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tion of the statute upon which the indictment is founded.

From the decision or judgment sustaining a special plea in bar, when the defendant lias not been put in jeopardy.

The writ of error in all such cases shall be taken within thirty days and shall have precedence over all other cases. No such writ of error shall be allowed the United States where there has been a verdict in favor of the defendant.

HOURS OF WORK FOR RAILWAY EMPLOYES. It shall be unlawful for any common carrier in any territory or the District of Columbia, or engaged in interstate commerce, to require or permit 'any employe to remain on duty longer than sixteen consecutive hours, and whenever he shall have been on duty for that length of time he shall be relieved and not be permitted to resume work until lie has had at least ten consecutive hours off duty; and no such employe who has been on duty sixteen hours In the aggregate in any twenty-four-hour period shall be allowed again to go on duty without having had at least eight consecutive hours off duty. No operator, train dispatcher or other employe who by the use of the telegraph dispatches, reports, transmits, receives or delivers orders pertaining to the movements of trains shall be permitted to remain on duty more than nine hours in ■any twenty-four-hour period in towers, offices and stations operated night and day, nor more than thirteen hours in places operated only in the daytime, except that in cases of emergency employes may remain on duty for four additional hours in the twenty-foui on not exceeding three days in any week. The provisions in the act shall not apply In any case of unavoidable accident nor to the crews of wrecking or relief trains. The penalty for each violation of the law is a fine of not exceeding $500.


Trustees—Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller, president; Seth Low of New York, representing the general public, treasurer; John Mitchell of the United Mine Workers of America, representing labor, secretary; Thomas G. Bush of Birmingham, Ala., representing general public; Marvin A. Hughitt, representing capital, and Secretaries .Times Wilson and Oscar Solomon Straus.

Industrial Peace Committee—Archbishop John Ireland, Marcus M. Marks of New York, Ralph M. Easley of New York. Elbert H. Gary, chairman finance committee United States Steel Corporation; Lucius Tnttle, president of Boston & Maine railroad; J. Gunby Jordan of Columbus, Ga.; Samuel Gompers. president of the American Federation of Labor: Daniel Keefe, president of the Longshoremen's association, and Warren S. Stone, president International Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers.

The origin and purpose of the "Foundation for the Promotion of Industrial Peace" are fully shown in the following bill passed by congress March 2, 1907:

Whereas, Alfred Bernard Nobel of the city of Stockholm. In the kingdom of Sweden, having by his last will and testament provided that the residue of his estate shall constitute a fund the income from which shall be annually awarded in prizes to those persons who have during the year contributed most materially to benefit mankind, and having further provided that one share of said income shall be awarded to the person who shall have most or best promoted the fraternity of nations and the abolishment or diminution of standing armies and the formation and increase of peace congresses; and,

Whereas, the Norwegian parliament having, under the terms of said foundation, elected a committee for the distribution of the peace prize, and this committee having in the year 1906 awarded the aforesaid prize to Thecdore Roosevelt, president of the United States, for his services in behalf of the peace of the world; and.

Whereas, the president desiring that this award shall form the nucleus of a fund the income of which shall be expended for bringing together iu conference at the city of Washington, especially during the sessions of congress, representatives of labor and capital 'for the purpose of discussing industrial problems, with the view of arriving at a better understanding between employers and employes, and thus promoting industrial peace; therefore,

Be it enacted, etc.. That the chief justice of the United States, the secretary of agriculture, and the secretary of commerce and labor, and their successors in otlice, together with a representative of labor and a representative of capital and two persons to represent the general public, to be appointed hy the president of the United States, are hereby created trustees of an establishment by the name of the Foundation for the Promotion of Industrial Peace, with authority to receive the Nobel peace !>rize awarded to the president and by him devoted to this foundation, and to administer it in accordance with the purposes herein defined. Any vacancies occurring in the number of trustees shall be filled in like manner by appointment by the president of the United States.

