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of the sovereign pontiff. The day has liation; it alone disturbs the security of come to go and chastise these degene- the nations, and compromises the peace rate Normans, and to imitate the ex. of the world. Let the world, then, ample of their own ancestors. The reach the consummation of peace by English government, in violating the one last war; let it go and seize in their rights of other nations, has placed itself den these pirates who have assumed to beyond the pale of all rights. Let the themselves the monopoly of crime. standard of European crusade be un- Let us summon to the standard of civil. furled against the pirates! Let every isation and justice all the nations who nation, every city, every voice, repeat have accounts to settle with this arrothe sacred cry, God wills it! God gant aristocracy; let us rally the formiwills it ! Never was excommunication dable cohort of its victims, and then, better merited ; and when the colossus from North America to the East Indies, of clay shall crumble beneath the blows from the Gulf of Mexico to the Mediof the indignant nations, never, in the terranean, from the North Sea to the history of empires, will a greater ruin Cape of Good Hope, we should behold have taught a greater lesson.” Whe- gathering together men of every race, ther M. Regnault will meet with the to come and take their part in the exesame success, in his invocation of a cution of sentence on the common enegeneral European crusade against my; and every pation of the globe England, which attended the same cry would appear before the eye of the exfrom the inspired lips from which he piring oligarchy, to repeat to it in turn quotes it, may well be a subject of some ihe funereal words which sounded in slight degree of doubt, however free he the ears of Richard the Third— Dehimself seems from entertaining any. spair and die !!"
It is not indeed the English people, With all this rhapsody we have of but rather their government, against course no further sympathy than a full which he would direct this extermi- and earnest participation in the wish nating vengeance of the world. Na- for the speedy downfall of that thricetions are only responsible to the extent cursed image of Baal, the Aristocracy that they are free. “What we wish of England. We would not see it acto combat," says he, “is that guilty complished, good as is the end, by the oligarchy which Napoleon cursed on bad means here indicated, even if ihese his bed of death; what we wish to means appeared within any measuradevote to the execration of the nations, ble distance of feasibility. We would is that detestable community of feudal aim toward its achievement in a far diftraffickers which has consecrated false- ferent manner, a far different spirit. It hood, and erected pillage into a princi- must be by the People of England ple. We would cheerfully extend the themselves that their own emancipahand of friendship to the British people; tion must be effected; and by them it but to reach them we must overthrow can best be done by bloodless methods. the aristocracy which holds them en. It is a remarkable fact, that the man chained in a splendid slavery.". who at this moment stands at the head
The following is the concluding pa- of the English democratic movement, ragraph of Mr. Regnault's philippic: is a member of that only Christian de“ Let it not be supposed that in a vain nomination which has adopted the spirit of ambition, we would invoke true spirit of the gospel of their prouseless wars, and aspire to any tri- fession, with respect to the moral law. umphs of personal feeling. The nations fulness of the use of violence and the of to-day-we recognize the fact-de- shedding of blood-we refer to Joseph sire order and peace; they have come Sturge, the Quaker, of Birmingham. to understand other glories than the The great political organization of glory of arms; they dream of other which he is president, “ The Complete conquests than the conquest of territory. Suffrage Union," is rapidly extending But it is because we do acknowledge over the whole United Kingdom, and this tendency that we demand aloud attaching to itself, and to the movement the annihilation of that oligarchy of to which they have heretofore been England which in every region of the strongly averse, the great body of the globe is a cause of disorder and wretch substantial middle classes. Discounedness. It alone at the present day tenancing all violence, upholding the anctions violence, and perpetuates spo- peaceful sanctions of order and law, but
