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until a robin began to sing. That made her think the dream wasn't true. She peeped to see; everything was all right after all; but as she opened her eyes, two big tears rolled out of them and sell splash right in o the old stone's face.
That very morning a sad thing happened; a little girl on her way to school saw Buttercup bowing to her as she was passing, and stooped down to look into Buttercup's face. Before anybody had time to think, Buttercup found herself in Kiitie Kyle's hand, and going alor the road towards the school-house. Kittie was a gentle little girl, and fond of flowers. She kissed Buttercup again and again. At last Buttercup found herself on a desk near the strangest companions! There were a sheet of paper, a queer little flat box with colored things in it, and just over the aisle she saw a tin box with little cakes and a glass of water. She longed for a drink, she was so thirsty; but just then Kitty began to do something curious, and Buttercup was all attention. Taking the colored things from the box, Kiitie began making Buttercup's picture on the paper. She drew the green stem, and the little leaflet, then one yellow petal, and another and another and another, until just as Buttercup felt herself falling, falling -- was she going to die? -- she saw herself on the paper as pretty as could be. Little Buttercup on the desk died, but Little Buttercup on the paper lived. Not long afterward Kittie gave Buttercup to her drawing teacher, and her drawing teacher gave Buttercup to a man who took her on long journeys down by the sea, and up into the hills; and everywhere people said, “What a pretty Little Buttercup!”just as though it were Little Buttercup's first self.
One day Little Buttercup was taken off the paper and placed on a card, and the card was sent to a great city far away; and there she was taken off the card and put on a block of metal; then from the metal she was put upon paper again, and the paper was sent to this very town, and you can see Little Buttercup right here in this very room if you look in the right place! Then Little Buttercup will be in your own little mind and you will always remember her, always keep her there, won't you? Always? Always? Are you sure? If you do, Little Buttercup will live on and on, perhaps until the dull old stone is no more, and there is no little star to call to him with a voice like a silver bell.
Tell them how the lotus has lived, though it grows no longer in Egypt. Show them that men draw flowers to-day to ornament clothes and books and all sorts of things. Then let's play that we are building a house for our best doll, and must have wall paper and draperies; and dolly must have pretty dresses, and we will play designer and manufacturer, “and everything," as the children always add, when they are excited.
Design is easy when children are interested, when it comes to them as a problem connected with the life they are living, when it is carried out on a child scale.
“ Come, let us live with our children.”
They stole along the fence, One merry summer day, They clambered up the wall; Two roses were at play; Climbed into my chamber All at once they took a notion window, They would like to run away. Making me a morning call. Queer little roses,
Queer little roses, Funny little roses,
Funny little roses, Queer little roses
Queer little roses To want to run away.
To make a morning call.
The Missing Numbers
(Miss Tait deserves the thanks of every primary teacher for this glimpse at her exhibit. — Ed.)
E. M. TAIT
was a blackboard nineteen feet long. This was cov-
easily pinned. There was a border of drawings tied with lavender baby ribbon. These drawings had been saved from their daily work and were on common yellow drawing paper.
The first panel was of paper folding and cutting mounted on white cardboard, the upper and lower designs being in lavender. The middle one – “ Leaves from our windowgarden"—was of dainty nasturtium leaves, cut freehand from pale green.
A group of writing papers came next; then a design in paper folding mounted on a large square of white cardboard. Under this was pinned a spelling paper from each member of B class.
The next space was devoted to Hiawatha. The memory gems from Hiawatha's Childhood were copied, and an illustration for each gem was copied on white drawing paper. Andrew's tent illustrated
“ At the door on summer eve." Jessie's bird rested near
“ Then the little Hiawatha
Learned of every bird its language." Alis reindeer recalled
" Why the reindeer ran so swiftly,” while the colored pencils illustrated
“ Saw the rainbow in the heavens,"
May has three threes and that is fine ; Maud has three more than nine.
They received two sticks for each word they could tell, Two sticks for each word and they worked right well. How many had each without a doubt,
а If they told every word in the rhymes left out?
Designs and borders of squares and triangles formed the The A spelling papers were arranged under the kite. next panel.
