall include all officers and employesists the appointing officer makes requisition upon in the executive civil service of the United States the civil-service commission for a certification of except laborers and persons whose appointments names to fill the vacancy, specifying the kind of are subject to confirmation by the senate.

position vacant, the sex desired and the salary. Examinations-These are conducted by boards of The commission thereupon takes from the proper examiners chosen from among persons in governi- register of eligibles the names of three persons ment employ and are held twice a year in all the standing highest of the sex called for and certifies states and territories at convenient places. In Illi them to the appointing officer, who is required to nois, for example, they are usually held at Cairo, make the selection. He may choose any one of Chicago and Peoria. The dates are announced the three names, returning the other two to the through the newspapers or by other means. They | register to a wait further certification. The time can always be learned by applying to the commis of examination is not considered, as the highest sion or to the nearest postoffice or custom house. in average percentage on the register must be cerThose who desire to take examination are advised tified first. "If after a probationary period of six to write to the commission in Washington for the months the name of the appointee is continued on "Manual of Examinations," which is sent free to the roll of the department in which he serves the all applicants. It is revised semiannually to Jan. appointment is considered absolute. 1 and July 1. The January edition contains a sched Removals-No person can be removed from a ule of the spring examinations and the July edi competitive position except for such cause as will tion contains a schedule of the fall examinations. promote the efficiency of the public service and for Full information is given as to the methods and reasons given in writing. No examination of witrules governing examinations, manner of making nesses nor any trial shall be required except in application, qualifications required, regulations for the discretion of the officer making the removal. rating examination papers, certification for and Salaries-Entrance to the departmental service is chances of appointment, and as far as possible it usually in the lowest grades, the higher grades beoutlines the scope of the different subjects of gen ing generally filled by promotion. The usual eneral and technical examinations. These are prac- trance grade is about $900, but the applicant may tical in character and are designed to test the rel. I be appointed at $840, $760 or even $600.

TRIAL OF WILL J. DAVIS FOR IROQUOIS FIRE.

Will J. Davis, theater manager, was indicted change of venue. Oct. 8 Judge Smith decided with others Feb. 20, 1904, for involuntary man that the case should be tried at Danville, Ill. slaughter in connection with the burning of the After some postponements the trial began before Iroquois theater in Chicago, Dec. 30, 1903, in which Judge E. R. E. Kimbrough in that city March 3, 596 persons lost their lives. Feb. 9, 1905, the in 1907. , A jury was secured March 5, hut the clali dictment was quashed by Judge Kersten of Cook was set up by the defense that the Chicago buildcounty and Judge Green of Peoria county, but a ing ordinance under which the indictment was new indictment was returned by the grand jury brought was defective, and, the judge taking the March 4 of the same year. Jan. 23, 1906, Judge same view, no testimony was taken, and on March Kavanagh denied a motion to quash the indict 9 the jury, by direction of the court, gave a verment, and June 14 Judge Ben M. Smith granted a "dict of not guilty.

SHEA CONSPIRACY TRIALS.

Cornelius P. Shea and others were charged with conspiracy in connection with the teamsters' strike in Chicago in May, 1905. They were indicted June 28 the same year and reindicted July 25, 1906. The first trial began Sept. 13, 1906, and ended Jan. 19, 1907, in a disagreement. The second trial

began Feb. 3 and ended Feb. 21, 1907, in acquitta!. It took ninety days to get the first jury and fourteen to get the second, more than 5,000 talesmen being examined. The estimated cost of the two trials to the county was $45.000.

PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE ON SHIP SUBSIDIES.

Sent to congress Jan. 23, 1907. To the Senate and House of Representatives: I | to offset the expense by giving some advantage call your attention to the great desirability of to the ship itself. enacting legislation to help American shipping

