Imágenes de páginas

That for a temperature of 200° C. the value of d in the Mr. Edgar A. Smith, containing descriptions of new species of formula

Shells from New South Wales, New Guinea, and the Caroline e = 0'0011113 + 0'0143028d-1

and Solomon Islands, based on specimens lately presented to

the British Museum by Mr. John Brazier, of Sydney.-Lord must be something like 244 mils, or 6:2 mm., in order that the Walsingham gave an account of the Microlepidoptera of the neglect of the second term may not make an error in e of more West Indies, based primarily on the collections made in St. than 5 per cent., and something like 1.28 inches, or 32'5 mm., Vincent and other islands by Mr. H. H. Smith, under the is the error is not to exceed i per cent.

direction of the joint Committee of the British Association and And that for a temperature of 300° C. the value of d in the the Royal Society for the exploration of the Lesser Antilles.-A formula

communication was read from M. E. Simon containing the first e = 0'0011353 + 0'0160840 1

portion of an account of the Spiders of the island of St.

Vincent, based on specimens obtained under the direction of must be something like 267 mils, or 6-8 mm., in order that the the same Committee. -A communication was read from Mr. H. neglect of the second term may not make an error in e of more Nevill, urging the importance of founding an experimental than 5 per cent., and something like I'39 inches, or 35-3 mm., Zoological Station in the tropics, and advocating the claims of if the error is not 10 exceed i per cent. Generally, then, we may conclude that to assume that the Symington read a paper on the nose, the organ of Jacobson,

Trincomalee in Ceylon for such an institution. ---Dr. Johnson emissivity is a constant for wires whose diameters vary froin a

and the dumb-bell shaped bone in the Ornithorhychus. -Mr. A. small value up to 1 inch is to make a large error in the case of

Smith. Woodward read a paper on a Mammalian tooth from the the greater number of the wires, and an error of hundreds per Wealden formation of Hastings, being the first trace of a cent. in the case of some of them.

Cretaceous Mammal discovered in Europe. This remarkable Using the formula (3) which we have arrived at for deter

fossil the author was inclined to refer provisionally to the genus mining the emissivity of platinum wires of different diameters at

Plagiaulax of the Purbeck Beds, and to call Plagiaulax dawsoni, 300° C., it follows that to maintain a platinum wire 0*75 mil in

after its discoverer.-A communication was received from Mr. C. diameter at 300° C. would require a current density of 331,000 Davies Sherborne, giving an exact account of the dates of issue amperes per square inch ; and, if the emissivity of a copper wire of the same diameter and at the same temperature may be taken

of the parts, plates, and text of Schreber's "Säugethiere.' as being the same, it follows that to maintain a copper wire perfect knowledge of these dates.

Great difficulties in synonymy had arisen from previously im0-75 mil in diameter at 300° C. would require a current density of 790,000 amperes per square inch.

December 1.-Mr. Henry Seebohm in the chair. -Mr.

Sclater exhibited a specimen of a Shearwater obtained near November 26.-"A New Mode of Respiration in the Sydney, and brought from Australia by Prof. Anderson Myriapoda." By F. G. Sinclair (formerly F. G. Heathcote), Stuart. This specimen had been determined by Mr. Salvin M.A., Fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.

to belong to Puffinus gavia, a New Zealand species not The Scutigeridæ respire by means of a series of organs arranged hitherto known to occur in Australia. - Mr. Seebohm exhibited in the middle dorsal line at the posterior edge of every dorsal and made remarks on specimens of several very interesting birds scale except the last.

recently obtained in Ireland. Amongst these was an example Each organ consists of a slit bounded by four curved ridges, of the Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloscopus superciliosus) two at the edges of the slit, and ļwo external to the latter. The obtained on the Tearaght Rock, the most westerly station in slit leads into an air sac. From the sac a number of tubes are Europe. -Dr. E. Hamilton exhibited a specimen of the Redgiven off ; these tubes are arranged in two semicircular masses. breasted Snipe of North America (Macrorhamphus griseus), The ends of the tubes project into the pericardium in such a obtained in Scotland. - Mr. W. B. Tegetmeier exhibited some manner that the ends are bathed in the blood and aërate it just specimens illustrative of the abnormal form of the bill in birds before it is returned into the heart by means of the ostia. In caused by injuries to that organ during life.-Mr. G. A. the living animal the blood can be seen through the transparent Boulenger read some notes on specimens of Reptiles from chitin of the dorsal surface surrounding the ends of the tubes ; Transcaspia recently received by the British Museum, and and in the organ and surrounding tissues cut out of a Scutigera pointed out that examples of several well-known Indian species directly it is killed the blood corpuscles can be seen clustering occurred in this collection.-A communication was read from round the tube ends. If the mass of tubes of a freshly killed Miss E. M. Sharpe containing the second portion of her despecimen are teased out under the microscope in glycerine, they scriptions of new Butterflies from British East Africa, collected can be seen to be filled with air. The tubes each branch several by Mr. F. J. Jackson during his recent expedition.-Mr. A. D. times. Each tube is lined with chitin, which is a continuation Michael read a paper upon the association which he had of the chitin of the exo-skeleton. Each tube is also clothed observed between certain Acarines of the family Gamasidæ and with cells, which are a continuation of the hypodermis. The certain species of Ants. The author came to the following contubes end in a blunt point of very delicate chitin.

