Imágenes de páginas

in the midst of corn harvest, which is just about this time, Varro placing it between the 26th of June and the 26th of July. These he represents as so violent, as to tear up and lav waste every thing in “their progress, even rooting up the corn itself, and attended with an

immenfe deluge of rain. The storm likewise described by Virgil, which wrecked part of the fleet of Æneas, is related by him to bave happened nearly in the fame feas with that mentioned by Polybius, and much resembles the hurricanes of hot climates, as being * sudden in its rise t, violent in its effects t, and soon over. Modern information, at least what I have seen, agrees herein with the an. cient. Abbè Toaldo o, in a journal of the weather at Venice for the year 1755, mentions two whirlwinds, and a violent storm resembling that described by Virgil, that happened that year in the months of June and July. This is the only modern Italian journal

of the weather that I have seen. It is probable that in the more - southerly parts of Italy, these aërial disturbances happen more fre

quently, as they are observed to be more common, as well as violent, in hot climates.'

An attempt to divide the year into months, marked by nao tural occurrences, according to a plan proposed by Mr. Stil lingfleet, follows. This resembles, in some measure, the new French calendar; but is less exact in days; for an accurate din vision of time is not required.-We shall select a specimen: 6 DIVISION OF THE YEAR INTO MONTHS, MARKED OUT


"MONTH 1. • From the first laying of eggs by hens, to the blowing of the vest wind; viz. from January the first, to February the fith.

Sublime expulsam cruerent : ita turbine nigro
Ferret hyems culmumque levem, ftipula que volantes.
Sæpe etiam immensum cælo venit agmen aquarum,
Et fædam glomerant tempeftatem imbribus atris
Collecta ex alto nubes : ruit arduus æther,
E: pluvia ingenti fata læta boumque labores
Diluit ; implentur fosfæ, et cava flumina crescunt
Cum fonitu; fervetque fretis fpirantibus æquor. Vir. Georg. 1. 316.

-yenti, velut agmine facto,
Qua data purta, ruunt, et terras curbine perfant. Virg. Eneid. L. I.
Eripinut fubito nubes cælumque, diemque
Teucrorum ex oculis : ponto nox incubat atra. *
Intonuere poli, et crebris nicat ignibus æther; .

Præfentemque viris intentant omnia mortem. Ibid..,,
ut dicto citius tumida æquora placat :

Colleetalque fugat nubes, folemque reducit. Ibid. . . From the description of it, it appears to have been of the nature of a whirl. wind, many op ofite winds being described as blowing at the same time.

'Una Eurufjue Norusque ruunt creberque procelis . .com

Ibidem. i Saggio Vietcorologico. Quarto, Padoua, 1770.


"MONTH, 2. • From the blowing of the west wind, to the appearance of the swallow ; viz. from February the fifth, to February the twentyc third.


: 'MONTH 3. From the arrival of the swallow, to the free exit of bees from their hives ; viz. from February the twenty-third, to March the · twenty-fourth.


"MONTH 4. • From the free exit of bees from their hives, to the arrival of the stork; or from March the twenty-fourth, to May the seventh.'

The others are the fruiting, ripening, reaping, sowing, maturing, shedding, decaying winter, and dead winter months.

Next follow an account of the seasons at Aleppo and Nice, from Dr. Russell and Dr. Smollet; tables of the time of wheat harvest, in different parts of Italy, published by Dr. Symonds in the Annals of Agriculture; of the foliation of trees in this country for several years, from the Gentleman's Magazine; of the leafing and flowering of some trees and plants in Italy in 1768 and 1769, by Dr. Symonds, from the Annals of Agriculture. Two rustic calendars, yet remaining engraven on stone at Rome, next occur, taken from Gruter's inscriptions; and this is followed by a table of hours for every month in the year, taken from Palladius. This last is a fingular relic: it consists of a particular number of feet, corresponding to each hour in different months, and is supposed to be intended to inform the husbandman of the time of the day, by measuring with his foot the proportion, which the length of

that bears to the length of the shadow of his own person. “ The numbers answer tolerably well in this way; for, though

the heights of different persons vary, the length of the foot varies nearly in the same proportion.

Next follows a table of the days, on which the fun enters into the different signs of the Zodiac, according to the Roman, Grecian, Constantine, Prolomaic, and modern computations. A comparative table of the rainy days, in each month, in different countries; a table of the quantity of rain which falls in different places of Italy, compared with Great Britais, averaged in different places from observations of many



years. Six places in England • average 28{ inches nearly : in Italy, the fix least rainy places average 36 inches; the Gx, most rainy, 531 inches.

The two next tables, or dictionaries, are the most extenqve and important of the whole collection. The first contains the Greek names, with those of Caspar Bauhine, Linnæus, and the English names : the second contains the Linnäan names, with the corresponding ones of the Greek authors, and Bauhine. These glossaries are of the highest importance to the medical student, 'who, from the Greek writers, might employ medicines of the same name, but very dissimilar propere ties—We know a physician of considerable abilities, who wrote a commentary on an antient medical author, without knowing that such a work as Caspar Bauhine's existed--Pudet hæc opprobria, etc. These glossaries might furnish some subject of Temark; it is, however, sufficient to observe, that we have discovered no material error. We perceive many marks of found judgment and accurate research. The modern travellers, who have discovered fome of the plants in their old station, are particularly mentioned.

the higher authors,

who, from

** A Picturesque Tour through Part of Europe, Afia and Africa:

"containing many new Remarks on the present State of Society,
Remains of ancient Edifices, &c. with Plates, after. Designs
by James Stuart, Eją. Written by an Italian Gentleman.
* Small 4to. 155. Boards. Fauldes. 1793.
THIS ingenious foreigner has improperly used the word

piclure que in his title-page; for in works of that denomi. nation the prints ought either to be very numerous, or the descriptions to relate chieiy to picturesque beauty. The present work is in truth only a small sketch of a tour through some few parts, or rather skirts, of the three continents; with five charming prints of Athenian subjects, from drawings of the late Mr. Stuart, author of the Antiquities of Athens: and one supernumerary print of the Naumachie at Palermo, copied from that of Howel in his Voyage Pittorefque.

