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At this critical juncture it happened that the German inissionary, Mr. Heckewelder, with some attendants, had arrived among the Christian Delawares in the neighborhood of Goshocking, the settlement of White-Eyes, from Pittsburg. He became an eye and ear witness of the sequel of the affair, and we shall therefore avail ourselves of his narrative.
5 Finding the matter so very pressing, and even not admitting of a day's delay,'I consented, that after a few hours' rest and sleep, and furnished with a trusty companion and a fresh horse, I would proceed on, when between three and four o'clock in the morning, the national assistant, John Martin, having called on me for the purpose, we set out, swimming our horses across the Muskingum river, and taking a circuit through the woods, in order to avoid the encampment of the war-party which was close to our path. Arriving by ten o'clock in the forenoon within sight of the town, a few yells were given by a person who had discovered us, intended to notify the inhabitants that a white man was coming, and which immediately drew the whole body of Indians into the streets; but although I saluted them in passing them, not a single person returned the compliment, which, as my conductor observed, was no good omen. Even Captain White-Eyes, and the other chiefs who had always befriended me, now stepped back when I reached out my hand to them, which strange conduct, however, did not dismay me, as I observed among the crowd some men well known to me as spies of Captain Pipe's, watching the actions of these peacechiefs, wherefore I was satisfied that the act of refusing me the hand had been done from policy, and not from any ill will towards my person. Indeed, in looking around, I thought I could read joy in the countenances of many of them, in seeing me among them at so critical a juncture, when they, but a few days before, had been told by those deserters, that nothing short of their total destruction had been resolved upon by the “long knives' (the Virginians, or new American people.) Yet as no one would reach out his hand to me, I inquired into the cause, when Captain White-Eyes, boldly stepping forward, replied : • that by what had been told them by those men, (M'Kee and party,) they no longer had a single friend among the American people; if therefore this be so, they must consider every white man who came to them from that side, as an enemy, who only came to them to deceive them, and put them off their guard, for the purpose of giving the enemy an opportunity of taking them by surprise.' I replied, that the imputation was unfounded, and that, were I not their friend, they never would have seen me here. Then, (continued Captain WhiteEyes,) you will tell us the truth with regard to what I state to you!' Assuring him of this, he, in a strong tone, asked me: “Are the American armies all cut to picces by the English troops? Is General Washington killed? Is there no more a Congress, and have the English hung some of them, and taken the remainder to England, to hang them there? Is the whole country beyond the mountains in the possession of the English; and are the few thousand Americans who have escaped them now embodying themselves on this side of the mountains, for the purpose of killing all the Indians in this country, even our women and children? Now do not deceive us, but speak the truth' (added he); “is this all true what I have said to you?' I declared before the whole assembly, that not one word of what he had just now told me was true, and holding out to him, as I had done before, the friendly speeches sent by me for them, which he however as yet refused to accept, I thought by the countenances of most of the bystanders, that I could perceive that the moment bid fair' for their , listening at least to the contents of those speeches, and accidentally catching the eye of the drummer, I called to him to beat the drum for the assembly to meet, for the purpose of hearing what their American brethren had to say to them. A general smile having taken place, White-Eyes thought the favorable moment arrived to put the question, and having addressed the assembly in these words: “Shall we, my friends and relatives, listen once more to those who call us their brethren? Which question being loudly and as with one voice answered in the affirmative, the drum was beat, and the whole body quickly repairing to the spacious council-house, the speeches, all of which were of the most pacific nature, were read and interpreted to them, when Captain White-Eyes rose, and in an elaborate address to the assembly, took particular notice of the good disposition of the American people towards the Indians, observing, that ihey had never as yet called on them to fight the English, knowing that wars were destructive to nations, and they had from the beginning of the war to the present time always advised them (the Indians) to remain quiet, and not take up the hatchet against either side. A newspaper, containing the capitulation of General Burgoyne's army, being found enclosed in the packet, Captain White-Eyes once more rose up, and holding this paper unfolded, with both his hands, so that all could have a view of it, said, “See, my friends and relatives, this document containeth great events, not the song of a bird, but the truth!—then stepping up to me, he gave me his hand, saying, “you are welcome with us, brother;' when every one present followed his example.”