The proposed law which has been introduced in

congress is in no sense experimental. It is based and American trade by encouraging the building

on the best and most successful precedents, as, and running of lines of large and swift steamers for instance, on the recent Cunard contract with to South America and the orient. The urgent the British government. As far as South America need of our country's making an effort to do is concerned its aim is to provide from the something like its share of its own carrying trade | Atlantic and Pacific coasts better American on the ocean has been called to our attent on in lines in the great ports of South America than striking fashion by the experiences of Secretary the present European lines. The South AmerRoot on his recent South American tour. The re ican republics now see only our warships. Under sult of these experiences he has set forth in his this bill our trade friendship will be mad address before the trans-Mississippi commercial evident to them. The bill proposes to build congress at Kansas City, Mo., on Nov. 20 last large-sized steamships of sixteen knots speed. an address so important that it deserves the There are nearly two hundred such steamships careful study of all public men. The facts set already in the world's foreign trade, and forth by Mr. Root are striking, and they cannot over three-fourths of them now draw subsidiesbut arrest the attention of our people. The great postal or admiralty, or both. The bill will encontinent to the south of us, which should be courage our shipyards, which are almost as necknit to us by the closest commercial ties, is hard essary to the national defense as battle ships, and ly in direct commercial communication with us the efficiency of which depends in large measure at all, its commercial relations being almost ex upon their steady employment in large construcclusively with Europe. Between all the principal tion. The proposed bill is of importance to our South American ports and Europe lines of swift navy because it gives a considerable fleet of aux. and commodious steamers, subsidized by their home iliary steamships, such as is now almost wholly governments, ply regularly. There is no such lacking, and also provides for an effective naval line of steamers between these ports and the reserve. The bill provides for fourteen steamUnited States. In consequence our shipping in ships, subsidized to the extent of over $1,500,South American ports is almost a negligible quan 000, from the Atlantic coast, all to run tity; for instance, in the year ended June 30, to South American ports. It provides, on the 1905, there entered the port of Rio de Janeiro Pacific coast, for twenty-two steamers, subsidized over 3,000 steamers and sailing vessels from to the extent of $2,250,000, some of those Europe, but from the United States no steamers to run to South America. most of them and only seven sailing vessels, two of which to Manila, Australia and Asia. Be it remembere! were in distress. One prime reason for this state that while the ships will be owned on the coas s of things is the fact that those who do business the cargoes will largely be supplied by the inon the sea do business in a world not of natural terior, and that the bill will benefit the Missiscompetition but of subsidized competition.

sippi valley as much as it benefits the seaboard. State aid to steamship lines is as much a part I have laid stress upon the benefit to be exof the commercial syster of to-day as state em pected from our trade with South America. The ployment of consuls to promote business. Our lines to the orient are also of vital importance. commercial competitors in Europe pay in the ag The commercial possibilities of the Pacific are gregate some $25,000,000 a year to their steam unlimited, and for national reasons it is imperaship lines-Great Britain paying nearly $7,000,000. tive that we should have direct and adequate Japan pays between $3,000,000 and $4,000,000. By communication by American lines with Hawaii the proposed legislation the United States will and the Philippines. The existence of our present pay relatively less than any one of our com steamship lines on the Pacific is seriously threatpetitors pays. Three years ago the trans-Missis ened by the foreign subsidized lines. Our comsippi congress formally set forth as axiomatic munications with the markets of Asia and with our the statement that every ship is a missionary of own possessions in the Philippines, no less than our trade; that stea mship lines work for their own communications with Australia, should depend countries just as railroad lines work for their not upon foreign but upon our own steamships. The terminal points, and that it is as absurd for the southwest and the northwest should alike be United States to depend upon foreign ships to served by these lines, and if this is done they distribute its product as it would be for a de will also give to the Mississippi valley throughout partment store to depend upon wagons of a com its entire length the advantage of all transcontipeting house to deliver its goods. This state nental railways running to the Pacific coast. To ment is the literal truth. Moreover, it must be fail to establish adequate lines on the Pacific is remembered that American ships do not have to equivalent to proclaiming to the world that we contend merely against the subsidization of thir have neither the ability nor the disposition to foreign competitors. The higher wages and the contend for our rightful share of the commerce of greater cost of maintenance of American officers the orient, nor yet to protect our interests in and crews make it almost impossible for our the Philippines. It would surely be discret. people who do business on the ocean to compete itable for us to surrender to our commercial rivals on equal terms with foreign ships unless they the great commerce of the orient, the great comare protected as their fellow countrymen who do merce we should have with South America and business on land are protected. We cannot, as a even of our own communications with Hawaii country, afford to have the wages and the man and the Philippines. I earnestly hope for the enner of life of our seamen cut down, and the only actment of some law like the bill in question. alternative, if we are to have seamen at all, is

THEODORE ROOSEVELT. PARTY LINES IN CONGRESS SINCE 1879.

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