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not exist in the subject; they do not remember. Every man presages to a exist in what is called the world of greater or less extent, has always a space,
for they are not corporeal; more or less vivid presentiment of what where, then, do they or can they exist ? is to fall out. Most people can relate There is but one answer to be given to some remarkable instances of foresight this question; it is that they EXIST IN TIME or presentiment which have occurred as bodies do in space. Memory, though in the course of their experience. involving much which is, in the present state of our knowledge, wholly This FORESIGHT is not always clear inexplicable, may be defined, THE SUB- and distinct, but in general feeble and JECT PERCEIVING IN TIME.
confused; and so is it with our percep
tion of bodies in space. It is only here This view of Memory, which, I and there one that is distinctly marked ; believe, is not a very common one, the greater portion coming within the though not altogether original with range of our vision are perceived only me, is of very great importance, and may confusedly, as are the small particles help us to explain some phenomena of water which compose the wave I which have hitherto been inexplicable. see rolling in upon the beach, or the It recognizes a world of Time as well hum of each separate insect which as a world of space, and in man the goes to make up the total hum of the power of perceiving in the one world swarm to which I listen. In Memory, as well as in the other. On any other too, our perceptions are for the most view of memory, time would have no part of the same confused character. meaning, would have no contents. We often foresee with as much disThe future we should say is not yet, tinctness as we remember; and the and the past has ceased to be. There objects of which we have a presentiwould, then, remain only the present, ment, not unfrequently stand out before which is a mere point, and the type, us in as clear and as brilliant a light as if I may so speak, not of time, but of the objects we perceive in space, and Eternity, that is, of No-lime. Space are capable of being discerned with marks the relations which bodies hold equal ease and exactness. to each other, not merely as they exist in our mind, as Kant maintains, but as Leibnitz contends that we not only they exist in the Divine Mind, that is, have a reminiscence of all our past as they really exist. Time marks the thoughts, but a PRESENTIMENT of all order in which events succeed, and our thoughts, though in a confused not only the order of the events which manner, without distinguishing them. have been, but also of the events The fact that we perceive only in a which are to be. Events bear, then, confused manner without distinguishthe same relation to time, that bodies ing one perception from another, makes do to space, and perception of the nothing against the fact that we do events is properly perception in time, perceive. We must not suppose that as perception of bodies is perception in our actual perceptions are confined to space.
the few distinct perceptions in which
we not only perceive but apperceive. But time has two divisions, the The me, or subject, is essentially active Past and the Future. Memory is the and percipient; the object, all nature, subject PERCEIVING IN THE PAST; but is always before it, around it, and may we not also perceive in the fu- streaming into it with ten thousand ture? Cannot man look before as well influences, each of which must, from as after ? Does not the prophetic ele- the nature of the case, be perceived; ment, then, bear the same relation to for, unperceived, they would not and the soul that the historical does ? and could not be influences; they would is not PROPHECY found to be a fact as be as if they were not. In deep sleep, well, attested in man's history as in fainting, in stupor, there is percepMemory itself? It may, or it may not tion, but no apperception; or how exist in as great a degree; man may otherwise could we awaken, or return, not have the same power of foresight or be recalled, to consciousness? We that he has of after-sight; yet the close the eyelids unconsciously, when power to foresee is as unquestionable any foreign body approaches the eyes. and as universal as the power 10 We are at times swayed to and fro,
