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paradise on earth, in which our first autumn had mellowed into golden parents were placed by their Creator; hue both the leaf of the vine and the but, for the same reason that, in spite teeming grape, the loud shrieks of the of his matchless genius, the English Bacchants echoed from grove to grove, bard has failed to inspire with human from hill to grotto. Wild with music passion the inhabitants of Eden, he fails and wine, their faces smeared with equally in his attempt to spread over the purple grape, and giving to the the fields and groves amidst which winds their dishevelled locks, they they wandered an aspect of real exist- crowded round the wine-presses to fill
His flowers bloom without with new wine the cup which each having first budded; his yellow or of them held in her hands, pouring purple fruits have not emerged in profuse libations to Bacchus. Some slow and gradual growth out of the of these ancient gardens, like the imchalice of the balmy blossom ; his trees perial garden near Pekin, embraced wave in a richness of foliage which rivers, mountains, fields, and forests, has never germinated; all in that para- within their wide expanse. Such dise, like her for whom all flowers must have been the grove of Daphne, bloomed, all fruits, save that
where “thick forests of laurel and - Whose mortal taste
cypress reached as far as a circumBrought death into the world,”
ference of ten miles, where a thou
sand streams of the purest water, runmatured into color and perfume, they ning from every hill, preserved the all remind us of that fair daughter of verdure of the earth and the temperaHeaven, whose infant lips no milk had ture of the air.” It was believed that moistened—whose young smile no the very air breathed in this grove mother's eyes had anxiously watched enervated the strongest mind. It was for and rapturously detected—whose for this, no doubt, ihat Cassius, when sweet pratilings no parent's ear had the army he commanded encamped listened to with indescribable joy- near Daphne, punished severely, and whose fingers had never played with sometimes dismissed the soldiers who the silver locks of age-whose heart were proved to have entered the conhad never throbbed with fear lest secrated ground. another's did not beat in accord with The Greeks cultivated the Rose, the her own. To conclude-there is in Narcissus, the Violet, and the Iris. We Milton's gardens a cold and illusive find in their poets, that flower markets beauty, which, like that of his Eve, we were held regularly in Athens, at admire without sympathy, and love which roses were exposed for sale in without warmth.
beautiful straw baskets. They strewed Without encumbering these pages the temples of the gods with the with descriptions of the gardens of choicest blossoms. At their religious China, Persia, Greece, and of Rome, processions the youths and virgins it suffices our purpose to remark, that wore garlands, and the priests bound the great
cities in the vicinity of their heads with chaplets of flowers which these were planted lay in warm sacred to their respective deities. The regions. These were rather ornate guests at the banquet table were landscapes than gardens, such as we always presented with garlands; nay, now understand the term. Intent to the cups, too, from which they drank, shelter themselves from the rays of a were wreathed with myrtle or roses. sultry sun, their voluptuous possessors Sages and philosophers wore garlands planted in them the finest forest trees, in order to make science lovely, and to together with fruit trees, and the few propitiate the Graces. The steel-clad flowers and aromatic plants known to warriors who at Salamis or Marathon antiquity. Streams of the purest had triumphed over the Persians, rewater gave freshness to the vegetation, turned to Athens and Sparta, their and by continual moisture preserved temples bound with wreaths, in which its perpetual verdure. In the day, the Violet and the Rose were woven was heard the melody of birds, min- together with the laurel. On occagling with the low murmuring of mean- .sions of public rejoicings, the walls of dering rivulets; the night witnessed cities were always hung with boughs the dance of youths and virgins by the of evergreen plants. There were glare of torches. Sometimes, too, when florists in all the great cities of
Greece, who made crowns of flowers shade of his groves, in which the (Coronarii)—some, composed of one beauteous exotics he had reared, minsort of Hower, others of many; and gled their foreign foliage with that of others, again, of leaves only, but indigenous plants. Diocletian, too, in always symbolical of religious ideas. the height of his power, became sudThe plants used for these were, at last, denly disgusted with the task of govcalled by the generic name of Coro- erning mankind. He abdicated the naria. Some of these were cultivated Empire, and compelled the princes in gardens, others grew wild in the whom he had clothed with the impefields, but all those thus designated rial purple to descend from the throne, were beautiful and aromatic,