Thus White-Eyes again triumphed over his rival; and the chagrin of the latter was the more keen, because, relying on the improved prospects of his party, he had recently committed himself more openly than ever before. But the spies whom he kept constantly at Goshocking now brought him the doleful news that the predictions of White-Eyes were all verified. The chieftain himself completed his success by sending runners, immediately after the council broke up, to the Shawanese towns on the Scioto, where the tories had already purpose of trying their game upon that tribe.
“Grand. children !" was the laconic message, “ye Shawanese! Some days ago a flock of birds from the east lit at Goshocking, singing a song here which had well nigh proved our ruin. Should these birds, which, on leaving us, took their fight towards Scioto, endeavor to impose their song on you, do not listen to them, for they lie!"
But White-Eyes was not destined to enjoy the result of his labors. In the winter of 1779–80, he visited Pittsburg, for the purpose of
gone for the
consulting with the Indian agent on the means suitable for preserving peace. He accompanied General McIntosh and his army to Tuscarowas, (where a fort was to be built for the protection of the neutral Indians,) took the small-pox at that place, and soon died.
The.event produced a sensation almost unprecedented in the Delaware tribe, and throughout a wide region in their vicinity. The intelligence was sent to various confederate or relative tribes, at the distance of hundreds of miles, and counter-deputations of condolence soon came in from all quarters. We shall close this chapter with Mr. Heckewelder's account of the embassy of the Cherokees, which strikingly indicates the reputation acquired by White-Eyes during his life, as well as the great respect subsequently paid to his memory.
The deputation, consisting of fourteen men, of whom two were principal chiefs, were accompanied from their country to Goshocking, by a nephew of the late Captain White-Eyes, who, soon after the commencement of the American revolution, had been despatched thither by the Delaware chiefs, for the purpose of using his endeavors in keeping that nation at peace. When this deputation had arrived within three miles of Goshocking, and within one of Lichtenau, they made a halt for the purpose of having the customary ceremony performed on them. This was done by one of the councillors from the village, who, by an address and with a string of wampum, drew the thorns and briars out of their legs and feet; healed the sores and bruises they had received by hitting against logs; wiped the dust and sweat off their bodies; and cleansed their eyes and ears, so that they might both see and hear well; and finally anointed all their joints, that their limbs might again become supple.* They were then served with victuals brought from Lichtenau, and they continued there the remainder of that day.
On the next morning, two of the councillors from Goshocking, deputed for the purpose, informed the missionary and national assistants at Lichtenau, that, by order of their chiefs, they were to conduct the Cherokee deputation into their village, from whence they were expected to join in the procession to Goshocking, and there attend the condoling ceremonies; all which being agreed to, these soon brought them on, one leading them in front, and the other bringing up the rear.
Arriving within about two hundred yards of the town, and in sight of it, (all marching Indian file,) they fired off their pieces, which compliment was instantly returned by the young men of the town, drawn up for the purpose: then raising a melancholy song, they continued singing, until they had reached the long house, purposely built for their reception; yet not without first having lodged their arms against some trees they had passed, at a small distance from the town. Being seated on benches prepared for the purpose, (the deputies on the opposite side;) a dead silence prevailed for about half an hour, and all present cast their eyes on the ground. At length one of these
* All which ceremonies are performed figuratively.
chiefs, named the Crow, rose, and with an air of sorrow, and in a low voice, with his eyes cast up to heaven, spoke to the following effect:
“One morning, after having arisen from my sleep, and according to my custom, I stepped out at the door to see what weather we had, I observed at one place in the horizon a dark cloud projecting above the trees; and looking steadfastly for its movement or disappearance, found myself mistaken, since it neither disappeared nor moved from the spot, as other clouds do. Seeing the same cloud successively every morning, and that always in the same place, I began to think what could be the cause of this singular phenomenon; at length it struck me, that as the cloud was lying in the direction that my grandfather dwelt, something might be the matter with him, which caused him griet. Anxious to satisfy myself, I resolved to go to my grandfather, and scc if any thing was the matter with him. I accordingly went, steering a course in the direction I had observed the cloud to be. I arrived at my grandfather's, whom I found quite disconsolate, hanging his head and the tears running down his cheeks! Casting my eyes around in the hopes of discovering the cause of his grief, I observed yonder a dwelling closed up, and from which no smoke* appeared to ascend! Looking in another direction, I discovered an elevated spot of fresh earth, † on which nothing was scen growing; and here I found the cause of my grandfather's grief. No wonder he is so grieved ! No wonder he is weeping and sobbing, with his eyes cast towards the ground! Even I cannot help weeping with my grandfather, seeing in what a situation he is! I cannot proceed for grief!"