Sec. 2. That it shall he the duty of the trustees herein mentioned to invest and reinvest the principal of this foundation, to receive any additions which may come to it by gift, bequest, or devise, and to invest and reinvest the same; and to pay over the income from the foundation and its additions, or such part thereof as they may from time to time apportion, to a committee of nine persons, to be known as "the industrial peace committee," to br. selected by the trustees, three members of which committee shall serve for the period of one year, three members for the period of two years, and three members for the period of three years; three members of this committee to be representatives of labor, three to be representatives of capi tal, each chosen for distinguished services in the industrial world in promoting righteous industrial peace, and three members to represent the general public. Any vacancies which may occur in this committee shall be filled by selection and appointment in the manner prescribed for the original appointment of the committee, and when the committee has first been fully selected and appointed eacli member thereafter appointed shall serve for a period of three years or the unexpired portion of such term.

Sec. 3. That tlie Industrial peace committee herein constituted shall arrange for an annual conference in the city of Washington, D. C, of representatives of labor and capital for the purpose of discussing industrial problems, with the view of arriving at a better understanding between employers and employes; it shall call special conferences in case of great industrial crises and at such other times as may I>e deemed advisable, and take such other steps as in its discretion will promote the general nnrposes of the foundation: subject, however, to such rules and regulations as mav be prescribed by the trustees. The committee shall receive suggestions for tlie subjects to be discussedat the annual or other conferences and be charged with the conduct of the proceedings at such conference*. The committee shtll also arrange for the publication of the results of the annual and special conferences.

Sec. 4. That all expenditures authorized bv the trustees shall be paid exclusively from the accrued income ind not from the principal of the foundation.

Sec. 5. Tint the trustees herein named are authorized to hold real and personal estate in the District of Columbia to an amount not exceeding 83,000,000, and to Iipp and dispose of the same for the purposes of this foundation.

Sec. (i. That the principal office of the foundation shall '>o located in the District of Columbia, but o*flces may be maintained and meetings of the trustees and committees mav be held In other places, to be provided for in by-laws to be adopted from time to time by the trustees, for the proper executim of the purposes of the foundation.

Sec. 7. That the Foundation for the Promotion of Industrial Peace Is hereby authorized and empowered, at its discretion, to co-operate with any institutions or societies having similar or like purposes.

Sec. 8. That this act shall take effect immeiliiitely on its passage.


The immigration law as revised by the 59th congress provides for a poll tax of $4 for every alien entering the United States. This tax Is not levied upon aliens who shall enter the United States after an uninterrupted residence of at least one year, Immediately preceding such entrance, in Canada, Newfoundland, Cuba or Mexico, nor upon aliens in transit through the United States, nor upon aliens arriving in Guam, Porto Rico or Hawaii. The money collected from poll taxes is to go into the treasury ami constitute a permanent appropriation for defraying ihe expenses of regulating -immigration.

Whenever the president "shall he satisfied that passports issued by any foreign government to its citizens to go to any country other than the United States or to «iiy insular possession of the United States, or to tne canal zone, are being used for the purpose of enabling the holders to come to the continental territory of the United States to the detriment of labor conditions therein, the president may refuse to permit such citizens of the country issuing such passports to enter the continental territory of the United States from such other country or from such insular possessions or from the canal zuiie. [This paragraph was designed to prevent the landing of Japanese laborers on the Pacific coast from the Hawaiian islands.]


