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On Church Establishments. *

Nottingham, must be supposed to be perfectly conSır,

October 25, 1821. sistent with the best interests of soD ELIGION is so powerful an en- ciety, and is more likely to be injured N gine for moving and governing

no in this respect, than improved, by the the human mind, that it is no wonder

interference of human authority. A the statesman has endeavoured to turn

religion founded upon Divine Revelait to his purposes, and, under the spe

tion, must contain within itself the cious pretence of protection, has as

best possible means of ascertaining sumed the management of its con

and authenticating its real dictates; cerns. It might be questioned, indeed,

and the errors into which human weakwhether he has acted wisely, even as

ness and fallibility might fall in regard a statesman, in intermeddling with

to it, would be much more effectually things of such a nature. Had he ad. corrected by the private exertions of hered to the peculiar line of his yo, learning and integrity, than by the cation, that of maintaining the peace

ostentatious superintendence and conof society, hy protecting the equal

mal trolling direction of the civil power. rights of every citizen, other things

So that the interference of the civil might have gone on more to his satis- mag

homic care magistrate is an act of supererogation faction than he is willing to believe.

on his part, since a religion founded He would probably have been no loser

on truth is much better qualified to by his moderation and forbearance.

serve him, than he is to serve such He would have executed the useful

a religion, Leave it to the undispart which is especially assigned to

turbed exercise of its native energies, him with greater skill, from confining

and it is sure to advance the peace his attention to it : and the interests

and good order of society; but interof which he had declined the superin

in fere with it and restrain it, and its tendence, through a wise diffidence of

wise diffidence of nature suffers a material change; it his ability to serve them, would have

becomes worldly and intriguing; and thriven by their intrinsic importance,

the magistrate will soon find himself and the hold they possess of the de

compelled to purchase at a high rate sires and affections of mankind. Reli

the supineness and indolence of its gion is too firmly established in the

ministers, lest their activity should be human breast to require that it should

turned against himself. come recommended and enforced by

If what we have now stated be true, the enactments of the civil magistrate.

to we have, we suspect, decided the quesAnd although, on the supposition that tion of establishments already ; for if all religions were alike fabulous and

it can be proved that a patroniscd reunsupported, it might be necessary

ligion is of less value to the statesman for him to endeavour to make such a

than one left to depend upon its native selection as would be most favourable

energies, he will no longer be anxious to the peace and good order of society,

to lend it his support. We shall hear nothing of this kind can be alleged

no longer of his wish to subserve the with regard to Christianity, which,

interests of piety and truth: he will having its origin from God himself,

no more think of interfering with the concerns of religion than he will trou

ble himself with the inquiries of the . By the late justly lamented Rev. H. metaphysician or the grammarian. Turner, (see p. 121,) found among his I am aware that the question is papers, as prepared for our work. Ed. usually argued upon other grounds ; VOL. XVII.


and that the persons most nearly in- and hypocritical pretence of advanterested in the inaintenance of reli- cing the success of religion, two ingious establishments would fain per- terested parties bargain for mutual suade us that the Church of Christ assistance in carrying on a conspiracy demands it as an incumbent duty of against the rights and liberties of civil magistrates to patronise and en- mankind. dow her ministers. But probably the The precedent of the Jewish Church, civil magistrate, (whatever he may so much relied on in support of the pretend,) is little moved by sach argu- divine right of the church to a civil ments; and would leave Christianity establishinent, may easily be disposed to take care of itself, if he did not of by an examination of the two think that some private ends of his cases. own might be gained by undertaking The Jewish form of government was the task proposed, and that the men a theocracy; and its civil forins were whom he patronised and rewarded in strict subordination to certain imwould act a useful part in supporting portant objects connected with relihim against any opposition that might gion. Every thing was made to bend be attempted in regard to his less jus- to one particular design of Providence, tifiable proceedings. And in this re- for the maintenance, during a certain spect he has not been disappointed; limited period, of just views of the for the selfish and ambitious views of Divine nature and essence. The Chriscivil governments have invariably found tian dispensation was in its elements support from an established clergy. totally different, and every thing beAnd this forins so serious an objection longing to Judaism, not expressly perin a civil point of view, that it would petuated, is to be considered as “ipso require the strongest proofs of the facto" abrogated by Christianity. And advantages derived to religion, to coun- it seems evidently to be of the very terbalance it. Few will undertake to essence of Christianity to be comshew that an institution decidedly un- pletely unembarrassed by any confavourable to the interests of freedom nexion with temporary and limited and just government is requisite to institutions. It was designed to be a the influence and success of true reli- religion for the whole world, and region : for freedom and truth go hand presents the whole world as composing in hand; and whatever impairs the one family; it cannot, therefore, reone must impair the other. But who cognise any partial and national instican have so poor an opinion of the tutions, so far as to coinbine itself power of religion, as to imagine that with them, and admit of the authoritaits progress and success depend upon tive imposition of corresponding forms. the patronage of the civil power: Christianity establishes the paramount Must truth stand waiting at the great authority of God in the conscience of man's door, meanly stoop for his do- every individual; it acquired its influnations, and crouch before the civil ence by this address of truth to reason, governor for the boon of his puny and it admits of no other establishfavour and patronage ? No! Let her ment. Every other is merely nominal, urge a bold claim for a simple, un- and although this nominal establishdoubted right, the right of being pro- ment may have a temporary use, (as tected from lawless violence and op- in the case of Constantine, when reli. pression. This it is the duty of the gion was already become greatly cormagistrate to extend to every peaceful rupt, and was under the necessity of citizen; and let the professor of reli- waiting until a more favourable state gion who pursues truth by the legiti- of society should arise, for purifying mate methods of reason and argument, itself,) yet, as a general principle, it boldly claim this, and refuse to be be- appears capable of complete proof holden to him for any thing more that the kingdom of Christ neither is

