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tition with the Federal Government. abroad and invested in lands put under These are selected for locality and qua- cotton cultivation. All the banks so lity as the choicest lands, and will be organized have failed, the money is the first settled; but if the progress of lost, and all the lands pledged for it are settlement continues as heretofore, subject to foreclosure-a powerful argutwenty years at least

will elapse before ment against any supposed extension they are occupied. The settlement in of sales of public lands in those sections Ohio, it appears, from 1830 to 1840, for many years to come. Hence the was at the rate of 7 acres only to each proceeds of the lands as a resource to individual; while in Illinois and other government, or as a basis for paper States the sales were at the rate of 33 issues to relieve, as it is called, the acres to each inhabitant added to the States, for many years to come are population. In Louisiana, Arkansas, utterly out of the question. The vast Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida, up- sales of 1835–6 anticipated settlement wards of $50,000,000 were borrowed for thirty years at least.

DEFALCATION vs. DEFAULT.

Grass Hills, KENTUCKY. was so applied; while the word DeTo the Editor of the Democratic Review :

fault expresses precisely what is SIR :-Regarding your Magazine meant.

A. J. S. as the leading guardian of the purity of our language, on this side of the Atlantic, as well as of the true spirit It would be at variance with a well of our institutions, I respectfully call settled judicial principle to decline a your attention to the wide-spread abuse jurisdiction tendered to us. We thereof a word which the mournfully de- fore accept it, and decide as follows. graded honesty of our country has of Defalcation may not be as good Eng. late brought into very frequent use, lish as Defauli, but it shall remain viz. DEFALCATION for DEFAULT. good American for the present, so long

I should not have directed so slight as our detestable paper-money credita communication to your grave page, system continues, demoralizing the nadid I not discover that the error has tional character so as to make one word been sent out in official papers from the insufficient for the public serviceheads of the Government, and even as an extra pair of oxen are sometimes from the judicial bench. I deemed, yoked to a team of horses to help them therefore, that a decision upon the along. Defalcation, moreover, is a big. merits of the word must necessarily ger word in every respect than Default, be pronounced by a like high authority, and has therefore a peculiar approto have its proper effect; and, accord- priateness to the magnitude of the ingly, present the following definitions scale on which these operations are and derivations before your critical tri- sometimes now conducted in so many bunal for final sentence:

of our banking and other moneyed corporations. It properly denotes a shav

ing or lopping off, with a scythe or cutting off, or deduct. WEBSTER.-- An omission pruning-hook-an image graphically

of that which oslit to descriptive of the process to which the To defalcate, de falco.

term is applied. For the strong exFalco, to prune.

AINSWORTH. – Default, pediency of the case, therefore, the word
Culpa, a fault, blame, shall stand, as a good enough word for a

bad thing—at least until the country's Thus, as far as my researches en return to honesty and hard money shall lighten me, there appears not the relieve us of the necessity of its continuslightest authority for the use of the ance, and make one word sufficient 10 word Defalcation in a sense implying express the idea. The appeal is thereguilt; in mercantile phrase, it never fore dismissed, with costs.-Ed. D. R.

DEFALCATION, WALKER.-Diminution. WEBSTER.-The act of

DEFAULT
WALKER.- Neglect,

crime, failure, &c.

ing a part, &c. AINSWORTH'S LAT. DIC.

doneto do what duty or law re. quires, &c.

guilt, &c.

NEW BOOKS OF THE MONTH.

pp. 232.