clusions: (1) that there is an association between some I therefore hold that the respiratory organ in Scutigera holds Gamasids and Ants ; (2) that a species of Gamasid usually a position intermediate between the tracheæ of Myriapods and associates with one or two species of Ant preferentially ; (3) the lungs of Spiders. I hold with A. Leuckart (Zeitsch. für Wiss. that the Gamasids of Ants'-nests are not usually found elseZool., vol. i. p. 246, 1849, “Ueber den Bau und Bedeutung der where ; (4) that the Gamasid abandons the nest if the Ant does ; sog. Lungen bei den Arachniden”) that the tracheæ bave (5) that the Gamasids live upon friendly terms with the Ants; developed into the lungs of Spiders and Scorpions, and I think (6) that the Gamasids are not true parasites ; (7) that they do that the organs in question form a series of which the lowest not injure the Ants or their young ; (8) that the Gamasids will term are the tracheæ, the next the organ of Scutigera, then the eat dead Ants, and are probably either scavengers or messmates. lungs of Spiders, and then of Scorpions.

- A communication was read from Mr. Edward Bartlett conZoological Society, November 17.- Dr. A. Günther, taining an account of the specimens of Rhinoceros from Borneo F.R.S., Vice-President, in the chair.— The Secretary read a read from Mr. T. T. Somerville, of Christiania, containing notes

contained in the Museum of Sarawak. -A communication was report on the additions that had been made to the Society's

on the Lemming (Myodes lemmus). Menagerie during the month of October 1891, and called special attention to the following: a young Buffon's Skua (Stercorarius Anthropological Institute, November 24.-E. W. Brabrook parasiticus), captured near Christchurch, Hampshire, and pre- Vice-President, in the chair. ---A paper on the perforated stones of sented by Mr. Ê. Hart, and a Land-Crab (Geocarcinus ruricola) South Africa, by H. Mitford Barber, was read. -An account of the from the island of Fernando de Noronha, brought home and Similkameen Indians of British Columbia, by Mrs. S. S. Allison, presented by Mr, D. Wilson-Barker.-The Secretary read a was read. The tribe at present inhabiting the upper valley of the letter from Dr. G. Martorelli, of Milan, inclosing a coloured Similkameen are immediately descended from a small band of drawing of both sexes of a hybrid Duck bred in the public Garden the warlike Chilcotins, who established themselves in the upper of Milan, between Branta rutina 8 and Anas boschas &.- valley of the river about a hundred and fifty years ago, and Mr. G. A. Boulenger gave an account of the various forms of intermarried with the Spokans. They have much deteriorated, the Tadpoles of the European Batrachians, and a statement of both physically and mentally, within the last twenty years, and the characters by u bich the different species may be distinguished are rapidly becoming extinct. The average stature of the men in this stage of their existence. -A communication was read from is about 5 feet 6 inches; their frames are lithe and muscular and their movements quick and graceful. Their complexion is of the Keuper, and discusses the age of the sandstones convery light, and they have small hands and feet. The colour oftaining vertebrate remains discovered by Messrs. Whitaker, their hair varies from jet-black to red-brown, and in some cases Metcalfe, and Johnston-Lavis. He brings forward evidence in it is almost curly. They are born horsemen and capital shots. support of his view that these are really of Upper Bunter age, The sharp horns of the mountain goat were formerly fixed on notwithstanding the character of the organisms. He adds new shafts of hard wood and used as spears both in hunting and material in support of his contention that the sandstones and warfare ; stone knives and hatchets were also used. The summer marls which Prof. Hull assigns to the Lower Bunter are really dwellings of the Similkameen Indians were made of mats of Permian; but he is inclined to think that the breccias (in part, cedar bark, manufactured by the Hope Indians, which were at least) pass laterally into the sandstones, and do not underlie thrown over a circular frame of poles. The winter houses were them. From this it follows that the break between the Permian simply pits dug in the ground and roofed with poles and earth. and Trias of Devon is marked by the absence of the Lower All sickness was supposed 10 be the work of an evil spirit, who Bunter of the Midlands, and the author quotes remarks of Mr. í asiened on a victim and hung on, drawing away his life, until Ussher in support of his view that there is an unconformity at charmed away by the doctor, who worked himself into a state of the base of the Pebble-bed. In conclusion the author refers to frenzy, singing and dancing while he was trying to lure the evil the difficulties of ascertaining the exact age of the breccias, and spirit from his patient. Many of the medicine-men exercise strong notes that we cannot prove that the highest Carboniferous beds mesmeric power over their patients, and they use several herbs are present in Devonshire. He observes that there is no valid as medicines; their panacea for all ills, however, is the vapour- reason why the great breccia-sandstone series of Devon should hath. When an Indian died he was laid out in state on a couch not be the true equivalent of the Lower Rothliegendes both in of skins; everything put on the body was new ; his bow and time and position in the sequence, and that some portions of arrows were laid at his side, along with his knife. His them may be even older than the Rothliegendes of some friends then assembled round him to feast, and when the feast districts. He discusses the evidence furnished by the igneous was over his friends advanced, and taking his hand bade him rocks, and points out the abnormal position both for the British farewell. Immediately after a funeral takes place the encamp- and German areas which these would occupy, is the breccias ment is moved, lest the spirit of the deceased should revisit it. were of Triassic age. The reading of this paper was followed A widow or widower is forbidden to eat meat and certain by a discussion, in which Mr. H. B. Woodward, Mr. Hudleston, vegetables for a month, and must wear quantities of spruce bush Mr. Topley, Prof. Boyd Dawkins, the President, Prof. Hull, inside their shirts, next their skin. Cannibalism was never

