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all England retains to this day the footmarks. No wonder that Essex and Manchester did not move sufficiently rapid for him. Cromwell, we see, decided the popular cause. Royalism now lay prostrate before his feet by a series of the most astounding victories of which our kingdom ever had the impress or told the tale. His presence was certain victory. Invincible! we surely may call him. There is no corner of England where ruins of old feudal state or monastic grandeur are not coupled with the name of Cromwell; and while, doubtless, his name will be mentioned in connection with spots he never saw, it yet gives to us an idea of the wonderful universality of his power and conquest.

XI.

CROMWELL IN IRELAND.

P

CHAPTER XI.

CROMWELL IN IRELAND.

BUT

US see.

UT it has been said that there is one place where we dare not follow him-Ireland. Let

The Irish Roman Catholics had broken out in rebellion, and had massacred (according to various accounts) from fifty thousand to two hundred thousand victims. This was the Hibernian St. Bartholomew. The Irish, indeed, at this time determined on erasing every vestige of the English name from their country.

This great insurrection had broken out in 1640; it was not until after a long succession of murders, pillages, wild conflagrations, and excommunications that Cromwell was called upon by the Parliament, in 1649, to go there as Lord-Lieutenant, to attempt what really must be a difficult conquest. Guizot says, “The Protestants of Ireland had been ejected from their houses, hunted down, slaughtered, and exposed to all the tortures that religious and patriotic hatred could invent; a half-savage people, passionately attached to their barbarism, eager to avenge, in a day, ages of outrage and misery, with a proud joy committed excesses which struck their ancient mas

ters with horror and dismay.” And, in fact, Cromwell undertook the task with great reluctance, and probably foresaw that there would be terrible reprisals.

“In fact," writes Merle D'Aubigné, “the Catholics burnt the houses of the Protestants, turned them out naked in the midst of winter, and drove them, like herds of swine, before them. If, ashamed of their nudity, and desirous of seeking shelter from the rigour of a remarkably severe season, these unhappy wretches took refuge in a barn, and concealed themselves under the straw, the rebels instantly set fire to it and burned them alive. At other times they were led without clothing to be drowned in rivers; and if, on the road, they did not move quick enough, they were urged forward at the point of the pike. When they reached the river or the sea, they were precipitated into it, in bands of several hundreds, which is doubtless an exaggeration. If these poor wretches arose to the surface of the water, men were stationed along the brink to plunge them in again with the butts of their muskets, or to fire at and kill them. Husbands were cut to pieces in the presence of their wives; wives and virgins were abused in the sight of their nearest relations; and infants of seven or eight years were hung before the eyes of their parents. Nay, the Irish even went so far as to teach their own children to strip and kill the children of the English, and dash out their brains against the stones. Numbers of Protestants were buried alive, as many as

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