The Bible in Spain ; or, the Journeys, Ad- racy vigor and vividness that leave

ventures, and Imprisonments of an Eng- nothing to be desired. The history of his lishman, in un attempt to circulate the proper professional mission has very little Scriptures in the Peninsula. By GEORGE to do with the interest of the book. It is Borrow, author of "The Gipsies of little else than the thread which holds toSpain.” Philadelphia : Jas. M. Camp- gether the pearls he strings upon it. It is bell, 98 Chestnut-st. Saxton & Miles, indeed occasionally brought in, apparently 205 Broadway, New York. 1843. 8vo. from a certain sense of decent duty, but

he certainly seems most to revel in the

enjoyment of his adventures and the narraBy all odds, and by universal consent, tion of them, when he “ sinks the shop" the pleasantest book of the day! Mr. Bor- and forgets for the time what he is row has fairly taken the public heart by travelling for and about. We cannot help storm. He comes, he is looked at, he con- thin that it would have been much quers—his book has not been circulating the same to him if it had been tin pols forty-eight hours (in the cheap and popu- and pans, instead of Bibles and Testalar though very readable form in which ments, the sale and distribution of which the publishers have presented it for half- had afforded him the opportunity of a-dollar) before it is in almost every hand, indulging his taste for this roving, gipsy and its praise on almost every lip. Gil sort of life. In fact, we should like to in. Blas redivivus, and engaged in the ser- spect the parish register of our author's vice of the British Foreign Bible Society, birth and baptism to satisfy ourselves that as missionary agent to introduce and dis- he is not after all a real instead of a mock tribute the Bible in Spain! And then it gipsy, as he sometimes exhibited himself can be enjoyed with so good a conscience —and that he is not playing off a grand -it is all about “the Bible.” Not only “ hokkawar" on the public in the characmay we sinners enjoy it to our hearts' con ter in which he here acts and writes. At tent-we world's-people, who can take any rate we hope he will continue the down any other volume of honest amuse- narrative which is broken off very abruptly ment any day in the year-but to the saints at a point promising a wide field of interthemselves, to whom such an indulgence est among the Moors. There would seem is a greater rarity, and who so devoutly to have been few quarters of the globe feel bound to mortify the flesh upon the unvisited by him—as also but few of its never ending supplies of “pious books," languages with which he is unacquainted. which are daily issuing from the press, in We trust he will now fight all his battles the intervals of time afforded them by their o’er again, and give us some more similar large weekly religious papers-to these delightful chapters of his most extraorMr. Borrow has indeed afforded a most dinary life and career, in other countries welcome holiday. Of course to have also as well as in Spain. book with this title in one's hand is almost as good as having the Bible itself; and that Sunday can be set down as most irre. A Residence of Eight Years in Persia, proachably as well as delightfully spent, among the Nestorian Christians ; with of which a large proportion has been given Notices of the Mohammedans. By Rev. to these most agreeable of pages.

JUSTIN PERKINS, with a map and The book is about as full of entertain. plates. Andover : Published by Allen, Inent, as the saying runs, as an egg is of Morrill Wardell. New York: M. meat. Through highways and byways, W. Dodd. 1843. 8vo. pp. 512. crowded capitals and wild despoplados, Mr. Borrow pursues the object of his mis This is a highly instructive as well as sion, by personal rambling, through the pleasing and entertaining work. The aumidst of danger and often hardship, into thor has brought back from the land of his every nook in the very heart of the coun- missionary labors, as well as having taken try where he can hear of a chance of sell- to it. It is very copiously illustrated with ing a volume of his wares. He meets colored drawings of different characters with a vast variety of character and adven- and classes of the inhabitants, which, ture, which are sketched with a rich :nd though somewhat rude in drawing, (they