are powerfully affected, we know not is by them that we must explain what how, and cannot tell wherefore. We are called involuntary actions. By experience the most pleasurable, or the them we are also able to account for most painful sensations, without a a great variety of phenomena, which clear or distinct perception of any ex. without them would be wholly inexternal cause. When we walk for our plicable. Assuming that we may pleasure, we not seldom take one perceive without apperceiving, and in direction rather than another, without the world of time as well as in the any reason of which we are conscious; world of space, we can readily account and when we walk, lost in revery, or for the fact that we are so seldom surrapt in our own meditations, we turn prised when we become conscious of aside, and with perfect unconscious- perceiving, and for the fact long ago ness carefully avoid the obstructions to noted by Plato, and by him made the our progress, which may be lying in basis of his argument for the immorour pathway. We must needs per- tality of the soul, that all knowledge ceive what comes within the range of comes to us ever as a reminiscence, as our organs of perception; and yet we something which we have previously seldom mark the roar of the Ocean known, and now suddenly remember. near which we live, breaking on the When a man utters a new and striking distant beach; the hum of the city thought in my hearing, I seem to mythrough which we daily pass; the rich self to have had that thought before. and varied beauty of the landscape In all my observations on nature, in all which has been lying spread out before my reflections on science, ari, and us in warm sunlight from our child- morals, I seem to myself, for the most hood; and yet these influence our cha- part, to be reviewing what I had racters, and nice observers can easily before seen, though hastily and impertell, on seeing and conversing for a fectly. The authors who take hold of short time with a stranger, the general the popular heart, and enter into the description of the natural scenery life of their race as its restorers, rarely amidst which he has been brought up. surprise us; they seem to us to be Objects are constantly before us which saying what all had always we do not note; sounds are perpetu- thought or felt, but had never been ally ringing in our ears of which we able to express, and had never before are unconscious; and yet remove those heard expressed. This is precisely objects, silence those sounds, and we the effect we should look for in case we should instantly miss them; a sense of had, as Leibnitz says, “a presentiloneliness or desertion would come ment of all our thoughts.” The soul over us, and we should look around to had had a presentiment, a dim and find that of which, when present, we confused perception, before the clear took no notice. These considerations, and distinct view which converts the and many more of the same kind, war- perception into a thought. What is rant the induction, that we may per- subsequently thought had, as it were, ceive without apperceiving, and that in some degree, been foreseen and we are never to assume that we do predicted. Hence we find that pronot perceive, when all the conditions phecy never surprises us; and the bulk of perception are present, merely be- of mankind, they who are not prejucause we do not distinguish our per- diced by systems and theories, find no ceptions one from another, or because difficulty å priori in crediting to the they are too numerous and too rapid fullest extent, those individuals who in their transit across the plane of our from time to time stand out from their vision, to allow us to clothe them with race as the providential representatives form, and thus convert them into of the prophetic power of our nature. thoughts. While, then, we may say Our power of clear and distinct percepwith Locke, that the soul does not tion in time as well as in space, varies always think, we must still contend with the state of our mind and body. with Leibnitz, that it always perceives, We know by experience, that in our and everywhere.
own case the power to foresee in cer
tain states of nervous excitement or These feeble, confused, undistin- exaltation of sentiment, in trance, or guished perceptions, play a very im- what the Alexandrian philosophers portant part in the conduct of life. It called' ecstasy, is altogether greater
and more certain than in our ordinary identity, a faith which we retain, notstate. Hence the Pythoness who gave withstanding the perpetual interrupforth her oracles in her moments of tions of consciousness, as in deep almost convulsive excitement, natural sleep when we do not dream, in faintor artificial, may readily have per- ing, and stupor. These interruptions ceived what she predicted. The belief never shake our faith in our own in oracles among the heathen, then, as identity. We are always the same, well as in the prophets and seers invariable, persisting subject. The among the Hebrews, may have had subject finds itself, recognizes its own something solid at bottom.
