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and also all election officers :und assessor's chosen at that election. shall serve until the first Monday of December in the year one thousand nine hundred and eleven. All officers chosen at that election to offices the term of which is now four years, or is made four years by the operation of these amendments or this schedule. shall serve until the first Monday of December in the year one thousand nine hundred and thirteen. All justices of the peace. magistrates, and allermen, chosen at that election, shall serve until the first Monday of December in the year one thousand nine bundred and fifteen. Ifter the year nineteen hundred and teu, and until the Legislature shall otherwise provide all terms of city, ward, borough, township, and election division officers shall begin on the first Monday of December in an odd-numbered year.

All city, Ward, borough, and township officers holding office at the date of the approval of these amendments, whose terms of office may end in the year one thousand nine hundred and eleven, shall continue to hold their offices until the first Monday of December of that year.

All judges of the courts for the sereral judicial districts, and also all county officers, holding office at the date of the approval of these ilmendments whose terms of office may end in the year one thousand nine hundred and eleven, shall continue to hold their offices until the first Monday of January. one thous:und nine hundred and twelve.


We, the people of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, teful to Almighty God for the civil and religious liberty which He hath long permitted is to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing upon our eavors to secure and to transmit the same unimpaired to succeeding gentions, do ordain and establish this constitution of government.

ARTICLE I. DECLARATION OF CERTAIN CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS AND PRINCIPLES. In order effectually to secure the religious and political freedom estabed by our venerated ancestors, and to preserve the same for our posterity, do declare that the essential and unquestionable rights and principles inafter mentioned shall be established, maintained and preserved, and ll be of paramount obligation in all legislative, judicial and executive prolings. SECTION 1. In the words of the Father of his County, we declare, that

basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and r their constitutions of government; but that the constitution which at

time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole ile, is sacredly obligatory upon all." SEX. 2. All free governments are instituted for the protection, safety and piness of the people. All laws, therefore, should be made for the good of whole; and the burdens of the state ought to be fairly distributed among citizens. SEC. 3. Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free; and all atpts to influence it by temporal punishments or burdens, or by civil incatitions, tend to beget habits of hypoxrisy and meanness; and whereas a cipal object of our venerable ancestors, in their migration to this country

their settlement of this state, wis, as they expressed it, to hold forth a I experinent, that a flourishing civil state may stand and be best mainal with full liberty in religious concernments; we, therefore, declare that man shall be compelled to frequent or to support any religious worship, e, or ministry whatever, except in fulfillment of his own voluntary con, t; nor enforced, restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or goods; • Prior to 142, the organic law of Rhode Island was the Charter of 1663. The isions of this instrument relative to suffrage and apportionment had grown pararly anachronistic. The movement for constitutional reform was led by Thomas Dorr, and expressed itself in the so-called Dorr Rebellion. Through the efforts he suffragists, as Dorr's partisans were called, a People's Convention was con11 and assembled at Providence on October 4, 1841, and adjourned on November 1841, after having drafted a constitution, The proposed constitution was subpod to a vote of the people on December 27, 28 and 29. All told, 4,960 freemen and

non-freemon voted on the constitution. On January 12, 1842, the People's Conion reconvened to canvass the returns. The convention estimated the number of t males of the state qualified to vote under the People's Constitution at 23,142; count showed that the constitution had been ratified by a decisive popular majority.

tinal' act of the convention was to declare the constitution in force. In the time, the general assembly had called 'a convention which met on November 1,

remained in session two weeks, and adjourned until February, 1842. When this *ntion reassembled, the general assembly had refused to recognize the People's titution, but it had determined that those whom the Freemen's Constitution might s terms enfranchise should be permitted to vote on the adoption of a constitution. rdingly, the convention submitted a constitution, known as the Freemen's Constin on February 19; the vote was taken on March 21, 22 and 23, and the pro1 constitution was defeated by a majority of 676. In March, 1842, the supreme

unofficially announced that in its judgment the People's Constitution was illegal nonenforcible, and that no person had had any legal authority to vote on the sition. During the same month, the general assembly enacted the so-called erine Law" which declared all elections conducted otherwise than under existing ztes illegal and void. In November, 1842, after the force of the Dorr Rebellion spent itself, the Freemen's Constitution was re-submitted to the people and adopted. the government provided for by the new constitution was installed on May 3, 1843..

nor disqualified from holding any office; nor otherwise suffer on account of his religious belief; and that every man shall be free to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, and to profess and by argu. ment to maintain his opinion in matters of religion; and that the same shall in no wise diminish, enlarge, or affect his civil capacity.

