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wrote his “Inquiry into the Freedom of the Will.” In 1758 he was installed as president of Princeton College, of which his son-in-law, Aaron Burr, had been president. Here he died of small-pox after a residence of a few weeks.
1727, March 20. - The New England Weekly Journal, the fourth newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts, appeared.
It was published by Samuel Kneeland. In 1741 it was united with the Gazette, and was discontinued in 1752.
1727. — The provisions of the clause in the Navigation Act of 1663, referring to the importation of salt and wine, were ex. tended also to Pennsylvania, and subsequently to New York.
1727. – William Parks, at Annapolis, printed “a complete collection of the laws of Maryland," and began the issue of the Maryland Gazette at Annapolis, the first newspaper in Maryland.
lle continued it until 1736, when he went to Virginia to establish a newspaper there. In 1745 it was revived by Jonas Green. With the exception of a short period, at the passage of the Stamp Act, it continued in the hands of Mr. Green, and of his descendants, until in 1839 it was discontinued, and the St. Mary's Gazette took its place. A file of it is in the Maryland State Library.
1727. – William Gouch was appointed governor of Virginia. Drysdale had died.
1727. - Burnet was removed from the governorship of New York, and made governor of Massachusetts.
He had built this year a fort at Oswego, partly at his own expense.
1727. — The assembly of New Hampshire disputed the title of Massachusetts to the lands that colony claimed.
Both of the provinces made grants freely in it in order to induce settlers.
1727.— It was granted to the Episcopalians of Massachusetts that the tax assessed on them for the support of the ministers might be devoted to the support of their own clergy.
1727. — The planters of South Carolina agreed to pay no taxes.
They claimed to be unable to do so from the want of any money in circulation, and desired a further issue of bills of credit. Allen, the chief justice, having refused a writ of habeas corpus for a councillor named Smith, who had been active in getting up this association, a party of about two hundred and fifty planters rode into Charleston, and set him free. They presented at the same time a statement of their grievances. A special session of the assembly was called by the council. It impeached the chief justice, and quarrelled with the council, adjourned on its own authority, and, when summoned again, refused to appear.
1727. - A NEW assembly in New Hampshire limited its existence and that of its successors to three years.
It also gave all owners of a freehold of fifty pounds in the election district, whether residents or not, the right to vote for members of the assembly. To be a representative required a freehold six times as large. The council appointed by the king consisted of twelve members, and served as a court of appeals.
1728. — THERE was another paper-mill in operation at Elizabethtown, New Jersey, at this time.
The date of its erection is not known, but at this time it came into the possession of William Bradford, then government printer for the province of New York, who resided here for some time.
1728, MAY. -- Joseph Higby, of Simsbury, Connecticut, petitioned the general court for a monopoly for twenty years of practising the business or trade of steel making."
His petition states that he had," with great pains and cost, found out and obtained a curious art, by which to convert, change, or transmit common iron into good steel, sufficient for any use, and was the very first that ever performed such an operation in America.” He was granted a patent for ten years, provided he brought the art to " any good and reasonable perfection, within two years."
1728, JUNE. — The Rhode Island assembly created a third bank, or loan of forty thousand pounds.
The loan was to run for thirteen years. The first bank had been renewed at the expiration of the term of ten years originally, and was now extended three more; and the same course was followed with the second bank.
1728. - On the 13th of September the general court of Massachusetts granted the privilege for ten years of a paper-mill to Daniel Henchman, Gillam Phillips, Benjamin Faneuil, Thomas Hancock, and Henry Dering.
The conditions of this privilege were, that in the first fifteen months they were to make one hundred and fifty reams of brown paper and sixty reams of printingpaper; and the next year to make fifty additional reams and afterwards twentyfive reams of superior writing-paper additional. The whole yearly production to be not less than five hundred reams. The mill was erected in Milton, near Boston, on the Neponset River, below the head of tide-water, so that for six hours out of the twenty-four its operation was suspended. An Englishman, named Henry Woodman, was employed as foreman; and as they furnished the legislature in 1731 with a sample of the paper they made, the mill was probably built the year before. Henchman, who seems to have been one of the chief promoters, was a bookseller and publisher in Boston.