existence only in its acts. It is not To the same power of perceiving think'; and therefore, if it acted only
always conscious, does not always without apperceiving, and of perceiv. when’it thought, it would at times -ing in time, as well as in space, must lose all sense of itself, which in point be attributed our faith in the order and of fact never happens. It perceives, stability of nature. On this faith is always; and in all perception it acts; founded the whole conduct of life; and and in 'all acting, however feeble or yet it is no induction from experience, confused, it must have a feeble and and no logical inference from the im- obscure sense of its own being ;-100 mutability of the Creator. It is never feeble and obscure, it may be, to give obtained by a logical process. Because it a clear and distinct consciousness, the sun rose to-day; or because I have yet always sufficient to keep alive a seen it rise for a thousand days, I faith in its own identity and persistcannot say that it will rise to-morrow. Men, too, have this faith, who never think of inferring it from the ex The fact here touched upon, might perience of the past. It is not inferred perhaps carry us farther yet, and acfrom the immutability of the Creator'; count, in some manner, for our faith for it may be found where there is no in Immortality, and, at the same time, belief in the Creator, and where men show us that the substance of that have not asked themselves, if the im- faith rests on as high a degree of mutability of the Creator involves the certainty as that which we have of our immutability of the creation. Nor is présent existence. The faith in Imit inferable from the immutability of mortality, which in some form is, and the Creator. We all admit that God is always has been the universal faith of immutable, but none of us admit the mankind, is after all nothing but the immutability of creation. If we have faith which we have in our own a right to infer the order and stability identity and persistence, and requires of nature from the fact that God is no other conditions. It is a presentiimmutable, it is only because this factment of the soul, an actual perception implies that there can be no change in in time, shading off as all time does his works. If no change in his works, into eternity. then, no progress, no deterioration ; all is fixed, immovable. And yet in the
How the soul can perceive in time, case of man, we know this is not true. past or future, is no doubt inexplicable; Humanity is capable both of improve. There is no more mystery in the one
so is it, how it can perceive in space. ment and of deierioration. There are no data from which this faith can be in
case than in the other. All we can ferred, and, as a matter of fact, it how it perceives, we shall never be in
do, is to determine wbat it perceives; never is an inference. Yet all men have it, and in every act of their lives, all we shall ever be able to do, is to say
condition to explain. All we can do, in the least and the greatest, pre- that it perceives because it is essensuppose it. Whence comes it?' The soul perceives in time, and in time tially a percipient activity, which after future, as well as in time past
. It has all is only saying simply that it per
ceives. always a presentiment of the continuance of this order and stability, which must survive, whatever the changes nature may undergo.
3. Imagination. To this same power we must at- IMAGINING or Imagination, is commontribute our faith in our own personal ly reckoned among the inal facul
ties of the soul ; but it is more properly
3. IMAGINATION. a fact of human life, implying the 4. Ecstasy or TRANCE. presence and activity of all the facul. ties. As an operation of the mind, Heighten perception to a given de taken in a broad and perhaps loose gree, and it is apperception ; heighten sense, it is hardly a simple operation, apperception to a given degree, and it but partakes in some degree of reason- is Imagination; heighten Imagination ing as well as of perceiving, and of to a given degree, and it is Ecstasy or perceiving in time as well as in space; Trance. The reality of the phenomena yet taken strictly, it is in the main, if included by the ancient Alexandrian not entirely, a mere mode or degree of school under the head of Ecstasy, and perceiving, and therefore appropriately which the modern believers in mesenough treated under the general head merism ascribe to the mesıneric state, of PERCEPTION.
cannot be altogether denied; but as
they are still wrapt in great obscurity, The name of this operation is bor- and as we are unable to affirm anyrowed, not from what may be regarded thing with much positiveness concernas its essence, but from one of its ing them, they are best classed under incidents, or frequent, though not ún. the head of Imagination, with which failing, accompaniments. Taken lit. they are certainly allied, and from erally, the word implies the act of which in the present state of our representing by images, and perhaps, knowledge they are by no means easily the act of so representing actual ex. distinguished. Including then the istences; but the operation itself is ecstasy of the ancients, and the mes. chiefly concerned with ideal existences; meric state of the moderns, under the and its essence consists rather in the head of Imagination, we must reduce degree of intenseness and energy with the degtees of activity to THREE, Perwhich those existences are perceived, ception, Apperception, and Imaginathan in the mode in which they are tion; of which Imagination will be the expressed or represented.
highest, and differing from the other
two only in being a more intense and In Imagination, as in perception, as energetic degree of the same activity. in apperception, there are both subject and object; but the object is for the In Imagination we appérceive, but most part ideal, and therefore com- with greater intenseness and energy monly supposed to be a mode, affec- than in ordinary thought. Hence, the tion, or creation of the subject; and Notion or Form with which the subtherefore again as wholly subjective ject clothes the naked elements of the and without objective validity. Hence, thought, is more real, living, substanimaginary would say fictitious, unreal, tial, than in ordinary thinking. A without any solid foundation. But the man imagining is a greater, a more object in Imagination, as in thought, vigorous and exalted being, than a man according to the doctrine already laid merely thinking. Herein is the true down, must be really not me, and distinction between the ordinary think. therefore really existing out and er and the poet, and between the artiindependent of the subject. The sub- san and the artist. Intensify ordinary ject in imagining, is as far from being thought, and it is poetry; as is evinced or creating its own object as in apper- by the fact that all real thinkers, all ceiving or remembering. Imagination men of sincere and earnest minds, in in its elements differs not at all from their moré felicitous moments, when apperception, nor indeed from simple acting with the whole force and energy perception. The difference is a differ- of their being, become more or less ence in quantity, not in quality. It is imaginative, and rise into strains of distinguished from apperception, as genuine poetry. Intensify the power apperception is distinguished from per- of the artisan, and the miserable sign ception, that is, by being a higher he is painting for some obscure village degree of the same activity. We may inn, becomes a Madonna, in which shall reckon FOUR degrees of activity, which be inshrined “the beauty of holiness.” may be named,
The rough, jarring tones of the rude 1. PERCEPTION.
