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court, as to create uneasiness and distrust in the jealous mind of Ferdinand, and made it neceffary for Columbus again to return to Spain, in order to counteract their machinations, and to obtain such further supplies as were neceffary to his great political and benevolent purposes.
$5. On his arrival at courts and stating with his usual dignity and confidence the whole history of his transactions abroad, every thing wore a favorable appearance. He was received with usual honors, and again folicited to take charge of another squadron, to carry out further supplies to pursue his discoveries, and in every respect to use his discretion in extending the S; an sh Empire in the New World. In this third voyage he discovered the conținent of America, at the mouth of the river Oronoke.
56. He rectified many disorders in his government of Hispaniola, which had happened in his absence ; and every thing was going on in a prosperous train, when an event was announced to him, which completed his own ruin, and gave a fatal turn to the Spanish policy and conduct in America. This was the arrival of Francis de Bovadilla, with a commision to supercede Columbus in his government ; and with power to arraign him as a criminal, and io jndge of his former adminiftration.
57. It seems that by this time the enemies of Columbus, despairing to complete his overthrow by groundless infinuarions of misconduct, had taken the niore effectual method of exciting the jealousy of their fovereigns.
58. From the promifing samples of gold and other valuable commodities brought from America, they took occasion to represent to the King and Queen, that the prodigious wealth and extent of the countries he had discovered, would foon throw such power into the hands of the Viceroy, that he would trample on the royal authority, and bid defiance to the Spanish power. 59. These
arguments were well calculated for the cold and fufpicious temper of Ferdinand, and they must have had some effect upon the mind of Isabella. The consequence was, the appointment of Bovadillo, who had been the inveterate enemy of Columbus, to take the government from his hands. This first tyrant of the Spanith nation in America, began his administration by ordering Columbus to be put in chains on board a ship and sending him prisoner to Spain.
60. By relaxing all discipline, he introduced.diforder and licentiousnefs throughout the colony. He subjected the natives to a moft miferable fervitude, and apportioned their eut in large numbers among his adherents. Under this fe
vere treatment perished, in a short time, inany, thousands of thufe innocent people.
61. Columbus was carried in his fetters to the Spanisa court, where the King and Queen either feigned or felt a fufficient regret at the conduct of Boyadilla towards this il-. luftrious prisoner. He was not only released from confinement, but treated with all imaginable respect.
62. But altbough the King endeavored to expiate the offence, by censuring and recalling Bovadilla, yet we may judge of his lipcerity from his appointing Nicholas de Ovanda, another bitter enemy of Columbuz, to succeed in the government, and from his ever after yefusing to reinstate Columbus, or to fulfil any of the conditions on which the discoveries were undertaken.
63. After two years solicitatiou for this or fome other employment, he at length obtained a Squadron of four small vefsels, to attempt new discoveries. He now set out with the ardor and enthufiafin of a young adventurer, in quest of what was always kis favorite object, a paffage into tlie South Sea, by which he might fail to India. He touched at Hifpaniola, where Ovado, the Governor, refused him admittance on fhore, even to take shelter during a hurricane, the prognostics of which his experience had, taught him to diloern.
64. By putting into a finall creek, hie rode out the storm and then bore a way for the continent. Several months in this molt boisterous season of the year, he spent in explor. ing the coast round the gulpl of Mexico, in hopes of finding the intended navigation to India. At length he was hipwrecked, and driven alhore on the !Aand of Ja-. maica.
65. His cap of Calamities seemed now completely foll. He was cast upon an Island (of lavages without provisions, without any vesel, and thirty leagues from any Spanish setskement. But the greatest providential misfortones are
capable of being imbittered by the insults of our fellow creatures.
66. A few of his hardy companions generously offered, in iwo Indiak canoes to attenipt a voyage to Hispaniola, in hopes of obtaining a vessel for the relief of the unhappy crew. After suffering every extremity of danger and hardthip, they arrived at the Spanish colony in ten days Ovan. do, through perfonal malice and jealousy. of Columbus, after having detained these messengers erght months, dispatched, a vefsel to Jamaica in order to spy out the condition of Colambus arid his crew; with positive instructions to the Captain not to afford them any relief.
67. This order was punctually executed. The captain approached the shore, delivered a letter of empty compli. ment from Ovando to the Admiral, received his answer and returned. About four months afterwards a 'veffels came to their relief; and Columbus, worn out with fatigues and broken with misfortunes; returned for the last time to Spain.