were for the most part from the pencil of a Letters from the Earl of Shrewsbury to Persian artist), by the aid of the rich hues Ambrose Lisle Phillips, Esq. Descripof their costumes convey a striking impres tive of the Estaticu of Caldaro and the sion of what they represent. It will be Addolorata of Capriana. First Ameriremembered that Mr. Perkins, on his re can, from the second London Edition. turn home, was accompanied by one of New York: Casserly & Sons, 108 Nasthe Nestorian bishops, Mar Yohannan, sau-st. 1843. 12mo. pp. 92. from whom he states, in the Preface, that in preparing the work for the press he This little pamphlet describes some derived some useful information and aid, very extraordinary cases of Ecstasy of a in the verification of his notes and recol. religious character, which are regarded by lections. We have not been able to do their Catholic witnesses and narrators as inore than give a few hours to the task of superhuman evidences of the special predipping here and there into its pages, but sence of the divine power and grace in the have seen enough to satisfy us that it was subjects of them, for the purpose of illuswell worth publication, and well worthy trating the truth of Catholic doctrines and of patronage, not by those alone interested of stimulating the faith and zeal of all bein it as a narrative of missionary labors, lievers. The first is that of a girl named but by all those to whom lively and well Maria Mörl, now about 30 years of age, written sketches of the country, people, a native of a little village named Caldaro, and manners, which the author was thus near Trent; who is described as passing led to observe, would be acceptable. the greater part of her time in a state of

trance or ecstasy, insensible to external

objects, generally on her knees in her bed, Father Oswald ; a Genuine Catholic Story, though sometimes standing on the points New York: Casserly & Sons, 108 Nas of her feet, as it were in the act of rising

from the earth, with no sign of motion or sau-street. 1843. 12mo. pp. 304.

lise, except a most rapt and celestial exThis volume was written, as declared pression, for hours at a time. This habit

commenced about ten years ago, and by the author, for the purpose of counteracting the injurious intiuence exerted, excitements in connection with the taking

seems to have grown out of her intense against the cause of “ truth, as under of the Holy Communion. A word from stood by the sincere mind and pious heart her Confessor recalls her from this statefrom which it evidently proceeds, by that most powerful and touching anti-catholic which, except at times when under the instory, “Father Clement.” It consists,

fluence of an intense sympathy with the for the most part, of Protestant and Cath- agonies of the Passion on Friday-is of olic disputation, resulting of course always other case is that of the Domenica Lazari,

most placid and blissful character. The in the triumph of the latter, and eventually in the conversion of the chief interlo- styled the Addolorata of Capriana, á cutor on the other side--a process finally Tyrol—a girl of about 25 years of age.

lonely village among the mountains of the consummated by his witnessing with his Her ecstasy is rather of a character of own eyes the annual miracle of the liquefaction of the blood of St. Januarius, at agony or sympathy with the sufferings of

the Cross. She is said not to have eaten, Naples. So far as we can judge from a cursory examination, the book is well marked on the hands and feet with the

drank or slept for eight years. Both are and forcibly written ;-the devout Catholic will doubtless find in it much edifica- stigmata, or marks of the nails of the tion and instruction in the principles of cross, while the latter has her forehead his own faith; though of the effect it may thorns,—from all of which blood at times

encircled with the marks of the crown of produce on the Protestant reader, each must be the judge and measurer for him- flows; in the case of the Addolorata, with self. It is one of the signs of the reviving ties are related of them, and of some other

considerable profusion. Other incredibilireligious spirit of the age, which in no portion of the general Christian body the reader must be referred for them. It

cases described in the pamphlet, to which shows itself more vigorously than in the is certain that they are testified to by Catholic Church, that such a book should be put forth, seeking to make earnest and witnesses of respectability, though by abstruse doctrinal disputation, for the most Protestant readers they will be sei purpose of proselytism, attractive through perhaps speak further of these extract

down as priestly impositions. We may the medium of dialogue and tale.

dinary narratives on a future occasion, in reference to their possible bearing on the subject of Mesmerism.

pp. 132.

