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A READY-REFERENCE CALENDAR.

For ascertaining any day of the week for any given time within two hundred years from the introduction of

the New Style, *I752 to 1942 inclusive.

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ECLIPSES.

There will be three eclipses in 1908, and all t the sun, as follows:

1. Total, Jan. 3. Visible only as a small par ial eclipse near sunset in the southern and southwestern part of the United States. Invisible orth of Omaha and east of a line from Omaha lrough Chattanooga to St. Augustine. West of lis line and to one from Omaha through Salina, ias., to Eagle Pass, Tex., the sun will set more p less eclipsed on its southern limb, and west f this line to one from Omaha to Phoenix, Ariz., le eclipse will end just before sunset. The path f the total phase extends from San Jose. Costa .lea, across the Pacific through the Gilbert and larshall groups of islands.

2. Annular, June 28. Visible as a partial clipse on the southern limb throughout the Unlti States except in Florida. The path of the nnular or ring phase crosses the peninsula of

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The famous "Monroe doctrine" was enunciated y President Monroe in his message to congress »ec. 2, 1823. Referring to steps taken to arrange ie respective rights of Russia, Great Britain and le United States on the northwest coast of this antinent, the president went on to say: "In the discussions to which this Interest has iven rise, and in the arrangements by which they lay terminate, the occasion has been deemed roper for asserting, as a principle in which the ghts and interests of the United States are Iniilved, that the American continents, by the free nd independent condition which they have asnmed and maintain, are henceforth not to be conidered as subjects for future colonization by any luropean power. * * * We owe it, therefore, :> candor and to the amicable relations existing

between the United States and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the governments who have declared their independence and maintain it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any Interposition for the purpose of oppressing them or controlling In any other manner their destiny by any Europtan power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States."

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Apr. 1

May

- 12 19 21 25 23 31 June 1

Aspect.

Ceotral
time,

h. m.

Dist'nce

apart.

dee.min.

Earth nearest sun

Total eclipse sun

Uranus conjunction moon Uranus conjunction sun... Neptune opposition sun... Venus conjunction moon.. Saturn conjunction moon Mars conjunction moon... Mercury conjunction sun.. Neptune conjunction moon Jupiter conjunction moon..

Mars in ascendingnode

Jupiter opposition to sun. Uranus conjunction moon Mercury conjunction moon Venus conjunction moon. Saturn conjunction moon Marscoujunction moon.. Venus conjunction Saturn. Neptune conjunction moon Mercury gr. elong, E. of sun

Mercury in perihelion

Jupiter conjunction moon
Mercury stationary.... —
Uranus conjunction moon
Venus in ascending node..
Mercury conjunction sun.
Saturn conjunction moon..
Venus conjunction moon..
Mars conjunction moon...
J upiter conjunction moon..
Sun enters T spring begins.
Saturn conjunction sun.. .
Uranus conjunction moon.
Mercury gr. elong, W .of O

Mercury in aphelion

Mercury conjunction moon

Jupiter stationary

Saturn conjunction moon..

Venus in perihelion

Quadrature Neptune pun.. Venus conjunction moon. .

Mars conjunction moon

Venus conjunction Mars...

Quadature Uranus sun

Jupiter conjunction moon.. Mercury conj. Saturn.

Uranus stationary

Uranus conjunction moon. Jupiter quadrature sua... Venus gr. elong. from sun. Saturn conjunction moon. Mercury conjunction moon Mars conjunction moon.. Venus conjunction moon Neptune conjunction moon Jupiter conjunction moon.. Mercury conjunction sun ..

Mercury in perihelion

Uranusconjunction moon.

Venus conj. Neptune

Saturn conjunction moonVenus greatest brilliancy.. Mercury conjunction moon

Mars conjunction moon

Neptune conjunction moon Venus conjunction moon.. Jupiter conjunction moon Mercury conjunction Mars Mercury gr. elong. from sun

Mercury conj. Neptune

Mars conjunction Neptune

Venus stationary

Uranusconjunction moon. Mercury conjunction Mars. Venus in descending nodeMercury stationary

Sun enters®summer begins Saturn conjunction moon.. Venus conjunction Mars... Annular eclipse sun, visible Venus conjunction moon... Mars conjunction moon

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Jupiter conjunction moon. Saturn quadrature sun.. .. Earth farthest from sun...

Venus conj. Neptune

Mercury conjunction sun..

