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you come? whither are you going ? to what the clutches of that horrible devil, of which nation do you belong? what is your business ? Blackcoat has given us, as he says, a faithful and where did you lodge last night ?" He is description ! Farewell. not incommoded by a crowd of insolent loun

CHOTAHOWEE. gers pressing around him to examine his per. son, his dress, his arms, and accoutrements.

From this letter it appears that savages When he has slept off his fatigue, he may when passing through civilized countries are walk out and examine the village : wherever not so unobservant as is generally supposed. he goes, he will receive the salutation of love It would be strange if they should. Shall they and the offerings of friendship: every honse is whose senses are kept in a state of vigilant open, and every hand is stretched out to re- activity ; whose welfare and life depend on ceive him. He sees no fences or walls as im. their personal exertions; and who must, in pediments to his progress, or bolts or locks consequence become remarkably attentive to which refuse him admittance.

passing occurrences-shall they immediately Piomingo! Mark the contrast!

lose their habits of observation as soon as they When a Cherokee enters any town or vil. enter the territories of a polished nation ? lage in the United States, he is instantly sur.

The natural and unavoidable effects of civili. rounded by a troop of ignorant, insolent and zation are to deprive men of personal importmalignant boys exclaiming, “ An Indian ! an ance, and to make them mutually dependent Indian! there goes an Indian! Indian, what's on each other. The whole society is possessed your name? Will you shoot us, Indian ?of strength if it can be brought to act consen. The poor Indian distressed with this brutal taneously; but the parts taken separately are uproar and savage persecution, endeavors to contemptibly weak and inefficient. Men, in a take refuge in the first house he can find; but civilized state, are not allowed to exhibit any admittance is sternly refused, and he is rudely characteristical appearances of individuality : thrust away from the threshold. He goes all distinguishing prominencies disappear in from door to door, but no one is found disposed consequence of the continual attrition of one to show kindness to the stranger, to present the man against another. In such a state we can cup of refreshment to his lips, or spread the do nothing but what will interfere with the couch of repose. The Indian sits down to rest actions and concerns of others : in fact, we on a stone in the street ; and he takes out his have no longer the liberty to act as individuals, knife to terrify the ignorant and cowardly but as members of the community. rabble who torment him. At last some one, Whatever inclination a man may retain to in whom civilization has not totally extinguish- promote his own particular interest

, he finds ed humanity, approaches, and points out a himself utterly incapable of effecting his purtavern to which the Indian may repair. Here poses without the assistance of others : conse. he gains admittance; for the devil (Blackcoat quently he must resign all hopes of indepen. has given us a description of the devil) would dence, and consent to become a member of the gain admittance if he came properly recom- great body politic. mended; but if it be discovered that the In. Now we are informed, by poets, philosodian wants the proper recommendation--money phers, historians and various other descriptions --he is hurried with precipitation from the of persons, that every body must be possessed only place that offers entertainment. But even of several members: there are head, feet, arms, the tavern affords no refuge from his persecu. thighs, legs and various other organs, all form. tors : he is still insulted by stupid gazers, who ing component parts of the same individual distress him with their questions and devour body. Some fill honorable, and others dis. him with their eyes as though he had fallen honorable situations. Some aspire upward to from the moon. If he walk out for recreation, the heavens; while others are pressed down. he is not allowed to enter this man's garden or ward upon the earth. There may sometimes, that man's orchard. He is continually in at first, be a struggle whether an incipient part danger of trespassing on one fellow's corn. shall be a hand or a foot, an arm or a leg, a field or the orchard of another. He must not nose or a tail, enter into the composition of pluck a flower that courts acquantance with the brain or form a portion of the buttock ; his nose, or stretch out his hand for an apple but when a member has performed, for any that hangs over the walk He may not make length of time, the duties of one situation, it free with a turnip or a melon in the field; becomes altogether unfit to undertake those of and is hardly permitted to cut a stick from a another. If we assign to the toes the function hedge.

of fingers, something may possibly be done ; Father! You are wise. Tell me, I pray, but it will certainly be very awkwardly per. which people are civilized, -the red or the formed. Should we attempt to walk on our white.

hands, some small progress may be made ; Father! I send you a very long talk, and I but what will be the consequence? The af, could make it much longer; but I begin to be fictions of the degraded members will be too afraid that your patience will be exhausted. dreadful to be borne'; and, the whole body will

Piomingo! May some kind spirit be your suffer inconceivable hardship in consequence patron and your guide, and preserve you from of the unnatural and inverted situation of the

parte. High things are, not unfrequently, the saddle, to follow the hounds and second the made lov, and low things exalted; the first ardor of the huntsman. may sometimes become last, and the last be

