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“ ADDRESS TO THE FRIENDS OF SCIENCE. than an inaccurate species of observation

and induction, without decisive experi« The class who have attended the ment, its progress was slow, and its conprivate course of the lectures upon Neu- clusions inaccurate and incapable of rology, given by Dr. Buchanan, explaining demonstration. and illustrating the physiology of the brain “ The world had witnessed experiments in relation to mental manifestations, feel in what has been called animal magnetso strong an interest in the rapid diffusion ism, and many had recognized a powerful, of his discoveries, on account of their in- invisible agency, by which effects of a trinsic importance to the welfare of man, startling character could be elicited, such that they deem it their duty to give their as somnambulism and relief from disease. testimony publicly in behalf of the science. This agency was often called an influence, The lectures have been given to a class of and the believers in its effects were yet about thirty persons, whose positions in divided, as to the reality of any invisible relation to the experiments were such as aura, or whether it was a mysterious symto admit of the closest scrutiny. And all pathy of minds without an intermediate questions of doubt or difficulty arising in agent. the minds of any, having been put with “ Dr. Buchanan had the sagacity to freedom, and answered with promptitude, adopt the former conclusion, and demonwe feel that no witnesses could have strate the existence and laws of action of better opportunity for knowing the genu- this invisible agent, so far as to avail ineness of all experiments tried in their himself of it for the excitement of cerebral presence. Many of us have tried the ex

organs by contact of the finger with the periments in our own private circles with part of the head or face through which success, and thus confirmed what we had the organs radiated their peculiar aura. previously observed; and several have This discovery at once opened to him the had not only the evidence, but actual ex- long desiderated method of investigation, perience of the excitability of the organs and by its application he has discovered by feeling effects in their own persons. and demonstrated the functions of the The science is publicly propagated by its brain in relation to mental manifestations, founder only, and is evidently still in a and also as connected with the physiology course of rapid development. We wish of the corporeal organs generally. The it a hearty reception from the public, and obscurities of Physiology, the deficiencies hope its distinguished founder may meet, of Phrenology, and the vague wonders of wherever he goes, a welcome which will Animal Magnetism, will thus be replaced cheer him onward in his arduous labors. by an exact and certain science.

“ It is for these, among other reasons, “ His methods of investigation are that we unite in this address to the public. already complete, as applied to the class We rejoice that his science has not yet of persons who are so peculiarly impressibeen tarnished from being pushed before ble as to have their mental balance easily the public gaze by ignorant and mercenary deranged by influences exerted upon itinerant public exhibitors. The intelli- them. As every person not deformed is a gent and liberal of all classes can now type of the race in the arrangement of his investigate its claims to consideration organization and the character of his without the imputation of merely indulg- normal functions, experiments made on ing a morbid appetite for the marvellous. impressible persons will develop physio

“ The science of physiology has hitherto logical facts which are universal in their been regarded by its professors and stu- application to the race. We deem, theredents, as uncertain and unsettled in a fore, the great discovery of Dr. Buchanan, great many of its principles and details, of the methods of exciting the organs, as so that every new work has been largely the most important ever made in relation occupied with the history of opinions, and to the study of mind; inasmuch as it is overthrow of supposed unsound doctrines. the key which opens to us the arcana of

“It was evident that before it could his nature, and demonstrates him to be advance to the state of a complete and what revelation had before assured us he settled science, it needed a new and more was--a 'being made in the image' and perfect method of investigation, and a after the likeness of his Maker,' and resolution of the functions of that all possessing within himself powers more or important and all controlling organ, the less developed, by which he sustains his encephalon.

relations to all classes of created objects. “ Phrenology, a recent and yet scarcely “Dr. Buchanan has already carried his acknowledged science, gave us reason to investigations so far, by ascertaining the hope that it would supply to the world a sources of innervation of the various parts knowledge of the physiology of the brain. of the body, as to have developed a mass But its doctrines having no better basis of principles and facts which render

physiology a beautiful and philosophical jecture, made some slight additions to the science, capable of explaining the pheno- phrenological system. The whole of their mena of the circulation of the blood, as discoveries now appear to constitute the varying in every part of the body, and the rudiments of an imperfect system, rather operation of the various causes of health than the foundation of a complete science. and disease, which have heretofore been By the discoveries of Dr. Buchanan, unintelligible in their actions. Physiology which we have seen demonstrated, it is thus presented in a philosophical form, appears that the several functions are which renders it a suitable basis for pa- governed by laws now for the first time thology and therapeutics.

developed, and that several hundred dis“ The beautiful principle of limitation tinct functions may be displayed, as the and balance of organs of opposite func- subdivisions of the organs may be carried tions, by the equable action of which to an indefinite extent. He has, theremen are, as it were, carried forward like fore, presented a complete system of the planets in their appropriate spheres Phrenology, capable of explaining all the and orbits, was discovered and developed various phenomena of human nature. by Dr. Buchanan. The double function “ 2. Physiology has heretofore presentof organs, the one mental and the other ed a strange deficiency in the most imcorporeal, modifying the circulation and portant department. The physiology of health of the system, is also a discovery of the brain was almost entirely unknown. his. This presents the science in a light Its phrenological functions are but half, of great usefulness, in its alleviation of and by no means the most important half, distress of mind and body, and in its de- of its offices, in a practical point of view. velopment of the true principles on which The physiology of the brain, or the explaall methods of mental, moral and physical nation of the effects of its various organs improvement, can be based.