The alliance so often talked of be- nor can be of this world. tween Church and State, is to be re

H. T. garded as no better than a selfish contract, in which, under a solenn

A List of STUDENTS educated at the Academy at DAVENTRY under the Pa

tronage of Mr. COWARD's Trustees, and under the successive superintendence of the Rev. CALEB ASHWORTH, D.D., the Rev. THOMAS ROBINS, and the Rev. Thomas Belsham. Communicated by Mr. BELSHAM.

(Continued from p. 164.) Year of Name.

Remarks. Admission, 1760, d. Thomas Scrivenor, minister, Wigston; after a few years he quitted the

ministry, and entered into trade at Leicester,

where he soon after died. d. William Denny, m. Conformed, and became curate of Daventry. d. George Checkley, m.

Hyde-Ormskirk-Platt. d. — Bispham, Is.

Horwich. - Follet, m.

Tiverton. 1761, d. Henry Davis, m.

St. Neots-Wigston.
Jos, Gummer, m.

Thomas Halliday, in.

Assistant Classical Tutor, Bull-House; chap

lain to Hans Busk, Esq., Keighley-NortonHall, Norton ; quitted the ministry; became manufacturer, and failed. He was a most ingenious inan, a very popular preacher, and

for inany years supported a high reputatiou. d. — Dawson, m.

Idle, in Yorkshire : an excellent mineralogist;

he resigned his congregation, but not his profession; he became proprietor of considerable iron-works near Bradford ; and al

ways maintained an exemplary character. I . d. John Haywood,

was subject to epileptic fits; he was drowned

as he was bathing, while a student.
Dr. Clarke
J. Harrop, m.

Altringham. 1762, d. William Henley, m. St. Neots-Cambridge ; conformed and be

came, principal of a college in Virginia ; escaped to England at the Revolution; was presented by Lord Rendlesham (P. Thelluson) to the living of Rendleshan, and through his interest became Principal of the East India College at Hayleybury, in which situation he died; he was a man of elegant

accomplishments. d. William Wood, m. Oundle-Dudley. David Coates, Esq.

Wilson d. Leonard Munnings 1763, d. Robert Gentleman, in. Shrewsbury New Meeting - Carmarthen, as

Divinity Tutor-Kidderminster: a popular

- Runnel
Johu Byng, m.

d. Jonathan Hodgkinson, m. Hindley, Lancashire.
John Jones, m.

Bewdley. 1764, d. - Broadley, m.

Loughborough. d. William Raven, m.

died as soon as he had finished his studies. d. Francis Bull, m.

Flower and Weedon ; elder brother of W.

Bull : an eccentric character. d. John Wood, m.

Sudbury-Creaton : a truly honest man. 1765, d. John Hughes, m.

Horwich-Bury in Lancashire.
d. William Billingsley, m. Tewkesbury-Cam.
Samuel Tice, m.

Tutor to Sir John Clark at Enfield.
William Wells, m.

Bromsgrove; removed to America with his

family, where they live honourably and have

prospered greatly.
Joseph Turner, M. D. Sheffield.
Charles Maclean, Esq. Jamaica.

Year of

Remarks. Admission. 1765, Thomas Faller, Esq. Woodhall, Essex-Hackney-Konsington. 1766, John Ludd Fenner, m. Bicester-Monton-Taunton-Kenilworth, d. Habakkuk Crabb, m. Stowmarket - Cirencester-Wattesfield-Roy

ston. John Bradford,

Oldbury; left off preaching, and became a

schoolmaster near Coventry. d. Richard Darracot, m. Walsall-Fullwood, near Taunton. Thomas Belsham, m. Assistant Tutor in Metaphysics, Mathematics

and Natural Philosophy ; in 1778, removed to Worcester; in 1781, returned to Daventry as Principal and Divinity Tutor in succession to Mr. Robins; 1789, resigned on account of becoming an Unitarian ; and appointed Tutor iu Metaphysics, Moral Philosophy and Theology at Hackney; 1794, succeeded Dr. Priestley as minister to the Gravel-Pit Congregation ; 1805, appointed minister to the chapel in Essex-Street in succession to Dr.