The following classes are excluded from admission Into the United States: All idiots. Imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, epileptics, insane persons and persons who have been insane within live years; persons who have had two or more attacks of Insanity at any time previously; paupers; persons likely to become a public charge; professional beggars; persona afflicted with tuberculosis Or with a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease; persons who have committed a felony or other crime involving moral turpitude; polygamists or persons who believe in the practice of polygamy; anarchists or persons who believe in or advocate the overthrow by force or violence of the government of the United States, or of all governments, or of all forms of law, or the assassination of public officials; prostitutes, or women and girls coming into the United States for any immoral purpose; contract laborers who have been induced to migrate to this country by offers of employment or in consequence of agreements of any kind, verbal or written, express or implied, to perform labor in this country of any kind, skilled or unskilled; any person whose ticket or passage Is paid for with the money of another, or who is assisted by others to come, unless it is satisfactorily shown that such person docs not belong to one of the foregoing excluded classes and that said ticket or passage was not paid for hy any corporation, society, municipality or foreign government, directly or indirectly; all children under 16 years of age unaccompanied by one or both of their parents, at the discretion of the secretary of commerce and labor. Nothing In the act shall exclude, if otherwise admissible, persons convicted of an offense purely political, not Involving moral turpitude. Skilled labor may be imported if labor of like kind, unemployed cannot be found in this country. The provisions of the law applicable to contract labor shall not be held to exclude professional actors, artists, lecturers, singers, clergymen, professors for colleges or seminaries, persons belonging to any recognized learned profession or persons employed strictly as personal or domestic servants.

It is unlawful to assist or encourage the Importation or migration of any alien by promise of employment through advertisements printed in any foreign country. This, however, does not apply to states or territories advertising the inducements they offer to Immigration thereto.

All aliens brought to this country in violation of law shall be immediately sent back to the owners of the vessels bringing them. Any alien

entering the United States In violation of law and such as become public charges from causes existing prior to their landing, shall be deported at any time within three years after their arrival.


No person who disbelieves In or who Is opposed to all organized government, or who is a member of or affiliated with any organization entertaining and teaching such belief in or opposition to all organized government, or who advocates or teaches the duty, necessity or propriety of tiie unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers, either of specific Individuals or of officers generally, of the government of the United States, or of any other organized government, because of his or their official character, shall be permitted to enter the United States or any territory or place subject to the jurisdiction there'of.


Section 39 of the act creates a commission consisting of ttiree senators, three members of tinhouse of representatives and three persons to be appointed by the president of the United States. This commission is to make full inquiry by subcommittee or otherwise into the subject of immigration. It is authorized to send for persons or papers, travel in the United States or in foreign countries, examine witnesses and to employ the necessary clerical help. It shall report to congress the conclusions reached by it and make such recommendations as it may deem proper.

The president is also authorized in the name of tiie United States to call, in his. discretion, an international conference, to assemble at such point as may he agreed upon, or to send special commissioners to any'foreign country, for the purpose of regulating by international agreement, subject to the advice and consent of the senate of the United States, the immigration of aliens to the United States; of providing for the mental, moral and physical examination of such aliens by American consuls or other officers of the government at the ports of embarkation or elsewhere; of securing the assistance of foreign gov ernments In their own territories to prevent tiie evasion of the laws of the United States governing immigration to the United States; of entering Into such International agreements as may be proper to prevent the immigration of aliens who, under the laws of the United States, are or may he excluded, and of regulating any matters pertaining to such immigration.

[Under this section the following commissioners were appointed in March. 1907: Senators William P. Dillingham of Vermont, Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts and Asbury C. Latimer of South Carolina, to represent tiie senate; Representatives B. F. Howell of New Jersey, A. P. Gardner of Massachusetts and J. L. Burnett of Alabama, to represent the house of representatives, and Labor Commissioner Charles P. Niell of Texas, Prof. Jeremiah W. Jenks of Cornell university. New York, and" Ira E. Bennett of California, to represent the country at large.]