and the author took part. known among the Similkameens. In the mountain is a certain stone which is much venerated by the Indians, and it is said

December 9.-Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., President, in that striking it will produce rain. Polygamy was allowed, and

the chair.—The following communications were read :-On the is the husband and wife tired of each other, the price of the

rocks mapped as Cambrian in Caernarvonshire, by the Rev. woman, or its equivalent, was returned by her father or guardian, J. F. Blake.- High-level Glacial gravels, Gloppa, Cyrn-y-bwch, and the parties were then free to contract another matrimonial near Oswestry, by A. C. Nicholson (communicated by W. alliance; but adultery, though it was generally compromised, was

Shone). These gravels are found at Gloppa, and are situated at sometimes punished by cutting off the woman's nose or splitting

a height of from 900 to 1160 feet above sea-level, on the eastern her ears. Occasionally sick persons were buried before they slope of a ridge of Millstone Grit which forms the western border were quite dead, and a good deal of infanticide was practised.

of the Cheshire and Shropshire plain. The beds present the The author has not found these Indians to be thieves, and gives appearance of having been abruptly cut off on the north-eastern them a general good character in other respects.

slope. The gravels are in places much contorted, and falsebedding is frequent. They contain numerous striated erratics.

Amongst the boulders are Silurian grits and argillites, granites Geological Society, November 25.-Sir Archibald Geikie,

like those of Eskdale, Criffel, &c., Carboniferous rocks, Lias F.R.S., President, in the chair.—The following communications

shale, and Chalk flints. The shells are often broken, rolled, were read :-On the os pubis of Polacanthus Foxi, by Prof. H. G. Seeley, F.R.S. Hitherto the evidence of the systematic and striated, but the bulk of them are in fairly good condition.

A list of the shells is given, including nine Arctic and Scandinaposition of Polacanthus has not been very precise. The author

vian forms not now living in British seas, nine northern types, has detected the missing pubis as an isolated specimen. This he regards as the anterior portion of the left pubis, and appends species of ordinary British forms. Comparative lists of the

also found in British seas, two southern types, and nearly fifty a full description of the bone. He furthermore gives a critical account of our knowledge of other pelvic bones of the genus,

shells of Moel Tryfan and of those now living in Liverpool Bay and is led to associate Agathaumus, Cratæomus, Omosaurus,

are placed side by side with the list of shells from Gloppa. and Polacanthus in near alliance, in the Scelidosaurian division

The reading of this paper was followed by a discussion, in of the Order Ornithischia.-A comparison of the red rocks of President, and the author took part.

which Dr. Hicks, Prof. Hull, Mr. Shone, Prof. Blake, the

Some remarks sent by the South Devon coast with those of the Midland and Western

Mr. Clement Reid were read by the Secretary: -The subterCounties, by Prof. Edward Hull, F.R.S. The author believes,