The Bible of Nature, and Substance of Vir- springing up everywhere. D’Aubigné's

tue. Condensed from the Scriptures of well known and (among Protestants) poEminent Cosmians, Pantheists, and pular History of the Reformation will be Physo-philanthropists, of various ages completed in five of its monthly numbers, and climes. Illustrated with Engravings. of eighty pages. The price of each is but Albany, Stereotyped and printed by fifteen cents, or $1 80 per annum. BeC. Van Benthuysen. 1842.

ing put in the periodical form, it has the This volume has been sent to us for advantage of being circulated through the

mail. notice, and though it happens to be rather strange company for the most of those which at the present moment strew Greenwood Cemetery and other Poems. By our editorial table, yet we have such re

JOSEPH L. CHESTER. New York : spect for the freedom of thought, speech, Published by Saxton and Miles, 205 and print, that we have no objection to

Broadway. Boston : Saxton, Price & informing our readers what it is, what

Co. 133 Washington st. 1843, 12mo. ever objection we may ourselves entertain to much of its contents. It is a compilation of extracts from the works of nearly

If we have no very strong terms of all the most celebrated writers who have praise to bestow on these poems, neither protested and argued against the world's shall they be set down with any ungracious existing faiths and establishments. There phrase of condemnation. They are put is undeniably a great deal of excellent forth with a modesty of manner which is matter in it—among the rest Christ's itself some merit, and the author makes Sermon on the Mount)—though mixed up

no pretension to claim any very high chawith much that is of fatal fallacy and ten

racter for his verses in a literary point of dency. It consists of a vast variety of view. "He only hopes to please those who parts totally unassorted and undigested, love poetry in its humbler garb—who can bound together into one thick mass, in a

delight in simplicity-and who prefer to singular state of typographical as well as

have the feelings of the very heart logical confusion. There is a great deal awakened, to all the effect that can be of strong and true criticism of many exist- produced by majestic verse or flowery ing wrongs and errors; a great deal, too, rhythm”-is the language of the author's of an honest spirit of desire after the good Preface. The dedication of the volume to and free, and natural, and beautiful; but

“ His wife—not knowing a better friend” the whole is negative, and to the deep will serve to give some idea of its spirit, wants and aspirations of the human soul which is one of general affectionateness utterly unsatisfactory and naught. The of temper and kindly goodness of morality, contents and structure of the volume, in

at the same time that the reader looks in their very chaos of disorder, are an unin- vain for any sufficient reason why these tended expression and type of the moral poems should have been withdrawn from condition of the mind which, even though the modest privacy of manuscript for fireit may abound with good elements and side perusal and domestic appreciation, to tendencies, yet lacks a central harmo- go forth into the great world in print, to sonizing, steadying and saving principle of licit the attention of people who have so Faith and Reverence. There is little little time, and so much to do in it. Howdanger of this “Bible of Nature" ever

ever, there is no harm done--and perhaps supplanting the “ Bible of Revelation”

some little good may. We give the folespecially as every day the true spirit of lowing as a rather favorable specimen : the latter is making itself more and more distinctly understood and felt in the world;

Where dwells true fame? notwithstanding the injurious influence 'Tis not with those who course the battle field, against it exerted by a large proportion of With pointed spear and oft ensanguined shield ;those classes who, while least understand

Whose thirsty troops grown brutes by long excess,

Drink tears for wine, nor wish the draught were ing it, claim the peculiar right of interpret less. ing and applying it.

Nor yet with those Whose voices echo through the Senate hall,

Or swell the clanor of the rude cabal; -Select Library of Religious Literature.

Who boast aloud of patriotic fire, D'Aubigne's History of the Reformation.

And yet are ruled by Self's unchecked desire.

Nor yet with those Nos. 1, 2, and 3. Philadelphia : James Who' reign the monarchs of the mind's great M. Campbell, 98 Chestnut-street. Sold also by Saxton & Miles, 205 Broadway, Her spotless standard, all their glories fade,

For if Religion hath not there unfurled New York,

And death will plunge them into endless shade. This is one of the cheapest of the count

Nor yet with those

In whom the brightest natures are confest ;less projects of cheap republications Man does but Duty when he does his besi.

FAME.

world ;

store :

Be this my fame:

appearance alive on the day appointed for That I have wiped the tear from sorrow's eye, And sighed with those whom grief has taught the execution. The case had been cited to sigh :

in a sermon on this subject by the Rev. That I have often crossed the widow's door, W. S. Balch, which was printed in the And soothed her woe and some enlarged her

newspapers. Mr. Cogswell denies the Have cheered the orphan on his lonely road,

fact of the reappearance of the supposed And woocd the wanderer from her dark abode: murdered man on the day of execution; That I have never turned a heedless ear,

asserting that he returned upwards of a Or sightless eye, to suffering's groan or tear.