Authority Is given the commissioner-general of immigration to establish under the control of the secretary of commerce and labor a division of information in tiie bureau of Immigration and naturalization, the duty of which shall be to promote a beneficial distribution of aliens admitted into the United States among the several states and territories desiring immigration. Correspondence shall be had with the proper officials of the states and territories and the division shall gather from all available sources useful information regarding the resources, products and physical characteristics of each state and territory and shall publish such information in different languages and distribute the publications among all admitted aliens who shall ask for such information at the Immigrant stations. State or territorial agents may, under regulations prescribed by the commissioner of immigration, be admitted to such stations for the purpose of presenting the inducements of the resx>ectlve states and territories to aliens to settle therein.

Officers—Three commissioners are appointed by the president to assist him in classifying the government offices and positions, formulating rules and enforcing the law. Their office is in Washington, D. C. The chief examiner is appointed by the commissioners to secure accuracy, uniformity and justice in the proceedings of the examining boards. The secretary to the commission is ap"pointed by the president.

General Rules—The fundamental rules governing appointments to government positions are found in the civil-service act itself. Based upon these are many other regulations formulated by the commission and promulgated by the president from time to time as new contingencies arise. The present rules were approved March 20, 1903, and went into effect April 15, 1903. In a general way they require that there must be free, open examinations of applicants for positions in the public service; that appointments shall be made from those graded highest in the examinations; that appointments to the service in Washington shall be apportioned among the states and territories according to population; that there shall be a period (six months) of probation before any absolute appointment is made; that no person in the public service is for that reason obliged to contribute to any political fund or is subject to dismissal for refusing to so contribute; that no person in the public service has any right to use his official authority or influence to coerce the political action of any person. Applicants for .positions shall not be questioned as to their political or religious beliefs and no discrimination shall be exorcised against or In favor of any applicant or employe on account of his religion or politics. The classified civil service shall include all officers and employes in the executive civil service of the United States except laborers and persons whose appointments are subject to confirmation by the senate.

Examinations—These are conducted by boards of examiners chosen from among persons In government employ and are held twice a year in all the states and territories at convenient places. In Illinois, for example, they are usually held at Cairo, Chicago and Peoria. The dates are announced through the newspapers or by other means. They can always be learned by applying to the commission or to the nearest posroffice or custom house. Those who desire to take examination are advised to write to the commission In Washington for the "Manual of Examinations," which is sent free to all applicants. It is revised semiannually to Jan. 1 and July 1. The January edition contains a schedule of the spring examinations and the July edition contains a schedule of the fall examinations. Full information is given as to the methods and rules governing examinations, manner of making application, qualifications required, regulations for rating examination papers, certification for and chances of appointment, and as far as possible it outlines the scope of the different subjects of general and technical examinations. These are practical in character and are designed to test the rel


Civil-service act approved Jan. 16, 1883.

atlve capacity and fitness to discharge the duties to be performed. It is necessary to obtain an average percentage of 70 to be eligible for appoint ment, except that applicants entitled to preference because of honorable discharge from the military or naval service for disability resulting from wounds or sickness incurred in the line of duty need obtain but 65 per cent. The period of eligibility is one year.

Qualifications of Applicants—No person will be examined who is not a citizen of the United States; who is not within the age limitations prescribed; who is physically disqualified for the service which he seeks; who has been guilty of criminal, infamous, dishonest or disgraceful conduct; who has been dismissed from the public service for delinquency and misconduct or has failed to receive absolute appointment after probation; who is addicted to the habitual use of intoxicating liquors to excess, or who has made a false statement In his application. The age limitations in the more important branches of the public service are: Postottice, 18 to 45 years; rural letter carriers, 17 to 55; internal revenue, 21 years and over; railway mail, 18 to 35; lighthouse, 18 to 50; life saving, 18 to 45; general departmental, 20 and over. These age limitations are subject to change by the commission. They do not apply to applicants of the preferred class. Applicants for the position of railway mail clerk must be at least 5 feet 6 inches in height, exclusive of boots or shoes, and weigh not less than 135 pounds in ordinary clothing and have no physical defects. Applicants for certain other positions have to come up to similar physical requirements.