ranean denudation of the Glacial Drift, a probable cause of with Dr. Irving, that the red rocks of Devonshire are representatives of the Permian and Trias which occupy so large submerged peat and forest-beds, by W. Shone. a portion of the district bordering Wales and Salop, and Royal Microscopical Society, November 30.Conver. which extend into the Midland Counties, and comments on the sazione. - There was a numerous attendance at this meeting, remarkable resemblance between the representative beds on which passed off very successfully. The following objects and either side of the dividing ridge of Palæozoic rocks which instruments were exhibited :-Megalotrocha albo-flavicans, by underlies East Anglia and emerges beneath the Jurassic strata Mr. F. W. Andrew.-Foraminifera from the London Clay, by in Somersetshire. He believes that the breccia forming the Rev. G. Bailey.--Amphipleura pellucida, Arachnodiscus Ehrenhase of the series in the Torquay district is a representative of bergi, Polycystinæ from Barbadoes, a microscope with new the Lower Permian division, but differs from Dr. Irving, in substage focussing arrangement, by Messrs. R. and J. Beck.assigning the red sandstones and marls of Exmouth to the Trias, Foraminifera from the Chalk, by Mr. E. T. Browne. --Hyaline and not to the Permian as that author has done. He compares Foraminifera from the Folkestone Gault-viz, Vitriwebbina them with the Lower Red and Mottled Sandstones, and regards Sollasi, n. sp. (Chapman), V. lævis, Sol., Polymorphina Orbignii, the Marls as of local origin, thus causing the beds to diverge var. cervicornis (Chapman), by Mr. F. Chapman. -A from the normal type. The Budleigh Salterton Pebble-beds, thickened nodule of Nitella translucens, by Mr. E. Dadswell.— with overlying sandstones and pebbly beds, he assigns to the Volvox and Batrachospermum in saturated solution of common horizon of the Pebble-beds of the Midland area, and points out salt ; diatom structure in medium (Br Antı, Br Arsı, Piperine,), that fossils of Silurian and Devonian types occur in the pebbles by Mr. J. E. Ingpen.-Filaria sanguinis hominis (diurna and of both areas. The Upper Division of the Bunter is well shown nocturna), prepared by Dr. P. Manson ; Bacillus anthrax in at Sidmouth, and the author takes a calcareous breccia, two feet lung; microscopes with new focussing arrangement to substage, thick, which is found in the cliffs, as the basement-bed of the by Messrs. Johnson.-E pistylis flavicans, Lophopus crystallinus, Keuper division.-Supplementary note to the paper on the Argulus foliaceus, by Mr. R. Macer. — Transverse section of “ Red Rocks of the Devon Coast-section,” Q.J.G.S., 1888, by fertile head of Equisetum arvense showing spores and elators in the Rev. A. Irving. In this note the author accepts Prof. Hull's situ, section of filia grandiflora showing reticulate and pitted determination (see above) of the breccia at Sidmouth as the base cells, by Mr. G. E. Mainland. -Hoplophora carinata v. pul


cherrina, a South European mite, by Mr. A. D. Michael. presenting the sister University of Oxford. He had noticed that Photographs and drawings illustrating the absorption of the ihe larvæ of S. carpini, if lest in a box with dead food, and tubercle and other bacilli by the leucocytes, photographs of probably partially starved, made a light-coloured cocoon ; but micro organisms in dental caries, by Mr. J. H. Munmery. — that when the cocoon was made under natural conditions, on Exhibition of natural history objects with the projection micro- living food-plants on the moors, it was of a dark colour. Mr. scope, monochromatic light apparatus for microscopic work, by Poulton and Prof. Meldola continued the discussion. Messrs. E. M. Nelson and C. L. Curties. —Phagocytes inclosing tubercle.effusion from dorsal lymph-sac of frog, by Mr. Pound.

Linnean Society, December 3.-Prof. Stewart, President, --Cherryfield rhomboides in balsam, with a new apochromatic

in the chair. — The President announced the recent bequest by homogeneous immersion 14 N.A., by Messrs. Powell and

the late Sir George MacLeay, K.C.M.G., of a marble bust of Lealand. -A collection of different species of Rotifera, by Mr. his father, the late Dr. William Sharp MacLeay, formerly a C. Rousselet.- Photograph of a new apparatus for measuring Fellow and Vice-President of the Society.–The President then drawings made with the camera lucida, by Sir Walter Sendall,

exhibited a series of specimens of a South American beetle, K.C.M.G. - Petrological slides, transparencies of rock sections, showing the extremes of variation of colour observable within Foraminifera, &c., by Mr. G. F. Smith.-Starch from potato

the limits of a single species.-Mr. J. E. Harting exhibited a fruit under 4 inch, with polariscope, by Mr. W. T. Suffolk.

photograph of an abnormally situated nest of the chimney Photographs of Podura scales, by the Hon. J. G. Vereker.- swallow (Hirundo rustica), which had been built for the second Section of passion-flower, by Mr. J. J. Vezey. -Blight of grape

time on a swinging hook in an outhouse ; and made some vine (Phylloxera); Bacillus mallei (glanders); Pacinian corpuscles

remarks on three recorded cases of swallows nesting in trees, a in mesentery of cat, chlorophyll of moss, Diatomaceve from most unusual habit.— The Botanical Secretary read a paper by Jutland, a slide containing 100 species of Pleurosigma, by

Mr. W. West, on the Fresh-water Algæ of the West of Ireland, Messrs. Watson.

and exhibited by way of illustration a number of preparations

under the microscope, and a series of beautiful drawings by the Entomological Society, December 2.-- The Right Hon.

author. The paper was criticized by Messrs. A. W. Bennett Lord Walsingham, F.R.S., Vice-President, in the chair.

and E. M. Holmes, both of whom testified to the excellence of Dr. D. Sharp, F.R.S., exhibited and commented on a number

the work done and the value of the drawings. -The Zoological of photographs of various species of Lucanida belonging to M.