denouncing the oppressions of aristo- the feudal and of the modern age. The cratic misgovernment, and preaching second exhibits a grievous picture of strongly the great ideas of human the general condition of the mass of rights, and demanding universal suf- the British people in past ages—their frage as the only peaceful and adequate burdens and sufferings during centuries remedy to the evils whose exasperation of unrelieved oppression. The third must soon otherwise seek other modes and fourth treat of the injustice, the of redress and revenge, this organiza- wrongs, the oppressive laws and cruel tion is working with great steadiness enactments under which the majority and power toward the end which is far of the British people are now strugsooner and better to be attained in this gling, and contain a vigorous and vicmode than by any of the furious fol- torious reply to the contradictions of lies of Chartism. Though totally dis- Mr. Lester's former work in a recent tinct from the Chartists, as an organ- publication entitled “ The Shame and ized party, the great principles of re- Glory of England Vindicated.” The form to which they pledge and de- fifth and sixth present a harrowing devote themselves are identical with the scription of the sufferings and crimne, six points of the Charter_namely, the ignorance and degradation, which universal suffrage, the balloi, annual have been caused by these oppressive parliaments, compensation to members and unparalleled burdens laid upon the of parliament, no property qualification people. The seventh treats of the for the office, and correspondence of re- woes and wrongs of Ireland under the presen
ntation to population. Pervaded tyranny of the British yoke, pointing and regulated by the spirit of which to the repeal of the legislative union as its pious and peaceful President may the only relief for the evils that yet be regarded as an expression, the oppress her. The eighth relates to ihe “Complete Suffrage Union ” harmo- feelings of the people of England in nizes in its direction with every other view of the deep injustice they have so effort of reform, while it commands long suffered, and iheir determination the confidence of thousands deterred to endure their slavery no longer; from participation in these movements while the ninth exhibits the opposition by the violent spirit so often evinced by of the aristocracy to the liberties of the their supporters. We regard it as one people, and their determination still to of the most auspicious and hopeful in- keep ihem in subjection. The tenth dications apparent in the troubled con- discusses the progress of the Demofusion of the present politics of Eng. cratic Principle throughout the world, land, that this great and growing organ- and especially in Great Britain ; and ization is thus under the presidency of a the eleventh and last illustrates the au“Friend,”a man, moreover, of character thor's prediction of an inevitable and so pure, so philanthropic, so devoted to speedy termination to the state of the principles of liberty in the spirit of things depicted throughout the course love, as JOSEPH STURGE. *
of the preceding books, in either a deep To return to Mr. Lester's work, of and wide-reaching reform, or a tremenwhich it was our design to present a dous revolution. A short Appendix general idea to our readers. This will adds a caustic and indignant review of perhaps best be done by a brief reca a pamphlet recently published by pitulation of the subjects of the several Bishop Doane, of New Jersey, of his parts, or books, into which it is divided. “Impressions of the Church of Eng. The first embraces a view of the Power land,” in which is administered a reand Magnificence of the British Em- buke to an “un-Americanized Ameripire, with illustrations of the spirit of can,” as just as it is severe. From the
•The character as well as the creed of Mr. Sturge made him naturally, in regard to the institution of slavery in this country, (which he visited a few years ago, after a tour in the British West India Islands), an abolitionist. We have nothing to do with him here in that capacity. He meant well, undoubtedly, but of course had no better understanding of the peculiar political relations of this country than other foreigners, especially Englishmen. After his return to England, he discovered the truth that there were heavier chains at home, and perhaps a higher duty to devote his energies first to the task of breaking or lightening them.
last named portion of the work we are add, - Men who fancied themselves sometempted to make the following quota. how straitened in the enjoyment of tion,—which follows some comments their religious liberty.'-A fancy indeed, on a speech in which Bishop Doane had that cost them dear. The war-whoop of the expressed an approbation of the Eng. Indian--the roar of the wintry storm—a ·lish union of the Church and State, desolate, unpeopled continent-methinks which certainly sounds exceedingly
were a sad relief from fancied wrongs. strange from the lips of an American leave the bosom of the mother church,
“ Poor credulous, superstitious men, to minister of the Gospel :
whose slightest fault was that she was a “ Yet all this, anti-republican as it is, quiry as to the character of these men.'
dry nurse! You' will enter into no inwe could have passed without notice, and Indeed! You will in charity forbearonly pitied the bigotry and servility dis- with that species of insinuation which is played in it. But there is one thing not the worst calumny's best weapon-lest to be pardoned, and which will awaken painful truths should be divulged! Meek the indignation of every man who has a drop of the blood of the Puritans running overlook even when you cannot forgive!