It is unnecessary to proceed with this enumade first; but whenever this happens in meration : As civilization progresses employcivilized society, the convulsion is tremendous, ments are more and more divided ; and the and the strength of the body politic is de operations of an individual are circumscribed stroyed.

and contracted. Personal importance is conThis story is trite, Piomingo: who has not tinually diminished; and men become more heard of the rebellion of the members against and more disqualified for every situation but the sovereignty of the belly ?

that which they fill in society. Mind becomes It is old, we readily acknowledge; but our

less and less necessary to direct them in their readers will be so good as to excuse us, when pursuits; and they approach nearer and nearer they consider the difficulty of producing any

to the nature of machines. thing new : and indeed we have heard it re.

It has been a standing complaint against ported that “there is nothing new under the comparisons that they will not go on all fours : sun;" all, therefore, that can be expected of though we see, at one glance, many points of us is, that we should arrange old things in resemblance, we afterwards find others that such a manner as to give the appearance of are by no means sufficiently similar to answer nodelty to our production. We do not pretend the purpose of illustration. We have run a to create : all our merit consists in new asso. parallel between the body of an animal and ciations. We do not, however, at present, civilized society : and, although we have found mean to make the same use of this apologue,

a striking likehess in many particulars, there that was made of it formerly.

are others that do not exhibit similitude. The What then ?

hand, the eye, the foot, appear to be designed Give us your attention, and you will proba- animal machine; but in a polished community,

by nature for the place they occupy in the bly discover the scope we have in view,

thousands and tens of thousands are degraded In the first place, we would have you ob. by the progress of refinement to a state of bruserve that every member acquires a habitual tality, whom natnre designed to be men. aptitude to perform those offices in which it Dr. Franklin, or somebody else, has given has been long and constantly employed, and us the complaint of the Left Hand. The Left becomes totally unqualified for engaging in Hand gives an account of the neglect she had those which have been assigned to other parts experienced from those who had the charge of of the body. The foot becomes suited

her education, and of the unjust partiality -the dust to tread ;

which had been shown to her sister. Just,

but unavailing, was her remonstrance: the the tongue to speak; the eye to watch ; and Left Hand is still suffered to grow up in ignothe hand to grasp. So it is in civilized society: rance; while the Right (to whom nature has the lower ranks become excellent drudges ; not been more bountiful than to herself) boasts and the higher become qualified to direct the proudly of her ounning and address. Such is operations of their slaves. The man long the fate of men: probably one in a thousand employed in public speaking delivers his sen. has the opportunity of cultivating his faculties timents with fuency; and he who finds leisure and exercising, in their due proportions, the and inclination to improve the faculties of his powers of his body and his mind, while the mind is enabled to make many and important nine hundred ninety and nine are compelled, discoveries. The sailor can manage a ship; by the absurd and unjust institutions of soand the soldier can handle his arms with dex. ciety, to confine all their exertions to a point, terity. One man can furnish the foot with a and suffer the other capabilities of their nature shoe ; another can accommodate the body with to lie dormant or become totally extinct. a coat. One man can fashion the iron on an Well, Piomingo, so it ought to be: there anvil ; another can form clay into bricks; and must be men of different kinds, suited to the another can build stones into a wall. Some various grades of society; and their education handle the plane and the saw; others turn up should be such as best qualifies them for the the earth with the plough; and others fell the station they are destined to occupy in the com. trees of the forest. All these become properly munity. qualified to fill the place they happen to occupy My friend, such is not our opinion : we bein society; but become, at the same time, alto- lieve that those regulations are cruel and ungether incapable of performing the duties of just which debilitate the body and cramp the any other situation. Were they satisfied with exertions of the mind. Can that system of their station, and were the order of society society be proper for man, wbich prevents the Bever disturbed, all might be well; but that is development of his powers ? Are those regu. not the case :

lations well suited to direct the conduct of a Optat ophippia bos pigor, optat árare caballus :

rational being which confine the energies of

his mind to the making of a hobnail or manu. But the plough is too heavy for the Arabian facturing the head of a pin? Can a being courser; and the ox is too sluggish to go under possessed of reasoning powers, and who seems