Secretary next read a paper by Dr. W. H. Strachan, on the tick René Oberthür.- Mr. c. G Barrett exhibited specimens of pest of Jamaica, which was characterized as of so serious a local forms and varieties of Lepidoptera, taken by Mr. Percy

nature as to demand investigation by entomologists, with a Russ near Sligo, including Pieris napi, var. near bryoniæ ;

view to a remedy. An interesting discussion followed, in which Anthocharis cardamines (male), with the orange blotch edged

Mr. D. Morris gave a variety of details from personal experience with yellow, and yellowish forms of the female of the same spe.

during a residence of some years in Jamaica, and Mr. A. D. cies ; very blue forms of Polyommatus alsus ; males of P. alexis,

Michael pointed out the generic characters of certain West with the hind margin of the under wings spotted with black, and

Indian ticks which were likely to include those found in Jamaica very handsome forms of the female. - The Rev. S. St. John ex

by Dr. Strachan. The question of remedy for this plague was hibited two specimens of Lycæna argiades, taken in So nersetshire

discussed by Dr. John Lowe, and Messrs. T. Christy, C. by Dr. Marsh in 1884 ; three specimens of Deilephila euphorbia,

Breeze, and T. J. Briant. bred from larvæ found feeding on Euphorbia paralias on the

CAMBRIDGE. Cornish coast in September, 1889; and a series of various forms of Anchocelis pistacina, all taken in a garden at Arundel. Lord Philosophical Society, November 23. — The following Walsingham, F.R.S., Mr. Barretr, and Mr. McLachlan, communications were made :- The self-induction of two parallel F.R.S., took part in the discussion which en ued. - Mr. Jenner. conductors, by Mr. H. M. Macdonald. The well-known exWeir exhibited and made reniarks on two dark specimens of pression for the self-induction of two parallel wires (Maxwell, Zygena minos which had been caught in Carnarvonshire. He $ 685) holds only for the case when neither of them is magnetic. remarked that the specimens were not representatives of com- For the case when both wires are magnetic, the value of the coplete melanism, and suggested that the word “phæism"-from efficient is sound, in this paper, in the form of an infinite series. paiós, dusky-would be a correct word to apply to this and This series can be expressed in finite terms when only one of the similar departures from the normal coloration of a species. -- wires is magnetic, and then gives Mr. C. J. Gahan exhibited specimens of the common "book: louse,” Atropos pulsatoria, Fabr., which he had heard making a ticking noise similar to that made by the “death-watch

L = }(u + Mo) + 2Mo log

+ 2mor
ad uto

62 - a?' (Anobium). – Mr. B. A. Bower exhibited the following rare species of Micro-Lepidoptera : Spilonota pauperana, Fröl. ;

where Mo is the permeability of the surrounding media (viz. Gelechia osseella, Sin. ; Chrysoclysta bimaculella, Haw. ; and

usually unity), a the radius of the magnetic wire of permeability Elachista cingilella, Fisch. – Mr. R. Adkin exbibited a variety

M, a' the radius of the other wire, and b the distance between of Anthocharis cardamines, and one specimen of Sesia

their lines of centres. The effect of the magnetic quality is ex. scoliaformis bred from a larva found at Rannoch.- Mr. G. T.

hibited by means of numerical tables.- The effect of flaws on Baker read a paper entitled "Notes on Lycæna (recte Thecla) the strength of materials, by Mr. J. Larmor. The effect of an rhymnus, tengstræmii, and pretiosa.” A discussion followed,

air. bubble of spherical or cylindrical form in increasing the in which Lord Walsingham, Captain Elwes, and Mr. Baker took

strains in its neighbourhood was examined ; and it was suggested part.--Mr. F. Merrifield read a paper entitled “The effects of that the results might be of practical service in drawing general artificial temperature on the colouring of Vanessa urticæ and conclusions as to the influence of local relaxations of stiffness of certain other species of Lepidoptera.' The author stated that

other kinds. In particular, a cavity of the form of a narrow both broods of all three species of Selenia, Platypteryx falcataria,

circular cylinder, lying parallel to the axis of a shaft under Vanessa urtica, Bombyx quercus and var. calluna, and Chelonia torsion, will double the shear at a certain point of its circumcaja were affected by temperature in the pupal stage, the lower ference"; and the effect of a spherical cavity will not usually be temperature generally producing the greater intensity and very different. It is assumed in the analysis that the distance of darkness of colour ; some of the Vanessa urticæ made a near the cavity from the surface of the shaft is considerable compared approach to the var. polaris of Northern Europe. A long discus- with its diameter, so that the influence of that boundary may be sion ensued, in which Mr. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., Prof.

left out of account in an approximate solution. The contacts of Meldola, F.R.S., Mr. Barrett, Mr. Jenner-Weir, and Lord

certain systems of circles, by Mr. W. McF. Orr.-On liquid Walsingham took part.--Mr. W. Bateson read a paper entitled jets, by Mr. H. J. Sharpe. The problem is treated by the "On the variation in the colour of the cocoons of Eriogaster

method of Fourier series. lanestris and Saturnia carpini," and exhibited a large number of specimens in illustration of the paper. Lord Walsingham

DUBLIN. congratulated Mr. Bateson on his paper, and on the intelligent care and method shown in his experiments, and said that he was Royal Society, November 18.-Prof. A. C. Haddon, glad to see that at Cambridge there was an entomologist ready President of the Scientific Section, in the chair. -An analysis to enter this interesting field of investigation, and perhaps at of the spectrum of sodium, by Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, some future day to contest the palm with Mr. Poulton as re- F.R.S. The position of the lines which present themselves in





the spectrum of hydrogen are given, or approximately given, by The investigation shows that in series P and series S of Balmer's law, viz.