minister of Christ, how much you can in his veins. In a speech made by the But seriously, Sir Bishop, do you venture Bishop in Saint Mary's Hall, Coventry, is at this day to wag your mitred head at the found the following remarkable passage, which I have taken the liberty to under, middle Atlantic, surrounded by all the
• MAYFLOWER,' as she struggles along the score ;— I have lived in a land peopled terrors of the midnight storm? Can it be by those who emigrated from this country. that insulting fling was meant for that It is the fashion to call some of them frail, yet God-protected vessel, as she the Pilgrim Fathers—men who fancied rocks in Massachusetts Bay--her icy themselves somehow straitened in the enjoyment of religious liberty-who, in lemn covenant with God, who alas! had
deck crowded with men kneeling in sothe claim of greater freedom in God's worship and service, set out for distant given them no authority to minister in shores, and planted themselves in a region fancied' wrongs they had fled to our in
holy things.' Poor deluded men! under now called New England: I enter not into the inquiry as to the character of these authority to minister in holy things, they
hospitable wilderness, and having no men, the justice of their complaints, or the motives for their proceedings—I will ac
must live without Christianity. No cathecord to them all that charity can ask. drals--no rich livings--no widow's tithes They went from here as they thought, and
--no poor man's church rates—no fines
on the renewal of leases--no fox-hunting truly believed, the true followers of the Gospel of Jesus Christ; preaching, as
clergy-no starved curates—and above they thought, the very principles of the from St. Peter through all the Popes—
all, no Bishops deriving their authority Reformation—but without a churchwithout a Liturgy--with no transmitted au
none of these things to constitute them a thority from God to minister in holy things.' church of the living God! “ The result of this sacrilegious inva
“ You have the honor, Sir, of being the sion of the prerogatives of the church he first one who has sneered at the Pilgrim
Fathers, while enjoying the priceless makes to be the prevalence of Unitarianism, Atheism, and Pantheism," in New privileges of moral and political liberty
won by their blood. Far from my humble England. “Now, I venture to say, that no native- pen the presumption of undertaking to
defend those noble men! There are born American for the last half century, their graves, but the dead are not in them has dared to utter so contemptible a sneer at the Pilgrim Fathers; and yet he is they live in the hearts of their countrywilling to accord them all that charity associations of freedom. The civil and
men. Around them cluster the noblest can ask. And what charity, Sir Bishop, religious liberty they left us we hold and do the Pilgrim Fathers ask of you ? will hold for ever, though there are found Charity! No other American has been
men in our midst so false to their birth, found so false to his country, and those
so servile to foreign despotism, as to talk who left him the rich heritage he enjoys, as not to render them a proud and cheer. depreciatingly of them, and fulsomely in ful reverence. Charity from a Bishop of a company of English hierarchs about the the Church of England to the Pilgrim glorious privilege of a union of Church
and State!" Fathers!
You say it is a fashion to call some of them Pilgrim Fathers, intimating, in no The following extract from another obscure language, that it is the sobriquet portion of the work will serve to show of the ignorant and superstitious. You ihe extent and value of the electoral
reform embodied in that splendid dis- tion with a few words from the West. appointment, the Reform Bill of Earl minster Review for January, 1842, to do Grey-of which the result is, that less away with the false impression which has than one hundred and sixty-five thou- been so common in the United States, and sand voters, or about the one hundred into the belief of which, so many English
men have been deluded; that the peasanand sixty-fourth part of the whole people, create the majority in the House of try of England are the happiest peasan
try in the world! An impression which Commons, which rules the rest of the has no other foundation than the dreams twenty-seven millions of population : of the poet, or the false representations
of oppressive landlords. “ It was a radical defect in the Reform
“ Says the Review, 'There is not a step, Bill, that it made no provision for securing but simply a hand's-breadth between the any fixed and fair proportion between the condition of our agricultural laborers, and number of representatives and the number pauperism! For although the labor of our of electors. A few rotten boroughs were parish yards and Unions is more dedisfranchized, it is true, and the elective pendent and less remunerated than that of franchise somewhat extended; but Man- the free labor of those who keep themchester, with 8,000 electors, and a popu- selves aloof from the parish, yet such is lation as large as New York, sends no the actual condition of the farming men more members to Parliament than Thet- of this country, to say nothing of Ireland, ford, with only 160 voters. No distinction that if only sickness during a few weeks is made between Liverpool, with 12,000 assail them, or they lose employment for electors, and Chippenham, with only 217. the same length of time, they have Harwich, with only 181 electors, returns nothing to fall back upon, but the large as many members as the West Riding of district receptacles for the sick, the famYorkshire, with 30,000. It is still an ishing, and the infirm.
Misunequal and unjust system upon which ery everywhere exists--vast and inthe House of Commons is constituted ; the calculable misery! but it is more obvious, mass of the people are still disfranchised, condensed, palpitating, and fuller of infor of the total male population of the terest to a mere casual observer, in the three kingdoms over twenty-one years of great towns and cities, than in the fields, age, only one man in sir is allowed to vote.
moors, fens, and mountains of our land. “From Lewis's 'Four Reformed Par- Misery in the country is less obvious to liaments,' and the “Registration Returns the passer-by, to the, votary of pleasure for 1841,'I find that the total number of and dissipation, and even to the man of electors in Great Britain and Ireland is leisure and reflection : but it is not the only 994,731.—A large deduction should, less real. The cottagers of England, once however, be made even from this number, so cheerful and gay, are melancholy and for a plurality of votes, as the majority of mournful. The voice of singing is never freeholders have at least two rotes—one for heard within their walls. Their unhappy the borough and one for the county. This inmates vegetate on potatoes and hard would very much reduce the number of dumplings, and keep themselves warm electors. From the authorities I have with hot water poured over one small quoted above, it appears that a sixth part teaspoonful of tea that barely colors the of the constituency of the three kingdoms. water, and which is administered to the returns a clear majority of the House of fretful children their anxious and imCommons. While the entire constituency poverished parents.' is only 994,731,-THREE HUNDRED AND FORTY-ONE MEMBERS OUT OF 658, ARE « Soon after the anti-corn-law league' ELECTED BY 164,810 voTERS!”