68. Here a new distress awaited him, which flered as one of the greatest he had suffered in his whole
he confia life. This was the death of Queen Isabella, his laft and greatefl friend.
69. He did not suddenly abandon himself to despair. He called upon the gratitude and justice of the King, and in terms of dignity; demanded the fulfilment of the former contract.
70. Nozwithstanding his age and infirniities, he even ; folicited to be further employed in extending the career of discovery, without a prospect of any other reward bat the consciousness of doing good to mankind. But Ferdi. mand; cold, ugratefut, and timid, dared not to comply with a single proposal of this kind, left he should increase his own obligations to a man, whose services he thought it dangeTous to reward. . -71. He therefore delayed and avoided any decifion on thefe fubje&ts, in hopes that the declining health of Colum- : bus would soon rid the court of the remonftrances of a man, whose extraordinary merit was, in their opinion, a ffficient occafion for destroying him.
72. In this they were not disappointed. Columbus languished a short time, and gladly resigned a life, which had
been worn out in the moft essential services that perhaps were ever rendered, by any human character, to an ungrateful world.
A SKETCH of the History of the late War in
revenue in America, without her consent, occafi. oned the late war, which feparated this country from GreatBritain.
2. The first attempt of consequence was the famous Stump Act, March, 1765. By this the Americans were obliged to make use of Aamped paper, for all notes, bonds and other legal instruments; on which paper a duty was to be paid.
3. This act occafioned such general uneasiness in Ame.. rica, that the parliament thought proper to repeal it the year after it was made.
4. But the next year (1767) the Tea Act was framed, by which a heavy duty was laid upou tea, glass, paper, and many other articles, which were much used in America. This threw the colonies into confufion, and excited such refenta ment among the people, that the Parliament, three years after, took off three fourths of the duty.
s. The duty was still disagreeable to the Americans, who entered into refolurions not to import and consume British manufactures.
6. A few years after (in 1773) the people of Bofton, who were detei mined not to pay duties on tca, went on board, fome Ahips, belonging to the East-India company, which lay in the harbour, and threw all the tea overboard. In other parts of América, violent opposition was made to British taxation.
7. This opposition enkindled the resentinent of the British Parliament, which they expreffed the next year (1774) by fhutting the port of Boston, which ruined the trade of that Aourishing town. This act was followed by others, by which the coustitution of Malachusetts was new modelled, and the liberties of the people infringed.
8. These rafh and crucl measures, gave great and universal alarm to the Americans. General Gagę was fent
to Boston, to enforce the new laws; but he was received with coldness, and opposed with spirit in the execution of his commission.
9. The assemblies throughout America, reinonftrated and petitioned. At the same time many contributions of money and provisions from every quarter, were fent to the inhabitants of Bofton, who were suffering in tonfequence of the port bill.
10. The same year, troops arrived in Boston, to enforce the więked and unjust acts of the British partiament. Fortifications were erected on Boston Heck, by order of Genc.ral Gage; and the ammunition and stores in Cambridge and Charlestown were feized and secured.
II. In September,.deputies from moft of the Colonies, met in Congress at Philadelphia. Thefe delegates approved of the conduct of the people of Massachuletts ; wrotea" letter to General Gage; publiked a declaration of rights; formed an association not to import, or use British goods, fent a petition to the King of Great Britain ; an address to the inhabitants of that kingdom ; another to the inhabitants of Canada; and another to the inhabitants of the colonies.
12. In the beginning of the next year (1775) was pafitd. the Fisbery Bill, by which the northein colopies were lorbid to fish on the Banks of Newfoundland, for a certain time. This bore hard upon the commeree of thele celonies, which was in a great measure fupported by the fithery.
13. Soon after another bill was paffed, which restrained the trade of the middle and northern colovies; to Great-Bri. tain, Ireland, and the West-Inies, except under certain conditions. These re eated acts of oppression on the part of Great Britain, alienated the affections of America from her parent and fovereign, and produced a combined crpofi. tion to the whole fyftem of taxation.
14. Preparations began to be made, 'to oppofe by force, - the execution of these acts of Parliament. The militia of the country were trained in the use of arms, great encoóragement was given for the manufacture of gun.powder, and u:easures were taken to obtain all kinds of military stores:
15. In February, colonel Leslie was font with a detachment of troops from Bofton, to take pollution of