Method of Appointment—Whenever a vacancy exists the appointing officer makes requisition upon the civil-service commission for a certification of names to fill the vacancy, specifying the kind of position vacant, the sex desired and the salary. The commission thereupon takes from the proper register of ellglbles the names of three persona standing highest of the sex called for and certifies them to the appointing officer, who is required to make the selection. He may choose any one of the three names, returning the other two to the register to await further certification. The time of examination Is not considered, as the highest in average percentage on the register must be certified first. If after a probationary period of six months the name of the appointee Is continued on the roll of the department in which he serves the appointment Is considered absolute.

Removals—No person can be removed from a competitive position except for such cause as will promote the efficiency of the public service and for reasons given in writing. No examination of witnesses nor any trial shall be required except In the discretion of the officer making the removal.

Salaries—Entrance to the departmental service Is usually in the lowest grades, the higher grades being generally filled by promotion. The usual entrance grade Is about $900, but the applicant may be appointed at $840. $760 or even $600.

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Sent to congress To the Senate and House of Representatives: I call your attention to the great desirability of enacting legislation to help American shipping and American trade by encouraging the building and running of lines of large and swift steamers to South America and the orient. The urgent need of our country's making Hu effort to do something like its share of its own carrying trade on the ocean has been called to our atteut on in striking fashion by the experiences of Secretary Hoot on his recent South American tour. The resuit of these experiences he has set forth In his address before the trans-Mississippi commercial congress at Kansas City, Mo., on Nov. 20 last— an address so importaut that it deserves the careful study of all public men. The facts set forth by Mr. Root are striking, and they cannot but arrest the attention of our people. The great continent to the south of us, which should be knit to us by the closest commercial ties, Is hardly in direct commercial communication with us at all, its commercial relations being almost exclusively with Europe. Between all the principal South American ports and Europe lines of swift and commodious steamers, subsidized by their home

fovernments, ply regularly. There is no such ine of steamers between these ports and the United States. In consequence our shipping in South American ports is almost a negligible quantity; for instance, in the year ended June 30. 1005, there entered the port of Rio de Janeiro over 3,000 steamers and, sailing vessels f.oin Europe, but from the United States no steamers and only seven sailing vessels, two of which were In distress. One prime reason for this state of things is the fact that those who do business on the sea do business in a world not of natural competition but of subsidized competition.

State aid to steamship lines is as much a part of the commercial system of to-day as state employment of consuls to promote business. Our commercial competitors in Europe pay in the aggregate some $25,000,000 a year to their steamship lines—Great Britain paying nearly $7,000,000. Japan pays between $3,000,000 and $4,000,000. By the proposed legislation the United States will pay relatively less than any one of our competitors pays. Three years ago the trans-Mississlppi congress formally set forth as axiomatic the statement that every ship is a missionary of trade; that steamship lines work for their own countries just as railroad lines work for their terminal points, and that it is as absurd for the United States to depend upon foreign ships to distribute Its product as It would be for a department store to depend upon wagons of a competing house to deliver its goods. This statement is the literal truth. Moreover, it must be remembered that American ships do not have to contend merely against the subsidization of th Ir foreign competitors. The higher wages and the greater cost of maintenance of American officers and crews make it almost impossible for our people who do busfness on the ocean to compete on equal terms with foreign ships unless they are protected as their fellow countrymen who do business on land are protected. We cannot, as a country, afford to have the wages and the manner of life of our seamen cut down, and the only alternative, if we are to have seamen at all, 1*

Jan. 23, 1907.

to offset the expense by giving some advantage to the ship itself.