to have been designed by nature to vary his terrified by the dashing of the waves ? Shall conduct according to circumstances, be pro- he, who has often experienced the utmost fury perly employed in performing a few faechani. of the storm, be frightened at the approach of cal motions, which, becoming habitual, are a cloud, shudder at the flashes of lightning, or continued without the trouble of thought or tremble at the rolling of the thunder ? Shall the necessity of reflection ? Can a being en. he who has become acquainted with his own dowed with mind be designed to stand as a powers, and has been taught to depend on his statue in a niche of the great building of so- personal exertions, shrink at the approach of ciety, without the power of altering its situa. the panther or dread the howling of wolves in tion or changing its position ? Would not the the wilderness ? Shall he who has been taught constitution of society be infinitely preferable, to meet every danger with courage, and to if it exerted the powers, called forth the latent suffer every evil with fortitude-shall he shrink endowments, and added importance to the in. from the conflict of war ? No: It is civilization dividual ? Is it enough that a person should makes cowards. Men long accustomed to become a necessary member of that greatest lean on each other, are terrified the 'moment of monsters, a civilized community, without they lose this support. The least derangement any regard being paid to his dignity as a man in the political machine drives them out of -to his perfection as a rational being? their places, and discovers their weakness and

May not the great body politic suffer a dis. personal insignificancy. Shall they wlio have location of its parts ? May not a thousand never learned to depend on themselves face accidents occasion a dissolution of this anna. danger with courage, or discover resolution turally constructed machine ? And if this when surrounded with unusual occurrences ? should happen, the disjointed parts are mere

Our friend Chotahowee observes in one of inutile lignum, totally unfit for any valuable his letters (which we have thought proper to purpose, but exactly calculated to produce suppress) that, in his travels through the anarchy, horror, destruction.

United States, wherever be found a man alone, From the foregoing observations we infer that man was civil, quiet and timid; but where that those who fill the lower ranks of civilized he found an assemblage of men, they never society, however necessary in their places, are failed to be noisy, tumultuous and insolent. less important, as individuals, than savages ; We, savages, delight in society : but we as. and we also infer that savages are better quali. sociate as men, free sovereign and independent. fied to make judicious observations on passing We are not bound together by the iron bands occurrences, than are those who compose the of necessity, and deprived of the dignity of our mass of the enlightened population of the nature. Our friendships are the result of in. United States.

clination, and not combinations for the propa. In a savage state, every man depends upon gation of vice. As every one depends on himhimself: he erects his own hut, manufactures self

, we have no motive sto impose on each his own dress, and provides for his household other. the necessary subsistence. His pursuits are Savage society, if considered as a body, has various, and well calculated to give strength no members condemned to drudgery and disand pliancy to his limbs, and acuteness of ob- grace, no “vessels created for dishonor," no servation to his mind.

left hand uneducated and neglected, no broad In such a state, no man is compelled by flat foot condemned to trudge under the weight circumstances to become the foot or tail, the of an overgrown, corrupt and luxurious belly. drudge or slave, of the community. He be. No: like Milton's spirits, comes important and valuable as an individual; and is qualified to give himself protection and

All heart they live, all head, all eye, all ear,

All intellect, all sense. ---, support, though every other man in the uni. verse were annihilated.

Any man,who will travel over this continent We sometimes hear savages described as and attentively observe the inhabitants, will timid and miserable beings, trembling on ac. see enough to corroborate our remarks: he count of the roaring of the waters, shuddering will find that the laborious inhabitants of popu. at the violence of the storm, and struck with lous cities, though expert in their several pro. horror at the voice of the thunder. They are fessions, are unfit for any other employment represented as the slaves of imaginary gods, but that which they pursue. He will perand the victims of visionary dangers. They ceive that those who labor in the country in are said to fly before the beasts of the desert, the vicinity of cities are rather more intelliand to quake at a rustling among the leaves! gent than the drudges of the city: the sphere Such are the opinions of philosophers; who of their operations is considerably enlarged, reside in cities, who write concerning savages and, consequently, their individual importance they never have seen, and who stigmatize every is increased. When the observer removes to nation,whose manners they do not understand, the frontier settlements, he will find man still with the name of barbarians. But where are higher advanced in the scale of intellectual the reasons on which they are founded? Is importance. He not only attends to the comthe man, who has been long accustomed to mon business of his farm, and prepares subsis. contemplate the raging of the waters, casily tence for his family ; but he transacts an inte


nite variety of business : he makes his instru. chin, and a bushy pair of eyebrows! Let no ments of husbandry; he is frequently his own one, whose countenance is pleasing and whose tailor, shoemaker, blacksmith and carpenter : face is symmetrically formed, aspire to excel. his employments are ever varied; and the lence as a retailer of jests. powers of his mind are exerted in proportion But all stories are not of a diverting nature. to the multiplicity of his operations. Must To many we listen out of mere complaisance not such a man be infinitely superior to one to the speaker; and to many we attend for the who is continually employed in throwing a sake of a little sober information we are de. shuttle, threading a needle, beating an anvil, sirous to obtain. In the delivery of these, any or even driving a quill over parchment ? one may succeed who is capable of giving a