Another group of writing papers and a panel of paper The center of attraction was a picture of the children cutting filled our space. taken in the school-room one happy afternoon. This was
The window garden made an attractive center piece for surrounded by language work, illustrated nature stories and
the table. The box was covered with fancy paper and reproduction stories.
paper foldings. The nasturtiums kindly blossomed just in A panel of weather reports separated the language work time, while the peas and beans showed that the stories were
written from nature. from another group of illustrated poems : Come, Little Leaves,” “ Jack-in-the-Pulpit, “ Piccola,” and “The Pasque rough lavender-tinted paper
. The titles were, “ The Bare
Booklets were scattered over the table covered with ” Flower."
foot Boy," "Writing, Sept. '96 — June, '97," “ Original The special joy and pride of the boys was a kite. One Stories," and " Drawing." of them brought the frame, which was covered with white
The teachers had a “bee” one Saturday, and decorated paper on which a large bird was pricked. A narrow border the covers. There were also specimens of peas work and was folded from triangles, and every child folded a fan for forms of life in paper folding were mounted on matting the tail.
paper and could be handled without injury. After the exhibit it was given to the one who brought the The pupils were very much interested in doing their best frame, but as “mamma put it away to keep,” we never found work, and the pleasure of the parents fully repaid the extra out how high it could fly.
effort that it cost.
cleanest of all.” I then spoke of those houses we like so
much to look at, where not only the house, but the lawns MARGARET A. O'BRIEN Chicopee Mass
were kept in order, making a pretty street. Each child I can sympathize with “Country Teacher” and every
thought of his seat as his house, and the floor as his lawn, other teacher who is struggling with the pronunciation of th
and now I have only to suggest that the street cleaner might by our foreign children ; but in my second grade, with a
be necessary on Main Street, and the children, enjoying the large percentage of French pupils, the difficulty is gradually play, see that it does not need any, the next day. disappearing
First, I show that the point of the tongue is pressed against the edge of the upper teeth and that, with the tongue in this
The Spelling Match position, we blow our breath hard against it. I then ask
(Is it pedagogically wrong to give these verses to the children?—ED.) the children for a word beginning with th, telling them that if they pronounce it correctly, I will write it upon the board;
Ten little children standing in a line, each child is eager to have his word written and so tries his
“ F-u-l-y, fully," then there were nine. best to pronounce it distinctly. The little people enjoy giving large words, like Thanks
Nine puzzled faces, fearful of their fate giving, Thursday, thousand, thirty, etc., as well as the small
“C-i-1-l-y, silly," then there were eight. words which play so important a part in our every day reading, - as the, this, they, that, them, etc. I usually get about
Eight pair of blue eyes, bright as stars of heaven, forty words in this way. We then pronounce the whole list
B-u-s-s-y, busy," then there were seven. in concert. Besides the value of the exercise for pronunciation, the
Seven grave heads, shaking in an awful fix. frequent presentation of the words upon the board aids in “ L-a-i-d-y, lady," then there were six. fixing the word forms in the children's minds. I do not know whether this will benefit others or not, but it has
Six eager darlings, determined each to strive, helped my work greatly.
“D-u-i-t-e, duty,” then there were five. Å drill upon words ending in th, as north, south, birth, etc.,— has been conducted in the same manner; also upon
Five hearts so anxious, beating more and more, words in which those letters occur in the middle of the word, “S-C-o-l-l-a-r, scholar," then there were four. -like father, mother, brother, etc.
Four mouths like rosebuds on a red rose tree, “M-e-r-y, merry," then there were three.
One Teacher's Way
Three pairs of pink ears, listening keen and true,
“T-u-r-k-y, turkey," then there were two. LOLA C. HINE What teacher is there who does not sigh as spring comes
Two sturdy laddies, ready both to run, on, “O, if I only knew how to keep this room clean?"
“O-n-l-e-y, only," then there was one. With little folks, leaves and buds will drop; paper scraps will not stay on the desk, and with the returning life of One head of yellow, bright as the sun. spring, the door-mat has not attractions strong enough to "H-e-r-o, hero," the spelling match was won.- Sel. counteract the desire to be out as long as possible in the open air.
We do not wish to keep continually talking about cleanliness, which means, in the abstract, nothing to a child.