1728. -- In December of this year, Samuel Keimer, in Philadelphia, commenced the issue of The Universal Instructor in all Arts and Sciences, and Pennsylvania Guzette, the second newspaper issued in Pennsylvania.
SAMUEL Kelver had just established the second press in Philadelphia in 1723, when Benjamin Franklin made his first visit there at seventeen years of age. Franklin found Keimer setting up an elegy upon a young printer, named Aquilla Rose, which he was composing mentally at the same time. He gave Franklin employment. Having eventually sold out his business, he went to Barbadoes and established the Barbadoes Gazette, the first paper published in the Caribbee Islands. Keimer died in 1738.
Keimer sold his paper to Benjamin Franklin before he had carried it on a year. On the 28th of September, 1729, Franklin condensed the title of the paper to the Pennsylvania Gazette, and it continued under his management until 1765. After changing its name to the Philadelphia Gazette, ceasing to appear from 1802 to 1804, again changing to Rolf's Gazette in November 3, 1945, it was merged with the North American, and ended its career of, one hundred and seventeen years.
1728. - LUYKAS HOOG KERCH was granted, on petition, by the city of Albany, New York, a lease of two acres “ upon yo gallohill
, adjoining and near a small run of water, for ye term of fifty years, for ye use of a Brick-kiln and plain, provided he and his heirs and assigns pay therefor to the Freemen of the city, twelve shillings yearly and every year, and he doth not stop the Roads and passes."
It was the custom in Albany to grant such leases.
1728. - Four furnaces are said to have been in operation in Pennsylvania.
1728. — THE council of South Carolina wrote to the Duke of Newcastle that "the government was reduced to the lowest extremity," " that the royal prerogative was openly trampled on," and they were insulted by the delegates within doors and the tumult without."
1728. — THE Baptists and Quakers in Massachusetts were allowed to pay over, for the use of their own clergy, the minis. terial tax collected from them.
1728. — The schoolmasters in Maryland were required by the assembly to teach gratis as many poor children as the visitors of the schools should direct.
1728. — The general court of Massachusetts made an issue of fifty thousand pounds in bills of credit.
Dummer, the lieutenant-governor then in authority, had to sign it, though against his instructions, as the only means of getting his salary.
1728. — The population of Canada was about thirty thousand, Quebec having five.
Most of the officers of the government were established there. The administration was vested in a governor, an intendant, and a supreme council. The custom of Paris was the law of New France. The chief trade was in furs. By an edict of Louis XIV., the nobles in Canada could engage in this trade without injury to their nobility; but it was chiefly in the hands of the middle class of Montreal and Quebec. The lands on the banks of the St. Lawrence were held by feudal tenure as seigniories; their cultivators were known as habitans, and were generally better off than lords, who looked chiefly to places in the state, or office in the army, for their incomes. Sufficient coarse linen manufactories were established to supply the local demand.
1729, APRIL. - Burnet, the governor of Massachusetts, called the general court at Salem, and in August adjourned them to Cambridge.
The dispute concerning the governor's salary had lasted for years. The successive governors had been instructed to demand a permanent salary of a thou
sand pounds, but the general court preferred to vote the salary yearly. This dispute having commenced, other subjects arose, and both parties appealed to the authorities in England. In the midst of the discussion Burnet died, and Belcher, who had been sent by the general court to London as their agent, was appointed to the position.
1729, OCTOBER. — The assembly of Rhode Island passed an act forbidding practising lawyers from being deputies.
The act was repealed at the next session, but was afterwards repassed.
1729, NOVEMBER. - The Natchez Indians attacked the French settlement at Fort Rosalie.
Two hundred of the settlers were massacred. The slaves, being unmolested, in some cases joined the Indians. This attack caused great fear at New Orleans, both of insurrection of the slaves and Indian hostilities.
