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7. A good book is the precious lifeblood of a master spirit, embalmed and treasured up on purpose to a life beyond life.
8. Absence makes the heart grow fonder.
9. To the present day the character of Cromwell is popular with the great body of our countrymen.
10. Preceded by the beadle and attended by an irregular procession of stern-browed men and unkindly visaged women, Hester Prynne set forth towards the place appointed for her punishment. 11. The breaking waves dashed high
On a stern and rock-bound coast,
Their giant branches tossed.
And went into his den.
Jehovah has triumphed, His people are free.
And the woman's feet were weary and slow.
See what a rent the envious Casca made:
Through this the well-beloved Brutus stabbed.
The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea,
And leaves the world to darkness and to me.
In heaven's high bower
RULES OF SYNTAX AND EXERCISES FOR
287. Syntax treats of the construction of sentences according to grammatical rules, based upon the use of the language by careful writers and speakers.
288. The principal Rules of Syntax relate to (1) the Case of Nouns and Pronouns; (2) the Agreement of certain kinds of words with others in the sentence.
289. Rules governing Case (of Nouns and Pronouns).
1. The Subject of a Verb is in the Nominative Case (paragraph 199).
2. The subject of an Infinitive is in the Objective Case (209).
3. The Attribute of a Copulative Verb (or Verbal) is in the same Case as the Subject of it (172, 200, 201, 208).
4. The Object of a Transitive Verb or Verbal is in the Objective Case (205).
5. The Object of a Preposition is in the Objective Case (207).
6. A Noun or a Pronoun in Apposition with another Noun or Pronoun is in the same Case with it (210, 211).
7. A Noun or Pronoun directly limiting a Noun denoting a different person or thing is in the Possessive Case (214, 218).
1 See “ Notes for Teachers,” p. 165, Note 16.
8. Nouns or Pronouns used exclamatorily (as a rule), or used in addressing a person, or used with a Participle, but not governed according to any of the above rules, are in the Nominative Absolute Case (202, 203, 204).
Exercise 183.- Correct the Case forms of the Pronouns in the following sentences, according to Rules 1 to 6 (paragraph 289). 1. I am as tall as him. 2. Which one weighs more, you or
3. There is the boy whom I think found the ball. 4. Whom do you suppose it was ? 5. Who do you think I just saw ? 6. I never knew such a good cook as her. 7. It is not me who you ought to blame. 8. Who did you take him to be? 9. That tall man, him that stands nearest the corner, lost his pocketbook. 10. Between you and I, there is no use in that. 11. Who did you give the pen to? 12. That is something for you and he to attend to. 13. If that driver had been him, he would have nodded. 14. Whom would you prefer to be, your brother or me? 15. Whom would you prefer should bring it? 16. Who would you rather have get the prize? 17. Who do you suppose that one in the red cloak to be ? 18. We shall let you and she go first. 19. My brother is older than me.
20. Nobody would ever think he was me.
290. Rules of Agreement.
9. The form of a Verb should agree with its Subject in respect to Person and Number (250, 251). [Two or more Singular Subjects connected by and take a Verb in the Plural; and two or more Singular Subjects connected by or take a Verb in the Singular (253, 255). ]
10. A Pronoun agrees with its Antecedent in Gender, Person, and Number (224, 225, 241).
11. The Adjectives this and that agree with their Nouns in Number (234).
Exercise 184. — In the following sentences make the Verbs agree in Number with their Subjects.
Read again paragraphs 251–255.
1. Which one of your brothers live in this house? 2. Neither of these apples are ripe. 3. Those sort of people are always quick to take offense. 4. Do you think either John or I is able to do that? 5. Every one of the rocks are covered with seaweed. 6. Each of these glasses contain water. 7. Both the carpenter and the mason is a good workman. 8. There are a kind of wild cattle that roams over the plains. 9. Uncle says he don't know whether you or John have any right to the money. 10. Almost everybody, since the papers have printed the story of those people, pity them.
Exercise 185.- Make the Pronouns in the following sentences agree with their Antecedents.
1. Almost everybody, when they saw the accident, tried to help the injured. 2. Every one should take their exercise regularly. 3. Has any one lost their gloves ? 4. Whoever loses this game must pay their forfeit. 5. Any purchaser of our goods who are not satisfied with them may return them. 6. Both of these boys are thinking too much of his holidays. 7. No person should lose their temper so easily. 8. Whichever gets there first must write their name in the book. 9. Did either of your uncle's houses lose their roof in the cyclone ? 10. Have either of you boys lost his knife ?
Exercise 186. Correct the following sentences so as to use Adjectives and Adverbs as they should be used.
Read again paragraph 166.
1. How brightly the moon looks to-night! 2. Now this time play as good as you can. 3. The sun is shining direct into the baby's eyes.
4. See how easy that bird flies. 5. Don't scold him so hardly. 6. The soup tastes nicely to-day. 7. Did you notice how gentle she spoke to him? 8. You are looking charmingly to-day. 9. The blind man felt very cautious along the wall. 10. The old man walked very
RULES FOR SPELLING, CAPITALIZATION,
Read again paragraphs 91, 170, and 190.
291. (a) A word of one syllable (such as bid, or run), or a word accented on its last syllable (as begin', compel') doubles the final consonant before an added syllable beginning with a vowel; as, put, putt-ing; befit', befitt-ing; confer', conferr-ing. But
(6) If the last syllable contains two vowels (as eat, retain'), or if the word is accented on some other than the last syllable (as travel, dif'fer), the final consonant is not doubled. Thus, boat'ed, complain'ing, conceal'ing; wor'shiper, rap'idest.
(c) Final e (not sounded, as in slice, plate) is usually dropped when a syllable beginning with a vowel is added; as, change, changing; write, writing; contrive, contrivance. (But words ending in ge or ce keep the e if the added syllable begins with a, o, or u; as chargeable, advantageous, serviceable.)
(d) If the added syllable begins with a consonant, the final e silent is generally retained; as, rude, rudeness; care, careful. (An exception is the word judgment.)
(e) If a word ends in a double consonant (as call) it usually adds a syllable without change; as tall, tallness; ebb, ebbing; will, willful. (Exceptions: welfare, fulfill, altogether, almost.)
(f) The added syllable may precede the word that ends with a double consonant; as in re-tell, fare-well, down