peasant, grating harsh discord on the 2. APPERCEPTION.
ear, become sweet, musical, tender,
and touching, the moment his heart beads of wampum, and decks her hair warms up with a generous passion, or with shells, to win his admiration or melts with love and devotion.
his love. The artist, whether painter,
poet, sculptor, architect, or musician, The fact here insisted on deserves is no doubt above the mass of men, the attention of all who are concerned and very distinguishable from them; with Æsthetics, or the science of the but not hy having aught of which they Fine Arts. Every one has felt that . have not the elements. In this respect, poetry, depends on the imagination, all men are brothers, and equals. but wherein imagination differs from other mental operations, no one seems The simple truth is, there is not the to have been able to determine. It radical distinction between poetry and evidently is not in the expression, prose, between imagination and ordiotherwise all figurative or symbolical nary thinking, commonly contended expressions would be poetical ; and the for. Poetry and prose differ pot in huge, ill-shapen beasts of Hindoo and kind, but are merely different degrees Egyptian mythology, would be truer of what at the bottom is the same. specimens of art, than the symmetri- All prose writers, of the least genius, cal, graceful, and finished productions when warmed up, are poetical in of Grecian genius. White as snow," thought and expression; and our truest . “swift as the wind,” "quick as light- poets, for the most part of the time, ning," and similar expressions, are figu- give us merely measured prose. Prose rative in a high degree; but, whatever rises imperceptibly into poetry; and they may once have been, are now far poetry sinks imperceptibly into prose. from being poetical, or indicating the No man can define the exact boundary presence of imagination. They may line between them; and it is only when be used poetically, but they are ordina- at a considerable distance from the rily nothing more than 'extravagant line, that we can tell whether we are prose. Those who have agreed ihat in the territory of the one or of the Imagination is not in the expression, other. On each side of the line, there have usually considered it a special is and always must be a disputed terrifaculty of human nature, and have con- tory, which will be enlarged or considered poetry to be the result of a tracted according to the intensity and special power of the soul not called energy of the life of him who underinto exercise in ordinary prose. Yet takes to adjust the dispute. analysis of the finest passages of poetry taken from Homer, Dante, Milton, or Imagination has at times been called Shakspeare, will by no means sustain the creative faculty of the soul, and this view. These passages indicate therefore looked upon as the highest the presence of no original element of faculty of our nature. But all activity human nature, not essential to the is creative. To act is to do, to effect, driest and dullest prose. Art contains or produce something; that is, to no elements not requisite to the most create. Man is active by nature, and ordinary productions of the artisan. therefore must act in all his phenoEvery stone-cutter is an incipient Phi
He must then be creative in dias; and the richest and sublimest of them all. He is then creative, not Beethoven's Symphonies, contain no because he is imaginative, but because elements not contained in the usual he is active. Including, as we have tones of the human voice, and brought said, under the head of Imagination, into play in ordinary speech. Few the phenomena which the ancients men are artists; yet all men are able ascribed to ecstasy, and the moderns in a degree to relish Art. The germs to the mesmeric state, man is more of the poet are in all hearts; hence, the active in imagination than in any other true poet fetches from all hearts an of his operations, because imagination echo to his song. All men love the is the highest degree of activity of poet, for he is to them what they are which he is capable. aspiring to be-is themselves enlarged. All men love Art, and are moved by it. In regard to this higher degree of The rude Indian paints the prow of his activity, men differ one from another, canoe, polishes his war-club and his and the same man differs from himself, bow; and the Indian maiden strings her at different epochs of his life. The