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horn;

* On! sacred Truth! Thy triumph ceased awhile, at its conclusion, presented to the and Hope, thy sistec, ceased with thee to smile, When leagued oppression pour's to nort.uern wars public certain resolutions expressive of Ber whiskerid pandours and her fierce hussars, the sentiments of the class. Among Peal'd her loud drum, and twang'd her trumpet these resolutions, let it suffice to quote

the following: Tumultuous horror broodel o'er her van, Presizing wrath to Poland-and to man! • Warsaw's last champion, etc."

Resolved, That, in our opinion, he

has demonstrated the practicability of “ Another consisted of a patriotic Indian exciting, or modifying, or arresting the effusion, denouncing the white man's op- action of the several moral, mental, or pression. To the question, asked after his corporeal organs, so as to change the restoration, whether he was in the habit of thoughts, feelings, and actions of the reciting poetry, he answered in the nega

individual for the time.

That tive. Certainly no one, from his general the experiments have, in our opinion, appearance, would have suspected him demonstrated the discoveries made by Dr. to be the least given to poetic declama

Buchanan.” tion. Indeed, now, when the excitement was partially removed by operating on In view of the preceding observathe antagonistic organs, he was unable to tions, it may be asked—Whither is this repeat the lines from Campbell without new science to lead us? Are the old assistance in the way of having the first landmarks of knowledge to be set word of nearly every line; and when aside; and are we to pull down every requested to declaim them as before, he system which has been built up upon merely repeated, in a subdued voice, such consciousness, or upon the tedious parts as he recollected, expressing by his gatherings of observation?. Is this actions a want of interest in the subject.

new system to subvert all its prede“Whilst still under the influence of self-esteem, and some remains of the cessors, and then be overwhelmed in excitement produced by the organ of

turn by another theory—a still shorter insanity, Mr. M. set forth his ideas at

royal road to wisdom? considerable length on various political

We answer, No. Systems pass subjects, for the special edification of away, but truths survive; and every Messrs. Bryant and O'Sullivan, he having new truth added to our stock of knowjust before learned that the latter was ledge, notwithstanding it may destroy also an editor. He made an harangue some error, cannot crush or obscure a against party politics and party editors, previously known truth.

The new advising Mr. Bryant to confine his atten- demonstrative school of metaphysics tion to literature, and especially poetry. will, we are confident, develope and From Mr. O'Sullivan, he attempted to confirm many of the principles which exact a promise that he would publish in heretofore, as no experimental mode of the Democratic Review,' an article testing them was known, have been which he would, on that condition, write sustained by reason alone. We obin regard to the rights of man. In this request he was very strenuous and exact

serve that memory has been restored ing, except for a few moments whilst Dr.

to its rightful place in the catalogue of Buchanan held his hand on the organ of our faculties by the new system.Conhumility, when, doubting his ability, he sciousness and abstraction are also redesired Dr. Buchanan to furnish him cognized as special faculties dependent with a few ideas, and instruct him how to upon special organs.

We expect to arrange them. The contrast apparent see many of the doctrines of Locke, between the powers of expression and Reid, Stewart and Brown established elevation of thought and sentiment, experimentally on the new physiologievinced by him while under the excite- cal basis. We expect to see a subtle ment of the intellectual organs, and the and intricately arranged philosophy more dull and ordinary deportment when spring up from these investigations, as this excitement was removed, was very different from the crude system of Gall striking.”

as is the bright face of Nature with

all her diversities of mountain, plain, During the same period that these forest, field, river, and sea, from the experiments were being conducted rudely sketched outline of a schoolbefore this sub-committee, Dr. Bu- boy's map. chanan wis engaged in delivering a But to what else will it lead ? If

before a private class impressibility is most frecuently found

course

why may it not be evinced by some skilful experimentalist, we cannot but man of genius? If so, may not the believe that many a rare and strange intellectual organs be stimulated to a feature of our common nature will be higher degree of activity than results brought to light.' The elements of from ordinary influences ? May not a genius, of poetry, of love, and of the cerebral power be generated, bordering mysterious sympathies of mind with upon the supernatural energy of in- mind, will be brought forth, and subsanity? And may not this intense jected, like the gay ornament of the intellectual excitement be directed to skies, the rainbow, to philosophical useful purposes in the investigation or analysis. As the natural philosopher illustration of truth? May not the explains its beautiful effect by the laws student rouse his memory when it of ibat luminous medium, wbich, by fails to recall the knowledge that it passing through the drops of water, once possessed ? May not the natu. presents to the eye a brilliant spectrum; ralist and the artist have the external so will he perhaps explain how that senses rendered more acute ? May higher medium--the Divine Aura of not the faculties of sight, touch, taste, life and thought-passing through the and smell, be sharpened for minute white and grey matter of the cerebral investigation of physical science ? conyolutions, originates the affections