Here, after having seated himself for about twenty minutes, as though deeply afflicted, he again arose, and receiving from the principal chief, who was seated by his side, a large string of wampum, said: “Grandfather! Lift up your head and hear what your grandchildren have to say to you! These having discovered the cause of your grief, it shall be done away! See', grandfather! I level the ground on vonder spot of yellow earth, and put leaves and brush thereon to make it invisible! I also sow seeds on that spot, so that both grass and trees may grow thercon!" Here handing the string to the Delaware chiefs in succession, and taking up another, he continued : “Grandfather! The seed which I had sown has already taken root; nay, the grass has already covered the ground, and the trees are growing!” Handing this string likewise to the Delaware chief, and taking up a third string of wampum, he added: “Now, my grandfather, the cause of your grief being removed, let me dry up your tears! I wipe them from your eyes! I place your body, which, by the weight of grief and a heavy heart, is leaning to one side, in its proper posture! Your eyes shall be henceforth clear, and your cars open as formerly! The work is now finished !" Handing this string likewise to the Delaware chief, he now stepped forward to where the chief and his councillors were seated, and having first shaken hands
* Meaning no person occupying the house.
with these, he next did the same with all present, the whole embassy following his example. This being done, and all again seated as before, the Delaware chief, Gelelemend,* replied:
* Grandchildren !You did not come here in vain! You have performed a good work, in which the Great Spirit assisted you! Your grandfather makes you welcome with him."
The meeting, having continued nearly three hours, then broke up. On the day following, the chiefs of both nations entered on business relating to their national concerns, and finally made a mutual covenant for the continued maintenance of the party and principles of WhiteEyes.
It is honorable to the American Congress, that after the decease of their best friend among the Indians, they took measures for the maintenance and education of his son. On the journals of that body, under date of June 20th, 1785, is the following passage:
“ Resolved, That Mr. Morgan (Tamenend, probably,) be empowered and requested to continue the care and direction of George WhiteEyes for one year, and that the board of treasury take order for the payment of the expenses necessary to carry into execution the views of Congress in this respect.”
The journal of December, 1775, records an interesting interview of Congress with the father.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE CHARACTER OF WHITE-EYES-PIPES COMMENT ON HIS DEATH-THE LATTER GAINS AND SUSTAINS AN ASCENDANCY IN THE DELAWARE NATION-GRAND INDIAN COUNCIL AT DETROIT-PIPE'S SPIRITED SPEECH ON THAT OCCASION-MAKES CHARGES AGAINST THE MIS SIONARIES, BUT FAILS TO PROVE THEM.
The fact that Captain Pipe and his associates began to gain the ascendancy in the Delaware nation immediately on the death of his great antagonist, and that they afterwards supported it with almost uninterrupted success, is alone sufficient to indicate the influence and character of White-Eyes. Indeed, Pipe himself paid to his memory the compliment of declaring, with a solemn air, that “the Great Spirit had probably put him out of the way, that the nation might be saved.” That sagacious personage was well aware that neither Kill-Buck, nor Big-Cat, nor Glickkican, nor even all together, would adequately occupy the station of the deceased chieftain.
* Commonly called Kill-Buck.
7“ The sight of a gun-barrel," and afterwards baptised by the Moravians, and named Isaac. He was chief councillor and speaker of the old sachem, Pakanke, who ruled over the Delawares at Kaskaskunk, (in Ohio,) and was a man of uncommon military and oratorical talent. fter his own christianisation, he was a highly efficient advocate and patron of the Christian party. Having thereby, as well as by his spirit and influence, become obnoxious to their enemies during the revolution, several attempts were