Venus conjunction sun

Uranus opposition sun

Mercury conjunction Venus Saturn conjunction moon Venus conjunction moonMercury gr. elong. from sun

Venus stationary

Mars conjunction moon... Jupiter conjunction moon Uranus conjunction moon, Venus greatest brilliancy.. Mars conjunction J upiter.. Saturn conjunction moon.. Jupiter conjunction sun—

Mercury conj. Jupiter

Mercury conjunction sun. Mercury conjunction Mars

Mars conjunction sun

Venus conjunction moon... Neptune conjunction moon

Venus conj. Neptune

Jupiter conjunction moon
Mars conjunction moon..

Mars in aphelion

Urnaus conjunction moon.. Saturn conjunction moon Venus gr. elong. from sun.. Neptune conjunction moon Venus conjunction moon...

Uranus stationary

Jupiter conjunction moon. Sunenters - autumn begins

Mars conjunction moon

Mercury conjunction moon

Saturn opposition sun

Uranus conjunction moon. Mercury gr.elong. from sun Uranus quadrature sun... Saturn conjunction moon. Venus in ascending node.. Neptune quadrature sun... Venus conjunction Jupiter. Neptune conjunction moon Jupiter conjunction moon. Venus conjunction moonMars conjunction moon

Mercury conjunction sun.. Uranusconjunction moon.

Mercuryin perihelion

Saturn conjunction moon.

Mercury stationary

Venus in perihelion

Neptune conj unction moon Mercury gr.elong. fromsun Jupiter conjunction moon. Venus conjunction moon..

Mars conjunction moon

Mercury conjunction moon Uranusconjunction moon Venus conjunction Mars.. Saturn conjunction moon. Venus greatest hel. lat. N..

Jupiter quadrature sun

Saturn stationary

Mercury in descend'g node. Neptune conjunction moon Jupiter conjunction moon..

Mercury in aphelion

Mars conjunction moon

Venus conj unction moon... Sun enters -6 winter begins Mercury conjunction moon

Sun eclipsed—invisible

Mercury conjunction sun.. Uranusconjunction moon.

Saturn quadrature sun

Saturn conjunction moon.. Jupiter stationary

Central
Time,
h. m.

Dist'nce

apart,

deg.min.

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Note—The above positions are as seen from the center of the earth, but are sufficiently exact for all places on its surface.

THE PLANETS.

MERCURY will be brightest:

1. As an evening star east of the sun, Feb. 8-12 and Oct. 10-15, setting about lh. 15m. after the sun, being farthest east of tlie sun Feb. 13, 18°, and Oct. 4, 25°.

2. As a morning star west of the 3un, March 18-24 and Nov. 8-15, rising about lh. 15m. before the sun, being farthest west of the sun March 27. 28°, and Nov. 13. 10°.

Mercury will appear and disappear on the horizon not very far from the sunrise or sunset points and the observer will be quite apt to be right In locating him when the reddest body in the vicinity where .Mercury ought to be is selected. The steady red light of this planet is not mistakable for that of another planet or the twinkling light of a star.

VENUS will be brightest as an evening star May 29 and as a morning star Aug. 11. At the beginning of the year she will be an evening star and so remain until July 5. after which she will be a morning star the remainder of the year. On the 5th of July Venus will be in conjunction with the sun (inferior); that is, she will pass directly between the earth and the sun. Venus in the course of her orbit about the sun presents all the phases of the moon to us of the earth.

These phases are easily seen by the aid of a small telescope or good field glass, as in the annexed figures:

Towards the Sun

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A—Fifteen days after superior conjunction, or May

5, 1909. B—At greatest elongation west. Sept. 14, 1908. C—When brightest as a morning star, Aug. 11,

1908. D—Just after Inferior conjunction, or July 15, 1908. E—Fifteen days before superior conjunction, April

20, 1909. F—At greatest elongation east, April 26, 190S. G—When brightest as an evening star. May 29,

1008. II—Just before inferior conjunction. June 25. 100^.

The great difference in the apparent size or diameter of the Venus in A and E as compared with D and H is because of the vastly greater distance she is from us at her superior conjunction. When seen as a crescent as D or H she will be nearer to us by nearly the diameter of the earth's orbit than when appearing as A or E. When she appears like I) or H she will be only about 25,000.000 miles from us and when like A or E siie will be 160,000.000 miles distant or about six times as far. Her apparent diamet <■■>*• SITUATION OF THE PLANETS FOR THE SUNT) A

actually increases about sixfold under these changed conditions:

VENUS' PATH AMONG THE STARS—At the beginning of the year she will be in the first part of the constellation Capricornus and by Feb. 15 she will have advanced eastward through two signs, Capricornus and Aquarius. On March 10 she will pass from Pisces to Aries. On April 4 she will be In that most beautiful group, the Pleiades, or seven stars, or seven sisters, and only 1° 35' south of the lucida of the groupAlcyone. Shu moves ou past and north of the Hyades, through Taurus, and when at her brightest. May 29, she will be two-thirds through Gemini and only 4° south of the brilliant star Pollux, the companion of Castor, when she will appear as In G. From May 29 the rate of her movement past the stars decreases rapidly until on June 13. wheu she becomes stationary for a time and then retrogrades or moves westward past the stars back to near the western margin of Gemini and then on July 2i becomes stationary again. On Sept. 5 she enters Cancer. On Oct. 6 she will be only about three-fourths of one degree south of the brilliant star Regulus, in tue end of the handle of the sickle in Leo. On Nov. 1 she crosses the equinoctial colure and enters the constellation Virgo. On Nov. 20 she will be only 3° to the north of the brilliant star Spica. Siie will enter Libra Nov. 15 and Scorpio Dec. 20. During the closing days of the year she will be a close companion to the red star Antares. She will then have completed the circuit of the zodiac lacking about one and one-half signs. See table of planets for time of rising and setting.

MARS does not reach his greatest brilliancy in 1908. He will not again be near enough to be conspicuous until the latter part of 1909, when lie will be a little nearer than in 1907. after which he becomes dimmer and dimmer at eacn succeeding opposition for fifteen years. He is an evening star until Aug. 22 and after that a morning star. See the following table for his place in the zodiac each month and the planetary table for his rising and setting.

JUPITER will be brightest Jan. 29. This is the time when all superior planets are brigntest. Then they are directly opposite the sun ("'opposition"), rising at sunset, setting at sunrise and passing the meridian at midnight. Jupiter retrogrades or moves backard (westward) until March 29, then advances the remainder of the year, Doing in Cancer until Sept. 10. and after that in Leo On Sept. 5 he will be very close to the brilliant Regulus. being only one-third of one degree north of that star. See table of planets for rising and setting. Jupiter will be an evening star until Aug. 17, then a morning star to Dec. 5, and then again an evening star the balance of the year.

SATURN will be brightest Sept. 30 as an evening star. He begins the year as an evening star and so continues until March 20; then a morning star until July 1, then an evening star the remainder of the year. He Is In an uninteresting quarter of the heavens among the stars of Aquarius and Pisces.

URANUS will be brightest July 7. being only barely visible to the nuked eye when brig' t st.

NEPTUNE will be brightest Jan. 5 and then

invisible except with the aid of a good telescope.

YS: ALSO THE MOON'S POSITION FOR THE YEAR.

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Explanation—To ascertain wben any star or constellation will be on the upper meridian add the numbers opposite in the column ""For meridian passage" to the figures in the column "Sidereal noon" In the calendar pages. Note whether the figures be "morn" or "eve."* If "morn" and the sum be more than twelve hours the result will be evening of the same day. If "eve" and the sum be more than twelve hours the result will be morning of the next day. Having found the time of meridian passage, for the rising subtract and for the setting add the numbers opposite the name of the star in the column headed "For rising and setting." observing the directions as to "morn" and "eve" as given above. Those

Sidereal noon. November 5, 9 00 p. m.
Antares in "meridian" col. add 16 20

25 20
Subtract 24 00

1 20 p.m. of the 6th — * Light or dark. meridian passage.

Declination of Antares = 26° north; therefore 90° — 26° = 64° — 42° = 22° = the altitude of Antares in lat. of Chicago at the time of the meridian passage of that star.

To measure celestial distances with the eye

stars marked — in the last column are cireumpolar and neither rise nor set in the lutitude of Chicago.

To tell how high up from the nearest point of the horizon a star will be at its meridian passage subtract the declination of the star from 90s. If the result is less than the latitude of the place of the observer that star will neither rise nor set, but is circumpolar, and the difference between that result and the latitude shows the star's altitude above the north point of the horizon or below the southern horizon. Thus, (90° — dec) — lat. = alt. or elevation of the star above the nearest point of the horizon at meridian passage, for stars of a south declination. Examples:

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