upon the circulations, secretions, &c., « Many of us have applied the methods which constitutes the key of physiology, designated by Dr. Buchanan for the relief is a new science, occupying an unexplored of head-ache, tooth-ache, neuralgia, dys- field, and exclusively the discovery of Dr. pepsia, nausea, debility, and local pains Buchanan. As a specimen of its princiand inflammations; and have met with ples we would remark, that the discovery decided success. We would especially of the circulation of the blood, by Harvey, recommend a study of the subject for its presented but a single obvious mechanical practical usefulness in families when a fact, and gives no explanation of the laws member is rendered uncomfortable by which modify that circulation to produce illness, deemed too slight to require medic health, disease, and all the organic action cal aid not conveniently to be obtained. of the human body. The laws of this cir

“ Dr. Buchanan's researches have ena culation in every part, of the modification bled him to discover the principles on of the pulse, and of the vigorous performwhich the operations of me-merism are ance of each function, are fully developed based, and render his a branch of physio- by Dr. Buchanan's system of cerebral logical science, instead of a collection of physiology. If, then, we have received wonderful facts elicited but not under- from Dr. Buchanan a profound system of stood, and therefore so often rejected as phrenology, which is as great an improvefabulous.

ment upon that of Gall, as the physiology “ Knowing, then, as we do, and testi- of the present day is upon that of Hippofying, as cautious and impartial witnesses crates, we deem the discovery an importo the truth of the science of Neurology, tant event in the history of man. This we perceive distinctly, even with our im- discovery, however, is perhaps less imperfect knowledge of the subject, that it portant in its results than the developwill introduce a revolution in all sciences ment of a system of physiology based upon that relate to man. Let us consider what the action of the encephalon, which conare the real additions which have been stitutes a solid foundation for the science made to our knowledge of anthropology of medicine.

1. Phrenology began with Gall, who “For these discoveries we tender our discovered the functions of twenty-seven gratitude to Dr. Buchanan, and doubt not organs, without giving them a very cor- that an intelligent and generous public rect definition or locality. Spurzheim will fully appreciate their importance, and added to the catalogue nine organs. will not, as has happened in other cases, Several of the successors of Gall and leave this act of justice to be performed Spurzheim have, by observation or con- by posterity.”

POLITICAL PORTRAITS WITH PEN AND PENCIL.

No. XXXVII.

SILAS WRIGHT, JR.,

OF NEW YORK.

(With a fine Engruring on Steel.)

Friend or foe-Democrat or Whig- one only of whom is a graduate of a from none is ever to be heard a voice college, are all likewise farmers. of dissent from the unanimous tribute The sisters married farmers, and one accorded by the public judgment of the of them, a widow, now carries on a country to that vigorous and efficient farm with the assistance of her sons; intellectual power, that matchless skill so that the whole family may most and clearness of logic, that unswerving emphatically be regarded as the childconsistency and integrity, and that ren of the plough,—than which we imperturbable good-temper and gentle know no more honorable designation manliness, which constitute the out that wealth or rank could bestow. line of the mental portraiture of the Mr. Wright, the father, was indendistinguished statesman of whose tured as an apprentice to his trade al features and countenance weare happy an early age, and never was at school to present the accompanying excellent a day in his life. When he had resemblance. Mr. Wright's name “ served out his time," he could neither was introduced in a much earlier num read nor write; but with the assistance ber of this series, but without the of his fellow journeyman, he soon illustration of an engraving, no portrait qualified bimself both' to read and to of him being then in existence, or at write, as well as to keep accounts and least accessible. A very recent mine transact business with accuracy and iature by Blanchard-one of his best facility. After his marriage his wife -supplies this desideratum; by which became his instructress-a service we have hastened to profit, well which she performed with all a assured that there is no individual woman's devotion and alacrity, and among the men now prominent on the with a success proportionate to her stage of political life whose likeness own interest in the labor of love, and will be looked upon with higher satis- to the willing docility of her pupil. faction, by those thousands of our Silas, like most of the rising youth readers who have never probably been of New England, attended the comfavored with an opportunity of seeing mon schools in winter, and worked on for themselves the great New York the farm in summer, until he had Senator.

passed bis fourteenth year, when he Silas Wright, Jr., was born in the was placed at an academy, that he town of Amherst, Massachusetts, on might be prepared to enter college. the 24th of May, 1795. Both his The father perceived that his son was parents were natives of the county of rarely endowed by pature, and was Hampshire. They had nine children therefore the more anxious that he -five sons and four daughters-iwo should enjoy the benefits of education of whom died in infancy; the rest denied by circumstances to himself.

now living. The elder Mr. The tradition is, ihat he always reWright was by trade a tanner, currier, garded him with peculiar pride and and shoemaker; which occupation he delight, as destined to be the chief followed until March, 1796, when he hope and ornament of the family. removed to the town of Weybridge, In August, 1811, Mr. Wright be. Addison county, Vermont, where he came a student of the college at Midpurchased a farm, and where he has dlebury, Vermont, where he remained ever since devoted himself exclusively until ihe summer of 1815, when he to its cultivation. All the family, received the first degree of Bachelor except Silas and his youngest sister, of Arts. still reside in Vermont.' The brothers, The elder Mr. Wright has always

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