the sodium spectrum, the curve of nature is not an exact hyper4 n = k/1

bola, but a curve slightly less curved in the neighbourhood of its m?

vertex. It also indicates that there is probably a line in the sodium

spectrum, belonging to series P, at or a little less than the wave. where k = 274'263. In this formula n becomes the oscillation length 2130.--Mr. J. Joly exhibited and described a shutter for use frequency of the successive lines, when for m we write the in- in stellar photography. This shutter enables any bright star in the teger numbers 3, 4, 5, &c. Similarly, Profs. Kayser and Runge field of the telescope to be covered at will, so as to secure better have found that A, B, and C can be determined so that the

definition. The shutter is a small watch-spring magnet, adjustempirical formula,

able to any part of the field, and pivoted so that it can be

rotated by the action of a current which circulates round the n = A + B + C

field in a narrow coil. In one position of the magnet the star shall approximately represent the positions of the lines in any work, suggested by Mr. A. A. Rambaut, and used at Dunsink

is exposed, in the other covered. A modification for parallax one of the three series that present themselves in the spectra of Observatory, has the magnet and coil to one side of the field, the other light monad elements-Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs. These and the shutter, which is carried on a needle attached to the formulæ have an important physical meaning. They indicate

magnet, fixed in the centre of the field. There is no vibration that n is a function of 1/m ; in other words, that although the

in these shutters, owing to the small mass of the moving parts. periodic times of the successive rays are not themselves a funda

In the first form, the current in the one coil may control mental period with its harmonics, as is the case with the vibra

shutters placed in any part of the field of the telescope, so that, tions that give rise to musical sounds, they in some way depend if desirable, more than one star may be covered. -- Prof. T. on an event of this simple character which is going on in the Johnson described the structure and function of the peculiar molecules from which ihe spectrum emanates. Balmer's law swellings (callosities) of Nitophyllum versicolor, Harv., and may be represented by a very simple diagram which places this pointed out the bearing of his observations on the specific charrelationship in evidence. Draw the parabola

acter of N. versicolor, and Schmitz's views on the structure of the

Floridean thallus.—Mr. E. W. L. Holt read a list of the rarer gue = tick – x),

shore and deep-sea fishes obtained during the cruise of the s.s.

Harlequin on the west coast of Ireland (1891). One fish, and place its axis horizontal. Erect an ordinate at the distance

Centrophorus squamosus (Gm. L.), taken in deep water off the from the vertex.

The following are Double this out, and using its double Mayo coast, is new to the British fauna. length as unit, set off upon it the harmonics 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, &c.

new to the Irish fauna : Raia oxyrhynchus (Linn.), from 500 to From each of the points so determined draw horizontal lines to

375 fathoms, and from shallow water ; Raia microcellata the curve : these are the values of n for the successive lines of (Mont,), from shallow water-coast of Mayo and Donegal ; the hydrogen spectrum. Now, having regard to the fact that

Rhombus norvegicus (Gthr.), from shallow water-Donegal the light monad elements, H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, have all

Bay; Arnoglossus grohmanni (Bonap.) was again taken ; of them series of lines which appear to belong to the same

Crystallogobius nilssoni (Düb. and Kor.) proved to be abungeneral type, we are justified in assuming that Balmer's law is

dant everywhere, between 10 and 35 fathoms. The followthe simplest case of a general law which prevails throughout all

ing were amongst the forms, usually inhabiting littoral the light monads. Hence, if the oscillation-frequencies be

water, which were taken at more than 100 fathoms : Scyllium plotted down as the horizontal lines of a diagram constructed as

canicula, Acanthias vulgaris, Galeus vulgaris, Raia oxyrhyn. above with x = and y = 1/m, the curve passing through the chus, Gadus aglifinus, Conger vulgaris. ends of the lines in the other monads should be some curve of

PARIS, which the parabola is a particular case. This may happen in different ways, but the simplest hypothesis is that they are Academy of Sciences, December 7.-M. Duchartre in the hyperbolas or ellipses. Accordingly, the author has tried this chair.-Reply to a note by M. Besson on phosphides of boron, hypothesis in the case of the sodium spectrum, with the result

by M. Henri Moissan. The author points out that he rethat hyperbolas approximately represent series P (the principal marked upon the reaction between boron and phosphorus in a series) and series S (the series of sharp lines), and that a para

paper presented on April 6, 1891, and more fully described bola represents the third series, series D (the series of diffuse

its properties on July 6, 1891. He therefore claims priority lines); and with the further interesting result that the only line over M. Besson, who first presented a note on the subject on in the sodium spectrum which has not hitherto fallen into its July 13. --On the theory of linear differential equations, by M. place as a member of one or other of the three series proves to

André Markoff.-On modifications of the adiabatism of a conbe in reality the first term of series S, with a value for n which

tracted gaseous stream, by M. H. Parenty.—The vapour tenis negative instead of positive. The physical meaning of this issions of cobalt chloride solutions, by M. Georges Charpy. The that the revolution going on within the molecules round that graphic representation of the tensions at different temperatures elliptic partial which gives rise to this double line is in the

of a solution saturated in the cold (containing 32 per cent. of opposite direction to what it would have been if its n had been Coci,) gives two right lines from 20° to 40°, and from 75°, onpositive (see memoir by the author “On Double Lines in

wards respectively, joined by a curve. Each of these right lines Spectra," recently published in the Transactions of the Royal corresponds to a definite state of hydration of the salt; the Dublin Society). The equation of an hyperbola being

lower represents the tension of a red solution, the upper of a (a - x)2 = P(b + 1000. yo),

blue one.