We shall begin with the five prints, which form the chief charm of this elegant little work. It is difficult to say whether the drawer or engraver (chiefly Barret) have most merit, but a more exquisite little set we never beheld. No order is marked in our copy, and there is no advertisement to inform the readers how the drawings were obtained, but we shall enumerate them as they lie before us.

* We averaged the five obfervations in London, and reckoned it. as une

jt place.

2. View

o large, apparoking on a the garden

1. View of the Temple of the Winds at Athens. The : Acropolis forms a sublime back-ground. The children at play, • the women, the spirited horses, the startled girl clinging to her , mother, the richness of the architecture and scenery are ex

tremely pleasing. . 2. A View of the Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens.

The figures, architecture, and scenery, excellent, though not equal to the former.

3. The Monument of Lysicrates, commonly called the LanThorn of Demosthenes, at Athens. This stands in the garden of a monastery, and a monk is fitting looking on a skull: but the head of the monk is too large, apparently the fault of the engraver, Porter.

4. Howel's View of the Naumachium at Palermo.

5. The Ionic Temple on the Iliflus at Athens, built of white marble, vulgarly called St. Mary on the Rock Turks hunting. Beautiful in all its parts, though not so highly finished as some of the others.

6. A View of the Doric Portico at Athens in its present state. The cranes with their nests, the Turks and Europeans, the exquisite antique figure of the Greek girl at the fountain, enrich this little print. · A's to the work itself, it consists of fifty-three short and superficial letters, on the coasts of the Mediterranean: and is amusing, but without the smallest claim to information or instruction. , This being the season of light summer reading, a few extracts shall be given. From Argentiera, an ille in the Archipelago, our author writes thus:

These people are all failors, and the greater part excellent pilots. Besides their own language, they speak Italian, French, and even English. The women knit cotton stockings, with which they supply the neighbouring islands. Their natural sprightliness, added to a desire of disposing of their commodities, made them so familiar, that several of them took us by the arm, and presled us to go home with them. This behaviour has given rise to a report, that their virtue is not proof against seduction, which indeed I understand to be so far true, when they are enabled by the sale of it to procure the price of an absolution, the refusal of which they consider as a great calainity. In general they are neither handsome nor ugly ; they have a great deal of embonpoint, and very thick legs, which they esteem a beauty, and, to increase their natural size, they wear several pairs of stockings. Their dress is curious and neat: over a shirt, which buttons down the breast, and descends to the middle of the leg, they put a gilt waistcoat with a red boxer, which, while it confines the breast, does not hinder it from rising: to this they add a sort of handkerchief which floats behind; they wear white stock

.. ings, ings, and little boots, with yellow Morocco slippers, and turbans of various forts.

• All the children of the village arked us for paras, a Turkilla coin worth about three farthings. The country is truly wreiched: nevertheless great crimes are rare in it. : " The inhabitants pay an annual tribute to the grand signior of

five piastres per head, which amounts nearly to a crown. The women and priests, it seems, are not computed in this capitation.'

Sometimes our traveller's account presents neither grammar nor sense, e. gr. p. 34. ' The hundred and fifty columns of the building, manufactured with a lapidary's wheel, were sufpended from a peculiar machine, and might be turned by a child.' In p. 125, Isambul is put by our learned author as the Turkish name of Conftantinople, and derived from Islam, faith ; instead of Istambul, the name given by all former tra. vellers.

The following extract is from a letter, dated Constantinople, Dec. 1788:

«The true' believers have lately celebrated the birth-day of their prophet; and there have been every night luperb illuminations in all the minarets. As the grand signior intended to go in state to one of the mosques, we went and secured places, early, that we see him pass. You cannot imagine what numbers of people were in the ftreets, and at the windows. · Among the spectators were several poor perfons, who seemed to entertain no bad opinion of us, for they came in crowds to folicit our charity. A great concourse now gathered round us, some of whom viewed us from head to foot, examined our dress, and then burft into a fit of laughter. Others extended their curiosity so far as to touch us, and to lay hold of our sticks, and we were then obliged to have recourse to the janissary to send them away. It was a long time before the grand fignior made his appearance, but the people waited for hiin with great patience. At last the janislaries appeared, followed by the ciocacars, the public officers, the principal men of the court, the mufti; the kaimakan, the killar aga, or chief of the black cunchs, and two dwarfs ; these were all on horseback, and advanced ewo by two, to the number of four hundred. In the middle of this cavalcede appeared the grand fignior magnificently drefled; his turban was enriched with a fuperb aigrette of diamonds. He is near fixty years of age, and has a majestic figure, which inspires respect, without exciting fear. As he passed, all the spectators bowed very low, and observed a profound filence. He was followed by two of his children; one of them, who had a filk umbrella, turned towards us feveral times, and gazed at us with an air of wonder and surprise. Next came a man, who threw away money; and the chief of the black eunuchs,

C. R. N. AR. (XI.) June, 1794.


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