The proposed law which has been Introduced in congress is in no seuse experimental. It is based on the best and most successful precedents, as, for instance, on the recent Cunard contract with the British government. As far as South America Is concerned its aim is to provide from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts better American lines in the great ports of South America than the present European lines. The South American republics now see only our warships. Under this bill our trade friendship will be mad • evident to them. The bill proposes to build large-sized steamships of sixteen knots speed. There are nearly two hundred such steamships already In the world's foreign trade, and over three-fourths of them now draw subsidies— postal or admiralty, or both. The bill will encourage our shipyards, which are almost as necessary to the national defense as battle ships, and the efficiency of which depends In large measure upon their steady employment in large construction. The proposed bill Is of importance to our navy because it gives a considerable fleet of auxiliary steamships, such as is now almost wholly lacking, and also provides for an effective naval reserve. The bill provides for fourteen steamships, subsidized to the extent of over $1,500,000, from the Atlantic coast, all to run to South American ports. It provides, on the Pacific coast, for twenty-two steamers, subsidized to the extent of $2,250,000, some of those to run to South America, most of them to Manila, Australia and Asia. Be it remembere l that while the ships will be owned on the coas s the cargoes will largely be supplied by the interior) and that the bill will benefit the Mississippi valley fcs much as it benefits the seaboard.

I have laid stress upon the benefit to be ex

fiected from our trade with South America. The Ines to the orient are also of vital importance. The commercial possibilities of the Pacific are unlimited, and for national reasons it is Imperative that we should have direct and adequate communication by American lines with Hawaii and the Philippines. The existence of our present steamship lines on the Pacific is seriously threatened by the foreign subsidized lines. Our communications with the markets of Asia and with our own possessions in the Philippines, no less than our communications with Australia, should depend not upon foreign but upon our own steamships. The southwest and the northwest should alike be served by these Hues, and if this Is done they will also give to the Mississippi valley throughout Its entire length the advantage of all transcontinental railwavs running to the Pacific coast. To fail to establish adequate lines on the Pacific Is equivalent to proclaiming to the world that we have neither the ability nor the disposition to contend for our rightful share of the commerce of the orient, nor yet to protect our interests In the Philippines. It would surely be discreditable for us to surrender to our commercial rivals the great commerce of the orient, the great commerce we should have with South America and even of our own communications with Hawaii and the Philippines. I earnestly hope for the enactment of some law like the bill In question. THEODORE ROOSEVELT.

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William J. "Bryan returned from his journey around the world Aug. 29, 1906, and on the evening of Aug. 30 delivered a speech in Madison Square Garden, New York, giving his political views in detail. Among other things he advocated the ownership of railroad trunk lines by the federal government and of the local lines by the several state governments; the placing on the free Jist of articles controlled by trusts, the surrender of the Philippines, the passing of an income-tax law and the election of United States senators by the people. His remarks on the railroad question were as follows:

"I have already reached the conclusion that railroads partake so much of the nature of a monopoly that they must ultimately become publie property and be managed by public officials in the interest of the whole community, in accordance with the well-defined theory that public ownership is necessary where competition is impossible. I do not know that the country is ready for this change. I do not know that a majority of my own party favor it, but I believe that an increasing number of the members of all p irties see in public ownership the sure remedy for discrimination between persons and politics and for the extortionate rates for the carrying of freight and passengers. Believing, however, that the operation of all the railroads by the federal government would result in a centralization which would all but obliterate state lines, I prefer to see only the trunk lines operated by the .federal government and the local lines by the several state governments.

"Some have opposed this dual ownership as impracticable, but investigation in Europe nas convinced me that it is entirely practicable. Nearly all the railroads of Germany are owned by the several states,' the empire not even owning the t runk lines, and yet the interstate, traffic Is in nowise obstructed. In traveling from Constantinople to Vienna one passes through Turkey, Bulgaria,

Servla, Hungary and a part of Austria without a change of cars, and yet each country owns and operates its own roads and different languages are spoken on the different divisions of the line. Sweden and Norway each owns its railroads, but they have no trouble about interstate traffic, although their political relations are somewhat strained.

"The ownership and operation of the local line.? by tiie several state governments is not only feasible, but it suits itself to the conditions existing in the various states.