These results agree with those of M. Etard, but the

interval of passage between the two states is from 40° to 75o the values to be attributed to the constants for series P of the instead of from 35° to 50°, as found by this observer, a difference sodium spectrum are approximately

explained by the use of saturated solutions in his experiments.37740300

Action on some metals of sodammonium and potassammonium, 3337'4120

by M. Joannis. (See Notes.)—Calculation of the temperature of b = 1438-35

ebullition of isomeric ethers of the fatty acids, by M. G. Hin

richs. - Thermal data concerning active malic acid and potassium and their values for series S are

and sodium malates, by M. G. Massol. The heat of solution of log P = 2.5263843

the anhydrous acid is (per mol. in 4 litres), – 3'31 Cal. ; heats 434'0587

of neutralization-by K = + 26'23 Cal., by Na = + 24.86 Cal.; b

heats of solution of the anhydrous salts : The equation of a parabola being

C,H,O,K in 6 litres = - 5.78 Cal.

C,H,O,K, in 8 litres = + 1'55 Cal. x = a - 1000. by,

C HO Na in 6 litres = – 166 Cal. the values of the constants for series D are

C,H,O,Na, in 8 litres = + 1'78 Cal. a = 244'93,

The heats of formation of the salts indicate that malic acid lies log h = 0'04357.

between succinic and oxalic acids in the energy of its action.

log P


The rotatory power of silk, by M. Léo Vignon.--Ammonia in captive balloon, and (4) at the earth's surface. ! By this means atmospheric waters, by M. Albert Lévy. At the previous meet- simultaneous determinations of temperature, humidity, and ing of the Academy, MM. Marcano and Müntz gave the results pressure at four different air-levels would be obtained. - Prof. of twenty estimations of ammonia in rain caught at Caracas, and Sporer described the appearance of two groups of sun-spots, of the mean (1.55 mgr. per litre) was thought by M. Müntz to be which one was unaccompanied by any disturbances of terrestrial higher than that obtained in our latitudes. M. Lévy, however, magnetism, while the other was followed by very strong disshows that a higher proportion has been frequently obtained in turbances. France and elsewhere. He has estimated the ammonia and nitric acid in all the rainfalls at Montsouris for sixteen years. The average number is 150 per year; and from these 2000 or 3000 measures, a mean weight of 2-2 mgr. of ammonia per litre has

BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, AND SERIALS been obtained.-In which part of the nervo-muscular system is

RECEIVED inhibition produced ?, by M. N. Wedensky.—The antennal Books.-La Rose: J. Bel (Paris, Baillière).-Les Champignons : A. gland of Amphipodes of the Orchestiidal family, by M. Jules Acloque (Baillière). -- La Place de L'Homme dans la Nature : T. 1. Huxley Bonnier.—New list of large Cetacea stranded on the French

(Baillière).-Analysis of Theology : Dr. E. J. Figg (Williams and Norgate).

-Sul Regime delle Spiagge e sulla Regolazione dei Porti: P. Cornaglia coast, by MM. G. Ponchet and H. Beauregard.-On the para (Torino, Paravia). - Reports on the Mining Industries of New Zealand, 1891 sitic fungus of Lachnidium acridiorum, Gd., by M. A. Girard. Wellington, Didsbury). - Annual Report of the Department of Mines, -On the germination of grains of Araucaria Bidwilli, Hook., N.S.W., 1890 (Sydney, Chapman).-The Embryology of the Sea Bass : Dr.

H. V. Wilson (Washington).- Electricity up to Date: J. B. Verity (Warne). and Araucaria brasiliensis, Rich., by M. Ed. Heckel.

Studies in Anatomy from the Anatomical Department of the Owens College,

vol. i. (Manchester, Cornish). — The Living World : H. W. Conn (Putnam). BERLIN.

-A Natural Method of Physical Training : E. Checkley (Putnam).-Notes on Building Construction, Part 4 (Longmans). -Botanical Wall Diagrams (S.P.C.K.).