Disney. d. Josiah Townsend, m. Rotherham-Fairford—Elland ; left off preach

ing and lived at Mansfield. 1767, d. Harry Hunt, Esq.

of Birmingham. Andrew Rogers,

did not finish his studies. d. James Johnstone, M. D. Worcester; died of the gaol fever, which he

caught by visiting the felons. Rice Fellows, Esq. 1768, d. Hugh Worthington, m. the celebrated preacher at Salters' Hall, who

maintained his popularity undiminished up

wards of forty years. Samuel Fawcett, m. Narborough-Beminster; declined preaching

as a settled minister ; now lives at Yeovil. d. Benjamin Carpenter, m. Bloxham-West Bromwich-Stourbridge

d. Edward Dewhurst, m.

Sannel Say Toms, m.

Framlingham. 1769, d. R. Taylor, Esq.

William Smith, Esq. M. P. for Sudbury-for Camelford--for Norwich :

introduced into Parliament the Trinity Doc-
rine Bill, which received the Royal assent

A. D. 1813.
John Cooke, M. D. settled for a few years as a minister at Roch-

dale, and afterwards at Preston ; he then
studied Medicine, took his degree of M. D.
at Leyden : practised as a physician in Lon-
don; and is now (1822) a Fellow of the

Royal College of Physicians. d. Joseph Bowden, m. settled at Call Lane, Leeds, upwards of forty

years; when he resigned, in consequence of
increasing infirmities, his congregation made
him a handsome present as a testimony of

their affection and esteem.
Nicholas Hurst, Esq. Hinckley.
Thomas Robinson,

quitted on account of ill health.
d. Philip Ashworth,

died in consequence of an accidental injury of

the spine ; an amiable youth. d. T. Davis,

Llanbrinmair. 1771, d. Thomas Northcote Toller, m. Kettering, upwards of forty years ; his con

gregation, a few years before his death, as a testimony of their respect and gratitude for his long and faithful services, made him a

present of a thousand pounds. Thomas Thomas, m. Wellingborough-Enfield-Wareham. J. Larkcom,

declined the ministry on account of ill health ;

holds a good place in the Excise.


Year of

1771. J. Langdon, m.

removed to Mr. Rooker's Academy at Brid

port. William Highmore, M. D. near Bath. John Towgood, Esq.

Banker, London. d. John Bowles, Esq. Barrister ; an active partisan of government;

Commissioner of Bankrupts ; Dutch Commissioner, Dulwich ; a well-known political

character. 1772, d. John Taylor, m.

Classical Tutor; became a Quaker ; and died

at Manchester, where he had kept a school. d. Nathaniel Bogle, Esq. merchant in London: d. Thomas Hamilton, Esq. lace merchant, Newport-Pagnel. d. Walter Beattie, Esq. lace merchant, Newport-Pagnel.

Thomas Rawlins, m.

d. Samuel Skey, Esq. Spring Grove-Worcestershire. 1773, d. T. Withers, m.

d. George Watson, m. Horwich-Carter Lane Daventry.
d. John Cox, Esq.

son of the celebrated Museum Cox; he died

at Canton, in China, where he was sent to dispose of his father's curious pieces of me

chanism and clock-work. Edward Johnstone, M.D. a celebrated physician at Edgbaston near Bir

mingham; brother to Dr. James Johnstone. T. Davies, m. 1774, d. Timothy Kenrick, m. Assistant Tutor in Mathematics and Natural

Philosophy; settled at Exeter ; became an enlightened and firm Unitarian; opened a respectable academy in conjunction with Mr. Bretland; died suddenly at Wrexham, in the midst of life; three volumes of Exposition of the Historical Books of the New Testament, and two volumes of Sermons have been published since his death, which are highly creditable to his memory : he left two sons, ministers; the eldest, John, the learned Classical Professor of the College at York; the younger, George, set

tled some time at Hull. Joseph Jevans, m. settled at Bloxham; highly respectable ; be

come a Unitarian after mature inquiry ; published some short but useful works in

defence of his principles. d. Joseph Bealey, m. Narborough-Cockey Moor-Warrington

Cockey Moor. This excellent man, the bosom friend of Dr. Barnes, having been the greater part of his life a zealous High Arian, became, after very serious and deep inquiry, a decided Unitarian; and while he was ardently and successfully engaged in the promulgation of Christian truth, it pleased God to take him away, after a short illness,

in the midst of life.. d. William Tattersall, M. D. Tewkesbury; he quitted the ministry and stu

died physic, which he practised first in Liverpool and afterwards in London; he wrote a most able reply to a paper of Dr. Ferriar, in the Manchester Philosophical Memoirs, upon the Brain as the Organ of Perception ; which reply was not admitted

into the Memoirs, but published separately. d. Samuel Girle, m. Shields-Lancaster, &c. ; removed to London,

and preached as an occasional supply. d. John Kings, m.

Browsgrove-Fairford-Cirencester. d. Astley Meanley, in. Stannington.

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