SEC. 4. Slavery will not be permitted in this state.

SEC. 5. Every person within this state ought to find a certain rensedy, by having recourse to the laws, for all injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property, or character. He ought to obtain right and justice freely art without purchase, completely and without denial; promptly and without delay; conformably to the laws.

SEC, 6. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, papers and possessions, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated: and no warrant shall issue, but on complaint in writing, upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, anal (kescribing as nearly as may be, the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Sec. 7. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other infamous crime, unless on presentment or indictment by a grand pury, except in cases of impeachment, or of such offences as are cognizable by a justice of the peace; or in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger. No person shall, after an arquittal, he tried for the same offence.

SEC. 8. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines inju nor cruel punishments inflicted; and all punishments ought to be proportionel to the offence.

SEC. 9. All persons imprisoned ought to be bailed by sufficient surety, unless for offences punishable by death or by imprisonment for life, when the proof of guilt is evident or the presumption great. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety shall require it; nor ever without the authority of the general assembly.

SEX'. 10. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to it speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury; to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witness against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining them in his faror. to have the assistance of counsel in his defence, and shall be at liberty to speak for himself; nor shall he be deprived of life, liberty, or property, unless by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the land.

SEC. 11. The person of a debtor, when there is not strong presumpting of fraud, ought not to be continued in prison, 'after he shall have delivered up his property for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as shall three prescribed by law.

SEC. 12. No ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of eltracts, shall be passed.

SEC. 13. No man in a court of common law shall be compelled to gire evidence criminating himself.

SEC. 14. Every man being presumed innocent, until he is propound guilty by the law, no act of severity which is not necessary to secure atz accusel person shall be permitted.

SEC. 15. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.

SEC. 16. Private property shall not be taken for public uses, without just compensation.

SEC. 17. The people shall continue to enjoy and freely exercise all the rights of fishery, and the privileges of the shore, to which they have been heretofore entitled under the charter and usages of this state. But no ner right is intended to be granted, nor any existing right impaired, by this de a ration.

SEC. 18. The military shall be held in strict subordination to the ni! authority. And the law martial shall be used and exercised in such as only as occasion shall necessarily require.

SEC, 19. No soldier shall be quartered in any house, in time of peti,

lithout the consent of the owner; nor, in time of war, but in a manner to prescribed by law.

SEC. 20. The liberty of the press being essential to the security of freem in a state, any person may publish his sentiments on any subject, being sponsible for the abuse of that liberty; and in all trials for libel, both civil et criminal, the truth, unless published from malicious motives, shall be suth-nt defence to the person charged.

SEC. 21. The citizens have it right in a peaceable manner to assembly for eir common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of govament, for redress of grievances, or for other purposes, by petition, address, remonstrance.

SEC. 22. The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be Fringed.

SEC. 23. The enumeration of the foregoing rights shall not be construed impair or deny others retained by the people.


OF THE QUALIFICATIONS OF ELECTORS. 1 SECTION 1. Every male citizen of the United States, of the age of twentyyears, who has had his residence and home in this state for one year, and the town or city in which he may claim a right to vote, six months next eding the time of voting, and who is really and truly possessed in his n right of real estate in such town or city of the value of one hundred and rty-four dollars over and above all incumbrances, or which shall rent for en dollars per annum over and above any rent reservedli or the interest any incumbrances thereon, being an estate in fee-simple, fee-tail, for the

of any person, or an estate in reversion or remainder, which qualities no er person to vote, the conveyance of which estate, if by deed, shall have 'n recorded at least ninety days, shall thereafter have a right to vote in

election of all civil officers and on all questions in all legal town or ward yetings so long as he continues so qualified. And if any person hereinbefore

ribed shall own any such estate within this state out of the town or city which he resides, he shall have a right to vote in the election of all general cers and members of the general assembly in the town or city in which

shall have had bis residence and home for the term of six months next ceding the election, upon producing a certificate from the clerk of the town city in which his estate lies, bearing date within ten days of the time of

voting, setting forth that such person has a sufficient estate therein in lify him as a voter; and that the deed, if any, has been recorded ninety