-Euvres complètes de Christiaan Huygens, tome quatrième Physiological Society, November 13.-Prof. du Bois (La Haye, M. Nijhoff).- L'Electricité dans la Nature : G. Dary (Paris, Reymond, President, in the chair. — Prof. /. Munk gave an G. Carré). — Thermodynamique : H Poincaré (Paris, G. Carré). Through account of further experiments made in his laboratory, on the

Equatorial Africa: H. von Wissmann ; translated by M. J. A. Bergmann

(Chatto and Windus).-Mission Scientifique au Cap Horn, 1882-1883, tome effect on the larynx of section of the superior laryngeal nerve vii., Anthropologie, Ethnographie : P. "Hyades and J. Deniker (Paris, in the horse, and which had again led as their result neither to Gauthier-Villars). – Whitaker's Almanack, 1892 (Whitaker). paralysis nor atrophy of the laryngeal muscles.--Dr. Krüger

PAMPHLETS. - Higher Education in Indiana : Dr. J. A. Woodburn having investigated the chemical constitution of adenin and

(Washington) - Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue, 3rd edition; C. A.

Cutter (Washington).–Promotions and Examinations in Graded Schools : hypoxanthin, finds that they belong to the uric acid group: Dr. E. E. White (Washington). - Sanitary Conditions for School-houses : When treated with hydrochloric acid at 130° C., they yielded

A. P. Marble (Washington). glycocoll, and by a more profound decomposition with bromine,

Serials.- Journal of the Chemical Society, December (Gurney and Jack

son). - Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, vol. xiii. Part 3 (117 potassium chlorate, and hydrochloric acid, alloxanthin and urea Victoria Street). L'Anthropologie, 1891. tome ii No. 5 (Paris, Masson). were obtained.

The Asclepiad. No. 32, vol. viii. (Longmans). - Botanische-Jahrbücher für

Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, Vierzehnter Band, Physical Society, November 20.-Prof. Kundt, President,

4 Heft (Williams and Norgate). in the chair.-Prof. A. du Bois Reymond explained, starting from the discovery of electrodynamic rotations produced by alternating currents made by Galileo Ferraris in 1888, how the


PAGE rotation of the magnetic field is employed in the construction of rotatory current motors, and exhibited several forms of the Two Zoological Text-books. By Prof. E. Ray Lan. instrument to the Society. The principle discovered by kester, F.R.S.

145 Ferraris has undergone very material modification during its Modern Artillery. By A. G. G.

146 practical application, and has led to most interesting scientific Giants and Acromegaly.

147 results.

Peaks and Passes in New Zealand. By Prof. T. G. December 4.-Prof. von Helmholtz, President, in the chair. Bonney, F.R.S.

147 -Dr. Assmann described his aspiration-meteorograph intended Our Book Shelf:for use in captive balloons. - Dr. Wolff spoke on the per- De la Saussaye : "Manual of the Science of Religion." manency of an accumulator battery which had been standing

_W. R. Š. for a year, until the fluid in it had evaporated to dryness, and Layng : "Euclid's Elements of Geometry,” Book XI. which, on being recharged, almost immediately recovered its -W.

149 original strength.

Makino : "

villustrations of the Flora of Japan.”W. B. H.

149 Meteorological Society, December 1.-Prof. Schwalbe, Clutterbuck : “ About Ceylon and Borneo President, in the chair.—Dr. Assmann spoke on meteorological Letters to the Editor :observations during balloon voyages and in captive balloons. Wind Direction. (With Diagram.)-A. B. M. 149. For the determination of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric The Migration of the Lemming.-F. Howard pressure in a free balloon, the aspiration thermometer and an Collins

150 aneroid barometer sufhce. Comparative measurements made by The New Railway from Upminster to Romford, Essex. Rotch in Paris and in Berlin, during balloon voyages, showed --T. V. Holmes.

151 that a Richards thermograph records a temperature some 8° C. Peculiar Eyes.-G. K. Gude

151 higher than does a maximum and minimum thermometer, and Grasted Plants.--W. H. Beeby

151 the latter shows a temperature always 2° C. higher than does Intelligence in Birds.-A. Wilkins

151 an aspiration thermometer. In order to carry out prolonged Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay. By A. G.

151 observations on humidity during a balloon trip, three aspiration On Van der Waals's Isothermal Equation. (With thermometers must be combined, of which two are alternately Diagram.) By Prof. D. T. Korteweg .

152 moistened while the third is kept dry. For use in captive The Bird - Gallery in the British Museum

154 balloons self-registering instruments must be employed, whose The October Eruption North-West of Pantelleria. construction, owing to the frequently violent vertical jolts of the By Prof. John W. Judd, F.R.S. ; G. W. Butler balloon, presents considerable difficulty. The speaker exhibited Notes

154 tracings which showed that these difficulties had been overcome Our Astronomical Columo:by him. Temperature is recorded by a bent Bourdon tube Jupiter and his First Satellite .

159 filled with alcohol, humidity by a hair hygrometer, and atmo- Spectra of the Sun and Metals

159 spheric pressure by an aneroid ; all these instruments being Measurement of Jupiter's Satellites by Interference. placed in a space in which aspiration is continuously kept up. (Illustrated.) By A. A. Michelson

160 Each instrument records upon a cylinder which rotates once in The Samoan Cyclone of March 16, 1889. Ву about five hours. The German Ballooning Society proposes H. F. B.

161 10 make simultaneous observations (1) in a free balloon, (2) University and Educational Intelligence

162 with a self-recording apparatus suspended by a long cable from Societies and Academies

162 the car of the balloon, (3) with a second similar apparatus in a Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received





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