“ I sometimes wonder if they ain't no account book of I suggest a device I found helpful : One morning I said little children's trials. Seems to me they ought to be a little to a little boy, “You live on Washington Street in Our heavenly book kep' a-purpose an' 'twouldn't do no harm if Town,'" and to another, “ You live on Main Street.” To earthly fathers and mothes was occasionally allowed to look each aisle I gave a name, and then said, “ Main Street is the
Ruth McEnery Stuart
The University of Chicago has continued work, both on the blackboard and in sand,
on the continent of North America. School
History and Literature. The work on silk has led to Hand Work. In the shop the older pupils have made a
much discussion and writing about China. Sparta has been set of measures out of soft tin. These run in size from one
studied, the laws of Lycurgus, 'the training of Spartan chilto eight cubic inches in capacity and are to be used in the
dren, etc. Papers written on these subjects have been pupils' laboratory experiments in evaporation. The tin, carefully discussed by pupil and teacher and corrections
noted. after being measured and laid out, was shaped over blocks of wood of the desired form and shape. The younger chil- Science: Groups I and II cooked a luncheon making dren have made candlesticks, cake cutters, small bake tins cocoa, toast and strawberry jelly. Group 1, after discussing and bath tubs.
what parts of a plant bear buds and leaves, dug up in the In the sewing room the small loom made in the shop has vacant lot some underground stems which they called roots been set up and the children have wound the warp from the until they noted the buds upon them. They painted a skeins into sixty balls. From these it has been set on the
cocoon of a cecropia moth with better result in color than in beam of the loom. The other material for weaving has form. The results of the same work in Group III were not been furnished by the children consisting in a large part of as good. Group II examined carefully the microscope and old neckties which have been cut into strips and sewed learned something about the simple adjustments. Under together. This work has been in the hands of the four the microscope they examined some cells of a leaf containolder groups ; in connection with this and the actual weav- ing chlorophyll, also the cells of a leaf from which the ing that has been done there have been lessons on materials, chlorophyll had been extracted by alcohol. They have also comparing different kinds, as linen, cotton, woolen, silk and noted the manner of growth of corn, the roots above the hemp. Especial attention has been given to the silk ground acting as props to support the plant; the twining of industry, some very good specimens have been examined the morning-glory, the turning of the plants toward the representing all stages of the process of silk manufacture. light. Some lilies of the valley were put in a carmine soluVarious economic conditions related to the industry and its tion to illustrate capillary attraction. In order to prepare spread from China to other countries have been studied. for this, tubes of different sizes were put in the solution Especial interest has been manifested in the geography and showing that the smaller the tube the higher the liquid rose. history of China. Group IV has also been working on Similar work has been done by Groups III and IV using sleeve protectors, aprons, etc., for use in the kitchen. also mercury and noting the convex surface.
Filter paper Groups 1 and II have worked on doll's clothing and bed- and the wick of a lamp have been used to illustrate the ding, including pillows, pillow-cases, mattresses, blankets, same principle. Sections of wood were studied with special etc. Some jelly bags being needed on Wednesday, Group reference to the size of the tubes and the greater height to VI in half an hour, cut, made and washed them.
which sap could rise in the wood on account of the small A visit to the Walker Museum at The University supple- tubes. Group V examined iron crystals and found that they mented the farm visit and the pupils have modeled plows, had changed color and lost their crystalline form. also some of the simpler dishes. They have attempted to explain this, they weighed and heated a small quantity of modeling and painting Greek vases and lamps. Some copper sulphate finding that steam came off, and the submodels of the more common domestic animals have been stance changed to a white powder ; by weighing they found reproduced. All of this work has been quite successful. a loss of two-twenty-eighths. Water was added to copper The plows seen at the Museum as well as more modern sulphate and the resulting blue solution was put away, to ones have been drawn and differences noted. Group VI see if it would recrystallize.
Group VI tested different rocks for limestone and planted finding it again, it is so blended with its background and seeds on a piece of limestone to see if there was any acid surroundings. in the rooks of plants. Each pupil has a special compart- Protective resemblance “makes an animal seem other ment in which to keep the materials of any experiments than it is, while protective coloration makes it seem to cease that may be in progress and also the records which are to exist at all,” by maķing it coalesce with its surroundings. regularly written during and after an experiment. Group Look down upon a brooding robin, and you seem to see Vi has been occupied for the most part this week in just a nest or a mass of gray-brown something, with a bit of completing some experiments which had been left stick at one side, and a few gray-brown projections on the unfinished. - University Record
other. The robin's back is just about the color of the nest, and its darker head is up enough higher to catch the • light and seem of lighter color than it is.