And when some friend my epitaph shall write month before the event, and that therefore And marble letters meet the gazer's sight,

the scene depicted by Mr. Balch, as occurBe this the line for every eye to scan

ring on and about the scaffold, could not "Here lies an honest and a generous man!"

have taken place. Now there must be

some mistake in his authority, for it is a Speeches, Reviews, Reports, fc. By Jo- most certain fact that Bourne was actually

SEPH Blunt. New York: J. Van brought out to the scaffold, and that the Norden & Co., Printers, No. 60 Wil- execution was prevented, to the surprise liam street. 1843. 8vo. pp. 255.

of the whole crowd, and the disappoint

ment of some, by the appearance of ColThe contents of this volume are some- vin. We have this on the authority of a what heterogeneous, though Mr. Blunt gentleman of undoubted veracity, who, rehas a sufficient number of friends to be glad siding in a neighboring town, perfectly reof having this opportunity of possessing a members the circumstances of the return collection of the various productions,chiefly of the neighbors from the frustrated exethough not entirely of a literary character, cution, and their account of the affair. It wbich he has from time to time given to is possible that for some reason or other the public in the intervals of the active the return of Colvin may have been kept labors of his profession, Mr. Blunt is a secret till the appointed day, for the sake correct and often nervous writer, always of the scene at the foot of the gallows, exhibiting the man of cultivated mind though in the last degree improbable. and habits, though we cannot always ap- Perhaps his discovery in New Jersey took prove his mode of thinking. Two or place at the time stated as that of his rethree Review articles, Historical Dis- turn, and that he did not reach the spot courses, Reports on measures of a practi- till the last day. So far as it illustrates cal character, an able legal argument in the argument against the irremediable the celebrated libel case of Erastus Root character of this mode of punishment, by vs. Charles King, compose the volume, to- showing the possibility of the murder of gether with two strong Tariff documents, the innocent by the executioner, it is quite which proceeded from Mr. Blunt's pen, immaterial whether the one or the other the Address of the Home-League, and the statement be the literal truth. Report to its National Convention held in New York last October-papers certainly making the best of their case, to which History of Europe from the Commencement the writer is attached with a zeal which

of the French Revolution in 1789, to the we can respect even while we differ.

Restoration of the Bourbons in 1815. By
ARCHIBALD Alison, F. R. S. E. Advo-

cate, In 4 vols. New York: Harper A Treatise on the Necessity of Capital & Brothers, No. 82 Cliff street. 1843.

Punishment. By JONATHAN COGSWELL, 8vo. Parts 1, 2, 3, and 4.
D.D., Professor of Ecclesiastical His-
tory in the Theological Institute of

These four parts compose the first of Connecticut. Hartford : Press of Elihu the four volumes in which the Harpers Green, 26. State street. 1843. 18mo.

propose to issue Alison's great historyeach issued for the price which we should

call astonishing but for the miracles we This little production in one respect now daily witness in this way, of twentybears strongly in favor of the abolition of five cents. We confess that we do not Capital Punishment, as an evidence how look with very great favor upon the circuweak an argument can be made by a lation of Alison in this country-a tholearned and able man in favor of that of roughly English and highly-toned aristowhich he urges the necessity. We have cratic version of the French Revolution as said enough on the subject in a former ar it is. It is undoubtedly, nevertheless, a ticle in the present number. We content book of great value and powerful and brilourselves with a single remark in relation liant style, though at times inflated and to the case of Bourne, who came near be- overloaded, and though requiring to be ing hung in Vermont, in 1819, for the read with jealous reference to the point crime of murdering a man who made his of view from which the author looks.

pp. 58.

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