"As to the right of the governments, federal and state, to own and operate railroads there can be no doubt. If we can deepen the water in the lakes and build connecting caua'.s in order to cheapen railroad transportation during half of the year, we can build a railroad and cheapen ratrs the whole year; if we can spend several hundred millions on the Panama canal to lower transcontinental rates, we can build a railroad from New York to San Francisco to lovVer both transcontinental and local rates. The United States ma;l is increasing so rapidly that we shall soon be able to pay the interest on the cost of trunk lines out of the money which we now pay to railroads for currying through malls.

"If any of you question the propriety of my mentioning this subject, I beg to remind you that the president could not have secured the passage of the rate bill had he not appealed to the fear of the more radical remedy of government ownership, and nothing will so restrain the railroad magnates from attempting to capture the interstate-commerce commission as the same fear. The high-handed manner in which they have violated law and ignored authority, together with the corruption discovered in high places, has done more to create sentiment in favor of public ownership than all the speeches and arguments of the opponents of private ownership."


Frank Steunenberg, former governor of Idaho, was killed by a bomb as he was entering the gateway of his home in Caldwell. Idaho, on the night of Dec. 30 1905. He had been prominent in suppressing disorders caused by a strike of miners in the Cceur d'Alene district, and bad made many enemies, particularly through calling in troops and proclaiming martial law. This brought him into conflict with the Western Federation of Miners, and many threats against bis life were made. It was not. however, until about six years after the strike troubles were ended and after he had returned to private life that he was killed. The first man arrested for the crime was Harry Orchard, a former member of the federation and a miner, and then Stephen Adams, a companion, was caught. James McPartland, a Plnkerton detective, who had been instrumental many years before in breaking up the Molly Maguire gang in Pennsylvania, secured a confession from Orchard, and on the strengtli of this the officials of Idaho and Colorado caused the arrest in Denver. Col., on the night of Feb. 19. 1906. of Charles' II. Moyer, William D. Haywood and Charles H. Pettlbone, president, secretary and executive committeeman, respectively, of the Western Federation of Miners. Requisition papers had already been granted and the men were placed on a special train and taken

to Boise, Idaho, to await trial. A great outcry was raised against the method of their arrest and removal from Colorado and various labor organizations throughout the country raised funds for their defense. President Koosevelt early in 190.7 added to the excitement by describing the defendants as "undesirable citizens," it being claimed that he was thereby prejudicing the case. The cases against the accused men were separated and that against William D. Haywood was first tried. "The selection of a jury was begun before Judge Fremont Wood May 9, 1907. Senator William E. Borah and State's Attorney James H. Hawley appeared for the prosecution and E. F. Richardson of Denver and Clarence Darrow of Chicago represented the defense. The jury was completed June '3; the state's case was closed June 27; the defense closed July 12. and the state's rebuttal ended July 19. The case was given to the jury July 27 and July 28 the jury returned a verldet of not guilty. The chief witness for the prosecution was Harry Orchard, who claimed that the officers of the Western Federation of Miners paid him to kill Steunenberg and to commit many other crimes in Colorado and Idaho in connection with the labor troubles in those states. Haywood was liberated as soon as the verdict was returned and Moyer was admitted to bail.


As the result of inflammatory speeches made by native orators and of articles in the native press rerious anti-European riots took place at Lahore, Rawalpindi rind other places in the Punjab and in Bengil early in May. 1307. Considerable property was destroyed, but no lives were lost. The authorities took energetic measures to quell the revolt, transporting the leaders to other provinces and increasing the military forces In the disturbed

districts. The fact that just fifty years bad elapsed since the great mutiny of 1857 led to some apprehension that a general uprising of the natives had been planned. The agitators aimed at self-government for the native states and eventual Independence, but the riots were anti-Christian as well as anti-European. The most prominent leader in the movement was Lala Lajpat Rai, a prominent lawyer of the Punjab.

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