like himself; retaining no dominion, As regards fruits, the Fig was culti- out of the civilized world over which vated in the earliest ages. The Grape, he had reigned, save that of the garthe Almond, the Pomegranate, grew dens he had planted near Salone;in Canaan, in the days of Moses; and these he cultivated with so much the Melon was one of the Egyptian pleasure, that, when Maximin, his delicacies the privation of which occa- former colleague in the Empire, urged sioned the bitierest repinings of he him to resume the sceptre, he rejected Israelites in the wilderness. The the temptation with a smile of pity, Greeks have recorded, both in history calmly observing, in his answer to the and song, that the shepherd Aristæus proposal of that restless old man, that, was the first who cultivated the Olive. if he could show to Maximin the The Fig came to Attica from Crete, cabbages which he cultivated with his and the Chestnut from Sardis; the own hands, he should no longer be Peach was brought from Persia; the urged to relinquish the enjoyment of Pomegranate from Africa; the Pear happiness for the perils of power.” and Plum from Armenia ; Cherries The real or fancied virtues of plants and Apricots from Parthia; and the drew the attention of mankind in the first Citron tree planted in Greece came earliest ages. To the Mandrake were from Media. Lucullus brought to Rome, attributed effects which induced Rato adorn his triumph, the Cherry, the chael to barter for that which her Peach, and the Apricot-a nobler sister's son, Reuben, had gathered in trophy these than the wealth of Mi- the fields, the preference her husband thridates. Nor did he fail to appre- gave her over a less beauteous wife. ciate at their true value these vegeta- Helen prepared for Telemachus, when ble spoils of Asia, as the rude Con- the youth sought the hospitality of queror of Corinth did the inimitable Menelaus, a beverage that worked the perfection of the master-works vi Gre- oblivion of all painful thoughts, and cian genius, wrested by his valor from lulled the weary traveller into balmy their tasteful possessors. The en. sleep. In this plant, although the lightened Consul planted them with poet does not name it, we recognize his own hand, we are told, in the ihe Poppy, whose soporific virtue was magnificent garden he cultivated on already known. The healing quality of the promontory of Misenum. The the Dictamen, a plant still believed to be warlike Epicurean had tried war, as he a specific for the epilepsy, is extolled had tried all things, and of war, as of both in the Odyssey and in the Iliad. all things, had wearied, save nature, If the Lotus, which made him who science, and the arts! To the lumult ate its fruit forget his native land, and of the battle-field, 10 the clamor of the all the endearing associations of early victorious legions, to the loud plaudits loves, did ever exist, it has disappeared of the assembled multitude delighted from the earth, like some ani. by his eloquence—nay, to a dominion mals described by ancient naturalists, of one third portion of the world, the which for centuries have not been voluptuous soldier preferred the deep seen.* At their banquets the Greeks
• The Druids used a golden sickle to cut the sacred Misletoe, on the sixth day of the moon. The Vervain was held in such veneration by the Romans, that they gathered it, after libations of wine and honey, at the rising of the Dog Star, and always with the left hand. The plants thus collected were used to sweep the temple of Jupiter, to sprinkle lustral water, to appease discord; hence it was borne by heralds, a class of whom was called Verbenarii.
and the Romans strewed the floor as were, when living, loved by the with Vervain, as its perfume, they gods, had been changed by them, after believed, preserved the brain from the their death, into trees, plants, or effects of wine, induced purity of flowers. That Hyacinthus, cherished thoughts, and inspired the mind with by Apollo, had become the flower innocent mirth. Nor were trees and which still bears his name; that the flowers forgotten in the rites of ancient Myrrh still continued to exhale the worship. The shrines of the gods of fragrance which once breathed from idolatrous nations were adorned with the lips of the guilty and beauteous wreaths of foliage; and even the Jews, Myrrha ; that Daphne, who fled from in the simpler ceremonies of their the embrace of the inspirer of songs, worship of an unseen God, offered was changed into Laurel, the meed due flowers and fruits on the altar, as well to immortal lays, to encircle his brow, as living victims.