But if you wish to have a still more favora. clear and succinct narrative of the principal ble specimen of human nature, you must take occurrences, omitting all superfluous explanaa jaunt to the wilderness : you must study the tions, and the tedious detail of impertinent languages and customs of savages—but do not circumstances; Few, however, are the number condemn before you understand.

who are possessed of the qualifications we have

mentioned. It is as easy to find an epic poet Story Telling.

capable of producing a poem that will fix the It requires a considerable portion of inge. attention and awaken the passions, as to find nuity to tell a story in such a manner as to a man who can tell a simple story, without produce the desired effect on the auditors. introducing unnatural episodes and interlardMany excellent stories have been murdered bying it with absurd and unnecessary explana. unskilful narrators, who bring forward the tions. different parts at improper times, introduce Dick Gabble, when about to ride into the extraneous matter, dwell on trivial incidents, country, declared his intention of being in town and sometimes omit the most important cir- again on the evening of the same day. He cumstances,

did not however, return till a late hour on the A man, by long practice, may no doubt im. day following. As there had been a considerprove his talent for this species of narration ; able fall of rain, we unfortunately happened to but we are inclined to believe that, unless na. inquire if that had been the cause of his deten. ture have given him a genius fof the employ- tion; and, in consequence, were obliged to ment, he will never excel as teller of listen to the following elegant but tedious stories.

reply. In all tales of a comic description, the nap- Detained by the rain! no: I believe not, rator should be careful to place the ludicrous my boy. I'm neither sugar nor salt: the rain incidents in a conspicuous situation, and to can't melt me. When I set out with a deterexhibit advantageously the point on which the mined resolution, d'ye see! I'm not to be humor of the story may depend. For want of stopped, by wind or tide, d’ye see! I'm the attention to these circumstances, a jest intrin- fellow to dash through thick and thin-rain, sically good, instead of receiving the plaudits hail, snow, fire, or water: all alike to me, sir. and exciting the laughter of the hearers, has Damnation! d'ye suppose I care for the rain ? frequently been answered by yawning and If it was to rain brick bats, pitchforks, hell fire, derision.

and millstones, it would'nt stop me. I rode But it may also be observed that much de. sixty eight miles the coldest day we had last pends on the countenance and gestures, as well winter: a hell of a cold day! Don't you re. as on the words, of the speaker: We heard A. member it? It was on Monday, I think—no, give an account of a laughable occurrence, Tuesday—let me see: On Sunday the snow which had lately taken place. A. was reward. fell: that great snow, you remember; on ed by reiterated peals of laughter: every one Monday I rode to Downingstown; on Tuesday pronounced it an excellent thing. Shortly to Lancaster; and on Wednesday, -yes, yes, after, we heard the same story told by B. in it was on Wednesday, I am certain of the fact nearly the same words; but no mirth was oc. now : it was on Wednesday. casioned by a detail of circumstances, which Well, sir, on Wednesday morning, it blew, had lately excited such high merriment and and snowed, and hailed, and froze like the commanded such unbounded applause. We devil. I opened the door and looked out-by were at first disposed to account for these G- I was frightened. “ Damnation,” says I dissimilar effects, by reflecting that the tale, to the landlord, “ Mr. Touchpenny! look here, at the time it was told by B., did not possess Mr. Touchpenny! What sort of weather's the same novelty that it did when first deliver- this we have got ? Hell's broke loose, Mr. ed by A. But having an opportunity, in the Touchpenny!" course of a few weeks, to hear A. tell the same However, sir, I ordered out my horse, d'ye story another time,we were as highly delighted see ? “What!” said Mr. Touchpenny, as at first : pay, we thought the detail more you mad, Mr. Gabble ? you would'nt think of amusing than ever.

riding such a day as this, Mr. Gabble ?" What were the qualifications of A. which “ Yes," say I, “I'll go,” says I,

by G-" enabled him so far to exceed B. in tellirg a says I, “damn me if I don't” says


" Lord ludicrous story ?-A hooked nose, a peaked bless my soul, Mr. Gabble !" says old mother