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SEC. 2. Every male native citizen of the United States, of the age of nty-one years, who has had his residence and home in this state two rs, and in the town or city in which he may offer to vote, six months t

bë the office of the clerk of such town or city at least seven days before the e he shall offer to vote, and before the last day of December in the present r; and who has paid or shall pay it tax or taxes assessed upon his estate hin this state, and within it year of the time of voting, to the amount of

dollar, or who shall volumtarily pay, at least seven days before the time shall offer to vote, and before said last day of December, to the clerk or surer of the town or city where he resides, the sum of one dollar, or such

as with his other taxes shall amount to one dollar, for the support of lic schools therein, and shall make proof of the same, by the certificate of

clerk, treasurer. or collector of any town or city where such payment is le: or who, being so registered, has been enrolled in any military com

in this state, and done military service or duty therein, within the presyear, pursuant to law, and shall (until other proof is required by law) 1 See Article IV of the Amendments, adopted in 1864, Article VI of the Amendits, adopted in 1886, and Article VII of the Amendments adopted in 1888.

prove by the certificate of the officer legally commanding the regiment, or chartered, or legally authorized volunteer company in which he may have served or done duty, that he has been equipped and done duty according to law, or by the certificate of the commissioners upon military claims, that he has performed inilitary service, shall have a right to vote in the election of all civil officers, and on all questions in all legally organized town or wanil meetings, until the end of the first year after the adoption of this constitution, or until the end of the year eighteen hundred and forty-three.

From and after that time, every such citizen who has had the residence herein required, and whose name shall be registered in the town where be resiiles, on or before the last day of December, in the year next preceling the time of his voting, and who shall show by legal proof, that he has for and within the year next preceding the time he shall offer to vote, paid a tax or taxes assessed against him in any town or city in this state, to the amount of one dollar, or that he has been enrolled in it inilitary company in this state. been equipped and done duty therein according to law, and at least for one day during such year, shall have a right to vote in the election of all civi. officers, and on all questions, in ill legally organized town or ward meetings: Providel, that no person shall at any time be allowed to vote in the election of the city council of the city of Providence, or upon any proposition to impose it tax, or for the expenditure of moneys in any town or city, wiless he shai within the year next preceding have paid a tax assessed upon his property therein, valued at least it one hundred and thirty-four dollars.-

SEC. 3. The assessor's of each town or city shall annually assess 11 every person whose name shall be registered il tax of one dollar, or such sums with his other taxes shall amount to one dollar, which registry tax shall be paid into the treasury of such town or city, and be applied to the supporti public schools therein; but compulsory process shall issue for the collection of any registry tax: Provided.. thitt the registry tax every person who has performed military duty according to visions of the preceding section shall be remitted for

the year shall perform such duty; and the registry tax assessed upon iny mari! for any year while he is at seat, shall, upon bis application, be remitted ; no person shall be allowed to vote whose registry tax for either of the years next preceding the time of voting is not paid or remitted as he provided.

Sec. 4. No person in the military, naval, marine, or any other service! the United States shall be considered as baving the required residence for reason of being employed in any garrison, barrack, or military or naval tion in this state: ind no pauper, lunatic, person non compos mentis, per under guardianship, or member of the Narragansett tribe of Indians, shall ** permitted to be registered or to vote. Nor shall any person convicted bribery, or of any crime deemed infamous at common law, be permittel exercise that privilege, until he be expressly restored thereto by act of ! general assembly.

SEC. 5. Persous residing on lands (eded by this state to the United Stair shall not be entitlel to exercise the privilege of electors.

SEC. 0. The general assembly shall have full power to provide for registry of voters, to prescribe the minner of conducting the elections, t. form of certificates, the nature of the evidence to be required in case of a d. pute as to the right of any person to vote, and generally to enaet a!1 : necessary to carry this article into effect and to prevent abuse, corruption : fraud in voting.



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The powers of the government shall be distributed into three dele mients: the legislative', excutive, :und judicial.

Sections 2 and 3 were annulled and superseded by sections 1 and ? of trticle of the Amendments, adopted in 1888.

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