May we not by various excitements and all the poetry of life. Would it produce all the diseases and all the be strange if he should discover conditions to which the human mind through what medium the soul acts and body are subject ? May we not upon its corporeal tenement, or that ascertain the condition of the mind and there are media heretofore unknown of the brain in insanity, sleep, dream- and of a nature different from the galing, trance, and the act of dying? vanic and magnetic ? Would it be inMay we not determine the seat of life credible that faculties should be disand discover in what portion of the covered in man which have been brain the mental action is last per. sometimes supposed to exist in the ceived-from what spot the soul takes gifted few, bui which are entirely units final departure ?' May we not be known and unfelt by the multitude ? siege and torture Nature with inge In the great ideal of Humanity in nious and searching experimenis, which we embody its dignity and its until we compel her to confess her powers-worthy to be the servant and secrets ?

the agent of Divinity-we perceive We put these questions because they that which we realize in no individual. seem naturally to arise from the es. There are done to be found who even tablishment of the fact, that we can approximate the great and perfect type compel the various fibres of the brain of humanity. How far the noble to manifest their functions; and thus nature of man has been debased canwe may interrogate Nature, as it were, not be told, nor how many of the worldby the most rigid examinations. We knowing and world-conquering faculbelieve that all that we have hinted ties bestowed by his Creator, have been at, and much more, is comprehended in enfeebled or destroyed. There are conthe system of Dr. Buchanan; and that tinual aspirations to something greater these various points have been made and better, which are not gratified, the subject of experiment, we know. and which we cannot carry into execuHis views have not yet been embodied tion; but which seem like vestiges to in a volume, to which we might reser remind us of what we should be, and for their nature and scope; but we what may once have been the nature know that he aspires to go as far as of man. In the system of Buchanan, human intellect can pierce the almost these vestiges are recognized; a range impenetrable mysteries of life and of faculties has been discovered, which mind. Should he ever present to the are now dormant, and which have been public that" higher psychological sys- perhaps dormant for ages in the greater tem of philosophy," of which he portion of the human race. These speaks as distinct from Neurology, we faculties giving a stimulus to the mind anticipate something of a still more and expanding greatly its range of strange and startling character. knowledge, may hereafter be devel.

If all the elements of humanity can oped as features of our common nature, be summoned up at the beck of the and be made the means of obtaining a

loftier species of knowledge than has Obloquy and ridicule, on the part of ever yet been obtained by human kind. nine-tenths of the promiscuous public,

We hope to be enabled to return 10 must no doubt be the portion of those this fruitful theme, as soon as a suffi- who will ever dare to venture on the ciency of facts shall have been pub- responsibility of avowing their belief lished to warrant some general deduc. in the facts which have been attested, tions. At the present time, we regard to their own close and suspicious inves. it indeed as altogether too early to tigations, by evidence of the most conattempt to organize a science on the vincing character. This must, and basis of the phenomena as yet observed, easily can be borne with patienceso far, at least, as they are known to us. until the arrival of the day, not, as We have already slated, as participat. we feel confident, very far distant, ing in the Report above quoted from, when all the world will recognize as the extent to which alone we consider familiar fact that which all the world ourselves able to draw deductions from will at first unite in deriding as the the experiments we have witnessed. absurdest of fiction.

POLITICAL PORTRAITS WITH PEN AND PENCIL.

No. XXXVI.

JOHN C. CALHOUN,

OF SOUTH CAROLINA.