was organized, a new spirit of inquiry
into the condition of the people was In treating of the actual suffering awakened. This resulted in so thorough and degradation resulting from so many an investigation, and in the accumulation past centuries of misgovernment still of facts so incontrovertible, that no person continued with but slight mitigation, who has any reputation for accuracy or Mr. Lester divides the operative classes intelligence to preserve, will risk it upon into the Agricultural and the Commer- a denial of the terrible truth—that misery cial Laborers. We shall give such vast and incalculable everywhere prevails extracts as our limits permit from his in the three kingdoms; and that the
agricultural laborers, so far from being statements respecting both:
exempt from the general distress, have “ AGRICULTURAL LABORERS.-Always been among the severest sufferers. choosing to substantiate my statements by “ In giving an account of an investigaEnglish authorities, I shall open this sec- tion into the condition of the peasantry of
Devonshire, the garden of England, the cal officer stated her to be suffering from editor of the anti-corn circular says : want of sufficient nourishment. She bore “We invite particular attention to the two children in her arms, one of them account of the condition of the Devon- having inflamed eyes. The case was shire peasantry, given in this number. It strictly examined, and with a view to inappears that the average wages paid to formation on the real state of our boasted the laborers who till the soil of that peasantry—the happy children of the soil garden of England, are under eight shil -the pride of onr land, as they are called lings a week! Tens of thousands of heads by poets and landlords, we put several of families are there toiling for a shilling questions, the answer to which filled us or fourteen pence a day each, which, with surprise. The following is the subsupposing them to have a wife and three stance of her statement. children, will not be more than eighteen “Her husband is a farm laborer, pence a head ;-less by sixpence than is working for a farmer in the immediate allowed for the subsistence of a pauper in neighborhood of Taunton. His wages the Manchester workhouse,-nay, less are seven shillings a week only, with an than is paid for the food and clothing of allowance of cider for himself. We asthe criminals confined in our New Bailey certained that these were the wages genprison! Such are the peasantry of beau- erally given by the farmers in this vicin ity tiful Devonshire. Truly may it be said The family consists of the peasant, his of that county,—God created a paradise, wife, and five children under ten years and man has surrounded it with an atmos- old. The farmer sells them wheat, not phere of misery, and peopled it with the the best, but still, she said, very good, at wretched victims of selfish legislation !' eight shillings a bushel. She bought half
“In putting on record the weekly ex a bushel a week, which consumed four penditure of a peasant's family, whose shillings out of the seven. She paid receipts were seven shillings a week, the eighteen penee a week for house rent; it writer adds, 'the account subjoined is not cost her sixpence a week for grinding, imaginative, being taken from the mouth baking and barm, to make the wheat into of an honest and industrious peasant, liv- bread; another sixpence was consumed in ing and working in the parish of Tiverton. firing, and only a solitary sixpence was His family consists of himself, his wife, left to provide the family with the luxury and four children,—the ages of the latter of potatoes, clothes, and other necessabeing seven, six, four, and two years.' ries, for comforts they had none. And The following is the literal account given this is the condition of the English lame by the parties :
“ These, and similar accounts of the
peasantry in every part of England, were Rent of two rooms and garden One peck of wheat
published more than two years ago. Since Grinding
19 then the state of things has been growing
worse and worse every day. The price of Half a bag of potatoes
food has greatly increased. Commercial One pound of Lard
0 74 embarrassment has carried a distress Candles
hitherto unknown through every part of Soap
of the country; and the most undoubted auMilk, (scalded), six pints
thorities, Quarterly Reviews, Members of Parliament, London and Provincial Jour
nals, have all confirmed the sad truth, “ This account was published in the that although the peasantry have been Somerset County Gazette. The editor surrounded by overflowing granaries, yet expressed great surprise that such a state those that till the earth and make it lovely of things prevailed in Devonshire, and and fruitful by their labors, are only alcongratulated the peasantry of Somerset lowed the slave's share of the many blesson their independence. A committee, ings they produce.' however, was appointed to make a similar inquiry into their condition. In reference “In the debate in the House of Lords on to it the editor says : At the Board of the collieries, Earl Fitzwilliam expressed Guardians on Wednesday, however, we the belief that if the inquiry was extended received painful evidence that the agri- to the peasantry, they would be found cultural laborers of Somerset are, if it be in a condition no better than that of the possible, worse off than those of Devon- 'SLAVES IN THE COAL MINES :' and in shire. One case will be sufficient. this belief several noble lords concurred.
""A woman applied for relief in con I might crowd facts together and accusequence of the ill health of herself and mulate evidence, but the case would be children, and the certificate of the medi no more strongly made out. Our Repub
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