and wreathe its flexible and emerald Always disposed to transfer to the stems in the chords of his lyre; and Divinity their own sympathies or aver that Narcissus, the beautiful and sions, men have imagined that, as is self-enamored boy, should have become the case with themselves, each of the the flower whose sickly hue, to this gods bore a peculiar affection to a day, expresses the malady of hopeless plant or a flower, which, either in its love. color, its virtue, or the nature of its When we began this paper, we perfume, they fancied symbolical of intended to speak chiefly of ihe iwo the attributes of the divinity to whom books, the titles of which we have it was consecrated. For this, the given above, but the subject has led Oak, living unnumbered years, deep us far away from the object we had in rooted and yielding only to the light- view. We regret it the less, however, ning, which it seemed to meet in defi- as those excellent works, though they ance in the very clouds where it is accomplish fully all they promise to the elaborated, was sacred to Jove. The reader, yet in order to be appreciated Olive, which it was said had sprung at their true value, must be not only from earth at the bidding of Minerva, read throughout, but studied. The in the contest for superior power be- language of the writers is, what it tween the warlike maid and the god ought to be, clear, precise, unpretendwhose trident rules the ocean, adorned ing. They are both practical men ; the altars of Pallas. Saturn, the there is no danger of being led astray by symbol of eternity, was crowned with following their directions. They have the evergreen Holly. The funereal done more for the art of gardening in Cypress shaded with deeper terrors the America, in a few years, than had stern features of Pluto. Juno loved the been accomplished for a century before. Lily, the sweet and lowly emblem of With Mr. Buist we are personally acunspotted purity. Young Dione che quainted ; and we number among our rished the unfading Myrtle; and the most pleasingly spent hours, those we Rose, glowing with the carmine of her have passed in his beautiful garden in cheeks, bedewed with the freshness of Philadelphia. Not a question, prompther own lips, adorned her golden hair. ed by rational curiosity, have we ever Each nympli, each goddess, wore a put to him, as to the history of any one garland of ihe flowers she loved. But of his plants, their habits, or propensiBacchus bore on his joyous brow ripeties, that was not immediately angrapes instead of leaves or blossoms. swered. We hesitate not to say, that
After investing their gods with hu- more practical knowledge of Botany man forms, after inspiring them with may be acquired by twenty lessons human passions, it was natural that a obtained from him, while strolling people so imaginative as were the among his plants, than would be acGreeks, and professing a religion, if quired for months in the study of not invented by poets, embellished at books, and with the aid even of the least by all the richness of their fancy, best executed colored illustrations of should have believed that such mortals the beautiful science.
✓ THE COMMUNITY SYSTEM.
BY 0. A. BROWNSON.
Nothing is more certain than that man in his own image, in the image social Reformers, in both the old world of God created he him; male and and the new, are at present turning female created he them." But this their chief attention io what is not could have been only the generic creaimproperly denominated the COMMU- tion, the creation of the kind; for we NITY SYSTEM. The tendency this way are informed in the very next Chapter, is decided, and would seem to be irre- that notwithstanding this creation, sistible. Men, whose opinions are there was “not a man to till the deserving of great respect, are begin- ground.” " And the Lord God formed ning to look upon this system, in some man out of the dust of the ground, and of its modifications, or under some of its breathed into his nostrils the breath of various aspects, as a sure and adequate life, and man became a living soul.” remedy for all our ills, moral and Man, as the kind, was only a virtuality, physical, individual and social. It man “in potentiâ, non in actû,” to behooves all of us, therefore, who have speak according to Plato, an Idea, not faith in the progress of humanity, and a living man; but in becoming a living who have learned that the lot of each soul, he passed from this state of virtuman is bound up with that of all men, ality to an actuality, from the transcento inquire into its nature, and ascertain dental world, in which the kind has its its principles, the laws of its operation, habitation, to the actual world of space and the advantages likely to result and time. from its general adoption.
All orders of beings are originally This is a grave inquiry; and in order created, and have their habitation in to do justice to it, we must, so to speak, the transcendental world, the regionem begin at the beginning, go back to the idearum, the Divine Mind, or Logos of first principles of human nature, and St. John, by which all things were ascertain the laws by which that made, and without which was not nature is developed and effects its anything made that was made. Begrowth, and the conditions indispensa- cause created and dwelling in the ble to its actualization, or, what is the Divine Mind, Plato regards all beings same thing, to its manifestation in in their several kinds or genera, as the LIFE of individual men and women. Ideal, and calls them Ideas. Humanity For it may be assumed in the very is originally created in the Divine outset, that no scheme of human Mind, and as the human kind it remelioration and progress can besides, so to speak, in the Infinite Reaotherwise than short-lived and ineffec- son, and is an Idea,--is Ideal, not as tual, even if not mischievous, unless opposed to substantive, to real, but as it have its root in the essential, pero opposed to actual. Man's existence is, manent, and indestructible nature of then, to be contemplated as IDEAL and man.