(With a fine Engruving on Steel.) A SKETCH of the life of the eminent the Democratic Party is at this mostatesman whose portrait constitutes meni hesitating in its choice of its the embellishment of our present next candidate for the Presidency, is Number, has been before given in the apparent to every eye. As explained pages of this work, in April, 1838, in another paper in our present NumThe rough outline etching which then ber, this is a point to be left to the accompanied it was, however, so far unbiassed action of the great popular inferior to the present style in which heart, and which it would be entirely this series of engravings is executed, foreign to the character and scope of that it is repeated in this improved this Řeview to discuss, as the advocate form,-as several others of those which of any particular personal preference thus appeared among the earlier num- where no selection could go wrong; bers of our portrait gallery, either Whether Mr. Calhoun's great and have been or will be repeated. The glorious qualities and services have miniature from which this engraving yet availed to overcome the prejudice has been copied is regarded by Mr. left on the minds of a large portion of Calhoun's friends as the only good our party in other sections of ihe Union likeness of him which has been taken than his own, by former passages in of late years,-faithful in all but that his political life where right and beaming brightness of eye which wrong were so intermingled as to render marks the original, and which no coun- the task of discrimination not easy to terfeit presentment can imitate. the common mind, sufficiently to make · We shall not repeat the biographical them yet able to respond to the memoir of the great Nullifier. His enthusiasm with which the South course through the past five years, appears disposed to urge his name since the publication of the former one upon the Convention, no means yet referred to, is familiar to every reader exist for a satisfactory decision. And of these pages. His present position be the issue of this question what it among that foremost few from whom may, the country hoe already the am

plest guarantees that Mr. Calhoun will whole speech, in fact, there is a remarkanever allow his name to be used as an ble similarity to the speech of the great apple of destructive discord in the Athenian. And where could any man councils of his friends; and that if find a nobler model ? For withering sarother considerations than the grateful casm-burning invective-lofty declamaadmiration which no Democrat known tion-for all that is spirit-stirring and to us, north or south of the Potomac, glorious in eloquence, there is not on with holds from him, should on this record, in any language, as noble and occasion point the Democratic nomina- perfect a specimen as this Oration for the

Crown. tion in any different direction, he will

“Mr. Calhoun, in the simplicity and support its choice with a zeal not inse- brevity of his sentences, throughout all his rior to that which his own pame will speeches, shows the model he has studied. command, if it is destined to be in fact his whole character and life are the watchword of our approaching eminently Greek. His striking and struggle.

grand conceptions—with his unassuming The following sketch of Mr. Cal- and plain manners—his calm dignity and houn, which was drawn in the winter composure—his sternness and exemplary of 1837-8, by a political and personal purity in private and public life, all show friend-himself a man of no humble that he has bathed deep in the fountains fame-we reproduce for the sake of of antiquity. the masterly truth and force with

“In one faculty of the mind he surwhich it presents the strongly marked passes any public man of the age, and features of his intellectual character:

that is in analysis. His power to examine

a complex idea, and exhibit to you the “Mr. Calhoun has evidently taken simple ideas of which it is composed, is Demosthenes for his model as a speaker- wonderful. Hence it is that he generalor rather, I suppose, he has studied, izes with such great rapidity, that ordiwhile young, his orations with great ad- nary minds suppose, at first, he is theomiration, until they produced a decided retical; whereas he has only reached a impression upon his mind. His recent point at a single bound, to which it would speech in defence of himself against the require long hours of sober reflection for attacks of Mr. Clay, is precisely on the them to attain. It is a mistake to supplan of the famous oration De Corona, pose that he jumps at his conclusions delivered by the great Athenian, in vindi- without due care and consideration. No cation of himself from the elaborate and man examines with more care, or with artful attacks of Æschines. While the more intense labor, every question upon one says: 'Athenians! to you I appeal, which his mind is called to act. The my judges and my witnesses !'—the other difference between him and others is, that says: 'In proof of this, I appeal to you, he thinks constantly, with little or no Senators, my witnesses and my judges on relaxation. Hence the restless activity this occasion ! Æschines accused De- and energy of his mind always place him mosthenes of having received a bribe far in advance of those around him. He from Philip, and the latter retorted by has reached the summit, while they have saying that the other had accused him of just commenced to ascend, and cannot doing what he himself had notoriously readily discover the path which has lead done. Mr. Clay says, that Mr. Calhoun him to his lofty and extensive view. had gone over, and he left it to time to dis “Mr. Calhoun evidently has studied close his motives. Mr. Calhoun retorts: our system of government very profoundly Leave it to time to disclose my motives and philosophically, on the leading ideas for going over! I, who have changed no of the school of Jefferson. His great opinion, abandoned no principle, and de- speech in reply to Mr. Webster, on the serted no party-I, who have stood still federative principle of the Constitution, and maintained my ground against every and the sovereignty of the States, is one difficulty, to be told that it is left to time of the most profound and finished comto disclose my motive! The imputation mentaries upon that noble instrument and sinks to the earth with the groundless its formation, that has ever been produced charge on which it rests. I stamp it by the genius of man. On that remarkadown in the dust. I pick up the dart ble occasion, he simplified the points of which fell harmless at my feet. I hurl it controversy with his distinguished antagoback. What the Senator charges on me nist to such a degree, that he compelled unjustly, he hus actually done. He went him to deny that our system of Governover on a memorable occasion, and did ment was a constitutional compact ; and not leave it to time to disclose his motive.” finally forced him to the position, that the In the conception and arrangement of the Government itself had substantive and

