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round many a graceful bend of the road, where nature had touched the scene with tenderness, the Roundhead, clad in iron, saw the waving plume of Cavalier. Soon the two straggling parties were locked in deadly conflict, and the spot became memorable for ages for the blood shed in a skirmish which could not be dignified by the name of a battle. Throughout the land family ties were severed; everywhere “a man's foes were of his own household.” “Old armour came down from a thousand old walls, and clanked upon the anvil of every village smithy;' “boot and saddle!” was the order of the day and night; every buff coat, and every piece of steel that could turn, or deal a blow, became of value. Even the long-bow, the brown bill, and cross-bow, resumed their almost forgotten use; rude spears, and common staves, and Danish clubs assumed the rank of weapons. The trumpets of the Cavaliers rang out fearlessly through the half of England, and thrilled the spirits of the people with the cries of loyalty ; responded to by the shrill blast of the Roundhead, and the cry of liberty. “Those,” says Carlyle, “ were the most confused months England ever saw;" in every shire, in every parish, in court-houses, alehouses, churches, and markets, wheresoever men were gathered together. England was, with sorrowful confusion in every fibre, tearing itself into hostile halves, to carry on the voting by pike and bullet henceforth. The spirit of war stalked forth ; many times we find the record of men who slew an enemy, and found a parent in the corpse they were about to spoil. The face of nature became changed, and peaceful homesteads and quiet villages assumed a rough, hostile look; and the old familiar scene rang with the fatal, fascinating bugle-notes of war. Every house of strength became a fortress, and every household a garrison.

Romance and poetry have woven gay garlands and sung highly wrought and glowing melodies around the achievements of knighthood and chivalry; but romance and poetry shrink back startled and appalled before the deeds of the mighty Puritan heroes, the Ironsides of Cromwell, a race of Artegals, or Men in Iron. The carnal mind of the succeeding century has succeeded in defacing the features and soiling the fair fame of the knighthood of Puritanism ; but do you not think that the soldiers of the Cross may deserve words as eloquent, and song as soul-kindling, as those which echoed around the rabble rout of the strange Red Cross knights of Norman feudalism?

While all these events were passing, we can very well believe that the clear eye of Cromwell saw where it must all shortly terminate ; that, in fact, there was nothing for it but a battle-field; and he was amongst the most prompt and decisive of all the actors. His genius was too bold, too clear-sighted, to

. shine in the mazes of debate and the labyrinths of legal technicality. The battles against the king, with lawyers and verbal hair-splitters, were best fought by Pym and Hampden; but, outside in the affairs of the camp, and in that legislation that depends on a swift, clear eye and a strong, rapid arm-Cromwell was the man! He distributed arms in the town of Cambridge, which he represented. He raised a troop of horse out of that county and Huntingdonshire; and, as soon as he received his commission as captain, he began his career of conquest. It is believed that here he struck the first severe blows at the Royal party ; for he seized the magazine of Cambridge for the use of the Parliament; and by stopping a quantity of plate on its way from the University to the king at York, he cut off the expected supplies. He utterly prevented the raising of a force for the king in the eastern counties; and arrested the High Sheriff of Hertfordshire at the very moment the latter was about to publish the proclamation of the king, declaring "the Parliament commanders all traitors!” The discipline of his troops, their bravery, and their sobriety, have been the admiration of men ever since.

It was about this time that the appellations of "Cavalier” and “Roundhead" came into general use to denote the opposite parties. The former, it is well known, designated the king's friends; and of the origin of the latter, Mrs. Hutchinson gives the following account:

"When Puritanism grew into a faction, the zealots distinguished themselves, both men and women, by several affections of habit, looks, and words, which, had it been a real declension of vanity, and embracing


of sobriety in all those things, had been most commendable in them.

"Among other affected habits, few of the Puritans, what degree soever they were of, wore their hair long enough to cover their ears; and the ministers and many others cut it close round their heads, with so many little peaks, as was something ridiculous to behold. From this custom of wearing their hair, that name of 'Roundhead' became the scornful term given to the whole Parliament party; whose army indeed marched out so, but as if they had been sent out only till their hair was grown. Two or three years afterwards, however," she continues (the custom, it may be presumed, having declined), “any stranger that had seen them would have inquired the reason of that name.”

These explanations have been introduced here because it has been usual to give the epithet “Roundhead" to Cromwell's soldiers on account of the shape of the helmet. Nothing can be more erroneous. The more usual term given to these soldiers immediately beneath Cromwell's own command, was "Ironsides." It is very important to notice the training of these men, for they again and again turned the tide of battle. They were not ordinary men ; they were mostly freeholders, or freeholders' sons,men who thought as Cromwell thought, and over whom he had acquired an influence, from their residing in his neighbourhood. To all of them the Civil War was no light game; it was a great reality ;

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it was a battle, not for carnal so much as spiritual things, and they went forth and fought therefor.

Hence, “I was," says Cromwell, “a person that, from my first employment, was suddenly preferred and lifted up from lesser trusts to greater, from my first being a captain of a troop of horse ; and I did labour (as well as I could) to discharge my trust, and God helped me as it pleased Him, and I did truly and plainly, and then in a way of foolish simplicity (as it was judged by very great and wise men, and good men, too), desire to make my instruments to help me in this work; and I will deal plainly with you. I had a very worthy friend then, and he was a very noble person, and I know his memory is very grateful to all, Mr. John Hampden. At my first going out into this engagement I saw their men were beaten at every hand; I did indeed, and desired him that he would make some additions to my Lord Essex's army of some new regiments, and I told him I would be serviceable to him in bringing such men in as I thought had a spirit that would do something in the work. This is very true that I tell you, God knows I lie not; "Your troops,' said I, ‘are most of them old decayed serving-men and tapsters, and such kind of fellows; and,' said I, 'their troops are gentlemen's sons, younger sons, and persons of quality; do you think that the spirits of such base and mean fellows will be ever able to encounter gentlemen, that have honour and courage and resolution in them?' Truly, I presented him in this

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