1729. – BALTIMORE, Maryland, was laid out as a town.
1729. — In Salem, New Jersey, the court made a rule prescrib. ing the price and quantity of drink to be sold in the county.
“For each nib of punch, made with double refined sugar and one gill and a half of rum, nine pence; for each nib made with single refined sugar, and one gill and a half of rum, eight pence; for each nib made with Muscavado sugar etc. seven pence; for each quart of tiff, made with half a pint of rum in the same, nine pence; for each pint of wine, one shilling; for each gill of rum, for each quart of strong beer, four pence; for each gill of brandy, or cordial dram, six pence;
for each quart of metheglin, nine pence; for each quart of cider, four pence. For a hot dinner, eight pence; for breakfast or supper, six pence. Two quarts of oats, three pence; stabling and good hay, each night, six pence; pasture, six pence.”
1729. – Two hundred and fifty-five casks, of seven bushels each, of flaxseed, were this year exported from Philadelphia.
They were valued at one pound thirteen shillings a cask.
1729. - William PARKS, who introduced the printing-press into Maryland, in this year set up the first press in Virginia, at Williamsburg, and this year printed Stith's History of Virginia, and the Colonial Laws.
William Parks was for some time public printer for both Virginia and Maryland, having, it is said, an allowance of two hundred pounds from each province.
1729.- CONNECTICUT and New Hampshire passed laws allow. ing the various sects to apply the ministerial tax to the support of their own clergy.
1729. — Seven of the eight proprietors of Carolina relinquished to the crown for a certain sum; the eighth, Lord Carteret, sur. rendered his right of jurisdiction, but retained his interest in the soil.
The amount paid was seventeen thousand five hundred pounds, and five thousand more for arrears in quit-rents, estimated at nine thousand pounds. Lord
Carteret's proportion was set off for him next to the Virginia line, which had been recently surveyed as far west as the Blue Ridge.
1729. - When the news arrived of the sale of Carolina to the crown, the governor of North Carolina, Everard, made large grants of land, without stipulation of price, or reserving any quitrent, and the assembly made an issue of forty thousand pounds in bills of credit.
1729. — The king in council confirmed the law of inheritance in Connecticut, by which daughters with sons were joint heirs, and lands were distributed equally, the eldest son having a double share.
This was the law in New England, as well as in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.
1730. — ELEAZER PHILLIPS, of Boston, this year set up the first press in Charleston, South Carolina.
The colonial government of the province had offered a reward of a thousand pounds to any printer who would settle in the province. Three printers went there in consequence, and the next year Phillips obtained the appointment of public printer, but died soon after.
1730. — An act was passed in Pennsylvania to increase the issue of bills of credit to seventy-five thousand pounds.
It also provided for its reissue, so that this amount should be kept in circulation for ten years. The proprietaries consented to this issue on condition of receiving an equivalent for their loss in quit-rents from the depreciation of the paper money, and instructed the governor to consent to no more issues. The dependence of the colonies upon foreign trade was the chief cause of the depreciation of their bills of credit. The widow of Penn having died, the sovereignty of the province was reunited, under Penn's will, in his three sons (John, Thomas, and Richard) by his second wife. The eldest son had a double share.
1730. — The dispute concerning his salary continued with the general court of Massachusetts and the new governor, Belcher.
1730. — The assembly of Pennsylvania passed an “act for continuing the encouragement for raising hemp, and imposing penalties on persons manufacturing unmerchantable hemp into cordage."
A bounty of three halfpence a pound was granted by the assembly in addition to that allowed by parliament.
1730.— The first shipment of hemp from the colonies to Eng. land was made this year.
It consisted of five thousand pounds raised in New England, and three hundred pounds raised in Virginia. Besides these, raw silk, some iron, copper ore, and beeswax from Virginia were the first instalments of new products.
1730.- The French in Louisiana, with the assistance of the friendly Choctaws, defeated the Natchez Indians.
The prisoners taken were sent to St. Domingo, and sold as slaves.