ACTUAL, and Ideal and Actual answer
precisely to his existence as the kind, Man must be always contemplared and as an individual. under a double aspect: 1. aS HUMANITY, the Genus or Kind; and 2. as We are ordinarily prone to regard INDIVIDUAL. This is according to man's actual or individual existence as Genesis, from which we learn that his only existence. Most of our readGod creates all beings in races,“ after ers have been in the habit of looking their kind ;” and that he originally upon man as a mere individual, and created man as the human kind, and will be puzzled to understand what is afterwards formed or actualized him as really meant by his existence as the an individual, in a body taken from the kind. But man is by no means a mere dust of the earth. “So God created individual. In every individual is that VOL. XI!.-NO, LVI.
which is not individual, which tran- habilitate the old Platonic Ideas. We scends the individual, and is the basis must assert boldly their reality; only and possibility of the individual. Is while so doing we must bear in mind there not something which distin- that the kind lives only in individuals, guishes an individual pine from an in- and can be known by us only so far dividual oak? An individual horse forth as actualized in individuals. from an individual ox? An individual dog from an individual man? Is not Every kind, or Ideal existence, inthis something one and indivisible, one habits 'eternity, transcends time and and identical, in all individual pines ? space. Nevertheless it must have the in all individual oaks ? in all individual power to actualize itself, to manifest horses ? in all individual oxen ? in all itself in time and space, or it were individual dogs ? in all individual men ? a dead existence, were precisely as if What is this something? It is the it were not. If it be at all, in any vital Kind. It is this which precedes indi- sense, it must manifest itself in pheviduals and is actualized in them, that nomena. The power to manifest itdetermines whether the individual self in phenomena, is the principle of shall be a pine, an oak, a horse, an vitality, or power to live; the actual ox, a dog, or a man, that makes the manifestation is what we call life, in seed of the pine re-produce the pine, the sense in which Pope uses the word, the acorn the oak, and never the re- when he says,
The kind, then, though ideal, is not a mere name, an abstract or
For modes of faith, let graceless bigots general noun as the Nominalists con
fight, tend, but a substantive force, a reality, His can’i be wrong, whose life is in the as contend the Realists. It is not a right.” quality, or attribule of the individual, but that which makes the individual. Humanity, Man in the Ideal, in the It is in the language of Plato, an Idea, kind, is created with this power to only an Idea in the Divine Mind, not in manifest himself in phenomena, as we the human.
learn from the assertion in Genesis, as
well as otherwise, that God made the The ground here assumed is by no race both male and female, and theremeans novel. We re-produce here fore, though a unity, a productive consciously and intentionally, the old unity, a unity having the ability to Scholastic doctrine of Realism, the manifest itself in multiplicity ; and doctrine of Plato, of Pythagoras, of therefore again a living unity, not a Moses, and if of Moses, of course the dead unity, which were in no sense doctrine of Inspiration. The old Real- distinguishable from the veriest nulliiy. ists were right, in affirming the reality of Ideas, kinds, genera ; they erred, if The manifestation of humanity is they erred at all, merely in contending the Life of humanity. Since humanithat we could know kinds as abstract- ty has the power to manifest itself in ed from individuals, and that they could, diversity, in multiplicity, in phenomena, as it were, live without individuals. it has in itself a vital power, and is When we have entered more deeply capable of living a life of its own, as into the spirit of the Scholastic phi- strictly so as is an individual man or losophy, at which it has been account. an individual woman. Hence, we are ed good taste to sneer ever since the never to view humanity, man-kind, time of Bacon, the more profound will human-kind, as a mere aggregate, or be our respect for it. The more pro- sum total of individuals, nor as a mere foundly we look into the principles of word without significance in the world things, or even of life, the more im- of reality. Humanity is in some sort portant will appear to us those con- itself an individual, with its own entroversies of the old Schoolmen, which tity, unity, powers, development and we have been in the habit of account- growth. ing frivolous, and unworthy the least attention. Those old Schoolmen knew Humanity in this sense, as the Ideal, as well what they were about, as we do or the kind, lives, but, as with all living what we are about. We shall make entities, only by manifesting itself in lilile progress in philosophy till we re- phenomena.' Its life is its manifesta