independent rights, as if the Government that he has an absorbing ambition ; but was not made by the Constitution, and this is a mistake, and it arises from the had no existence, in a single attribute, natural activity of his mind on all queswithout it. This debate was managed tions of much interest, and his constant with great power and ability on both and ardent patriotism. Devotion to the sides. Both speakers saw that the whole honor and liberties of his country is his argument turned upon the point whether consuming passion, and his ardent purthe Constitution was a compact or not. suit of what he conceives to be her If it was admitted, the wit of man could interests is mistaken by the superficial not avoid the conclusion, that each party observer for overweening ambition. Amto the compact must of necessity judge of bition he has, but it is high and noble, its provisions and infractions, or surrender and like the Roman's, identified with up their original character as sovereign love for Rome. His nullification, so contracting parties, to a government with much misunderstood and misrepresented, power to define its own limitations, and, of was with him a pure and enthusiastic necessity, to make and unmake the com- devotion to the true spirit of the Constitupact at the will and pleasure of those tion and the permanent interest of the who might chance to give it impulse and whole Union, according to his understandvitality. This subject eminently suited ing of them. His greatest weakness, if Mr. Calhoun's mind and habits of thought, weakness it can be called, is his free and and he consequently exhibited a power of unreserved confidence in those who are argument-a distinctness of analysis, not his friends. This arises from the and a luminous investigation of the attri- natural integrity and unsuspecting chabutes and nature of government—which racter of his heart. Another weakness will stand a monument to his fame, as perhaps is, that he talks too much, forgetlong as the American eagle shall present ting that there is often dignity and power to the world that bright constellation of in impressive silence, particularly after a independent States which now glitter and man has acquired fame. This arises, blaze around its brow. No human being however, from the simplicity of character can read that speech without feeling that and great love of truth, which makes him it contains the same doctrines which were eager to present her to others, that they proclaimed in the Kentucky and Virginia may receive and love her too, with veneresolutions of '98, and in the immortal ration equal to his own." report of Mr. Madison, around which the Republican party rallied with the devotion of those who felt the liberties of their

We have seen with a regret in country to be involved.

which there are few of our readers “ As a public speaker and debater, Mr. who will not participate, Mr. Cal. Calhoun is energetic and impressive to houn's recent letter of resignation. It the highest degree. Without having is no disparagement to the recognized much of the action of an orator, yet his greatness of any of his past or present compressed lip—his erect and stern atti- peers in that high national council, to tudes—his iron countenance, compressed say that in the loss of him the Senate lip, and flashing eye-all make him at will be shorn of one of its beams, untimes eloquent in the full sense of the surpassed in brilliancy by any that have word. No man can hear him without feeling. His power is in clear analysis of the land. We yet indulge the hope

ever shone there, as the beacon lights suppressed passion, and lofty earnestness. that that determination may be reconAs to the great questions connected with the currency of the present day, it is vain sidered. If Mr. Calhoun should be and idle to contend with him. It has adopied as the Presidential candidate been the subject of his daily thoughts for of the Democracy, there is no necessary more than twenty years. He is before his incompatibility between the two posiage, but he will triumph, and posterity tions; if such should not prove the will be astonished at the profoundness and case, he cannot be spared from his the sagacity of his views. Many suppose present one.

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