" are

Touchpenny, “ would you leave a good conve. board, you see : I'll bet the samo sum over nient house, Mr. Gabble ? and a warm fireside, again-the very same race-by G- I will. Mr. Gabble ? and every thing comfortable, Mr. " But all this is nothing to the purpose, Mr. Gabble ? and go for to think for to go out such Gabble ; you have not answered my ques. a day as this, Mr. Gabble ? such a dreadful tion.” day, Mr. Gabble! My dear child, you can't Yes, yes, I'll tell you how it was: it's a think of such a thing! You'll be froze up alive. good thing, a very good thing, Piomingo. I I should not be able to sleep for a week, if you started off in the morning, you know I did, were to leave my house such a day as this, quite briskly-went over the hills in a jiffyMr. Gabble. You can't be in earnest, Mr. no occasion for whip or spur to my black filly. Gabble ?” “I have said the word,” says I, She's as good a piece of horse flesh as ever “ madam," says I; "and my word's as good was foaled—I'll be tee-totally damned if she as my bond,” says I. " I'll go,” says I, “ if an't. She's a blooded thing too-one of Bonaten thousand devils were to rise," says 1, "and parte's best fouls-out of colonel Sport's Fly. spurt the blue blazes of hell in my face,” says catcher-descended in a right line from the I, Tom ! fetch out my horse." “ Bless my prince of Wales's Arabian mare, Camilla, and stars, Mr. Gabble !" says Mrs. Touchpenny, the celebrated Childers.

you are the strangest man, Mr. Gabble, that “ Doubtlesss, the line of her ancestry may be ever I saw in my born days, Mr. Gabble.- traced back to one of the prophet Mahommed's But, my dear child, you shall not stir-I in. best breeders. But come to the point Dicky: sist upon it-till you have a mouthful of some. do come to the point." thing to keep the cold from your stomach. Yes sir, I rode like a whirlwind-was up at You shall have a cup of warm coffee in a mo- the Buck in less than no time—had my mare ment, Mr. Gabble. Molly, fetch in break. put up and fed-always see to my horse. A fast."

inan that don't take care of his horse should I took the old lady's advice. I guzzled a be damned. That's my notion : what do you few dishes of coffee, devoured a few pounds of say, Piomingo? beef steaks, punished half a dozen of eggs, and “What, damned ?" was off like a thunder gust.

Yes, damned. I'd build a hell myself to

damn him in. What! not take care of his Well, sir, d’ye see sir ? before sundown sir, harse! a savage! a Turk! an infidel !-- I'd and that very same day sir, I was at home in send him howling to the north corner of hell; Philadelphia sir-mark that sir !

by the god of war I would. I, for my part sir, " At home !"

upon my honor sir, would rather suffer myself At home, by G-! By this time, as our readers will readily be- and comfortable. It's my nature sir, my com.

than allow my horse to want that that's good lieve, we repented of having asked the impru- passionate disposition. If it's a weakness, I dent question, above mentioned. We, there can't help it: It's natural to me. fore, endeavored to move off, merely saying, “ I have no doubt of your humanity; but I as we started, “ Dick, you are a man of reso- beseech thee Dick, dispense with these collalution. Good bye.” But our maneuvre was terial circumstances, and proceed with your unsuccessful : as soon as he perceived our in.

story." tention of decamping, he seized us by the arm; Yes sir, O yes: certainly I shall proceed saying, " Stop, sir, I have not yet told you how rapidly. I shall be done in a few ininutes. I was detained yesterday, damned good Having disposed of my horse sir, I proceeded thing-make you laugh like the devil.”

immediately to business, and-a and-a and had " True sir, I had forgotten : please to pro- every thing concluded in a very litttle time. ceed."

Well sir, just as I was preparing to return Well sir, so it was sir, yesterday morning, home, who should come in but Bob Jockey. I set off: you saw me set off. A very plea. You know Bob? sant morning-high spirits. Always an

6 No." always am in high spirits--take the world


Damn it, you must know him, if you were --laugh and grow fat. It's the best way ever in that neighborhood: he's a stoopshould. a'nt it Piomingo? Darn me if I don't think ered, thickset: crosslooking little devil-has it is. Nothing troubles me, hardly: I was a little gray eyes, Roman nose, and a hell of a little fretted, to be sure, when I lost that race big mouth. He married old Stump's daughter on the Hummingbird-five hundred dollars at -a cursed old miser, that Stump. If you one slap-a damned hard stroke that, Pio. were to see him, you would think he wasn't mingo. A few such swings as that would worth a cent-looks like a beggar-lives like fetch Jack-damme if 'twouldn't, d'ye see ? a hog-damned old brute-rich though-rich Well, upon my soul, I never could understand as a Jew-wish he was in Abraham's bosom, that business perfectly. I still think that the and I had the cash. When Bob Jockey nabbed Hummingbird can beat old Turt's mare—by Peggy Stump, he thought he had made a the Lord I do. I'll bet the same money over speck, d'ye see ?-thought to finger some of again-have every thing fair-have good the old man's ready. But let old Stump alone judges, you see, and every thing fair and above for that: he'll take care of number one, d'ye


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