If the nest were empty it would look much as it does now
with the robin Aattened down in it. Protective Coloration in
If the grouse were transparent its background, seen
through the transparent body, would look much as the actual E. B. G.
That is, the marks on the grouse's feathers are a sort of NOR a long time it has been known that many birds copy of the ordinary background against which the bird is
were protected from sight by their coloring, and likely to be seen, a background full of lights and shadows. most persons have said, “Oh, yes, quails and grouse Think how many birds have bright breasts, and many of
are the color of the dead leaves and brush among these have a black mark, or marks, on the breast,-probably which they walk," and have thought little more about it.
to break the contour line of so much brightness, which It was left for Mr. Abbott Thayer to study out the law of would otherwise catch the eye at once. protective coloration, and formulate it for us. In an article But all birds are not so marked. Many are not at all proin the Auk, he says that this law may be thus stated :
tected by their coloring, for instance,- the male tanagers, “ Animals are painted by Nature darkest on those parts the cardinal grosbeak, the Baltimore oriole, the thistle-finch, which tend to be most lighted by the sky's light, and vice and others. But their females are very differently colored versa, that is on those parts which are thrown in shadow by and blend with the coloring of their nests and surroundings. the substance of the animal.”
Mr. Thayer's articles in the Auk are much more interestThink of the birds you know and see how many have ing than this one, and are illustrated from photographs light under parts and darker upper parts. You see that the showing birds and their backgrounds. fact is as stated. Now think why this should be.
This article is intended merely to put before you the law you, take two potatoes, and stick into each one three or
of protective coloration and advise you to look up the four short bits of stick to serve as legs, and hold the pota- articles in the Auk for 1896. toes off the ground. Now paint the underside of one potato white, put the two on the ground and try which one is the more easily seen. Walk away to a distance from them and turn back to look for them. You at once see the unpainted one, while the other needs a little search, for their
“No poet will ever quite ensnare in speech the measureupper sides are about the color of the ground.
less joy of these festival mornings when Nature seems on You would have thought that the potato which was wholly
the point of speaking in human language."
The Outlook of the ground-color would be less easy to find. Why was it not? Look at them well.
The unpainted one seems much darker on its underside than the ground, because of its shadow- — or the absence, on its underside, of the light which falls both on its upper
The Old side and on the ground. This darkening of the underside breaks the continuity of the ground color, and prevents the potato from seeming a part of the ground.
Now look at the painted one. Its underside is made darker by the absence of sky-light on it, and this absence of light just about balances the lighter color, and gives a general effect of continuous ground color.
DEL LL_DRA But there is one defect. There is a line where the paint stops, and this line shows. How about that? Look at a bird, a quail, partridge, or grouse.
The New at once that the color on the sides is not a solid color, that there is no line where the light color ends and the dark begins. The two are shaded into each other.
Try that with the potato, shade the white paint into the darker side of the potato, irregularly, and then put it down on the ground again. You see at once that the potato is far harder to find than before. This is Mr. Thayer's great point, — that the gradation of coloration is the source of protection. The color is darkest where it is neutralized by most light, lightest where it is neutralized by shadow, and between these two parts, where neither light nor shadow is strong, there is every degree of light and dark color.
Without this gradation of color the potato shows a solid mass, and stands out clearly from the ground, although its actual color is that of the ground.
With the gradation the different parts seem to be blotted into the ground, and attract little or no attention, although in this case a large part of the actual color is not that of the ground, but is made to seem so by light and shadow.
Look at a quail or grouse against the underbrush and dead leaves. You can hardly see it while it is still, and if you take your eyes off it for a moment you have difficulty in
ep-peep was a baby chicken just out of
thel CD: He had no broffiers or sisters, so mam ma said the children might have him for their own. They fed him with dipped in wafer, and corn- meal and other good things like that. At first Peep-peep didn't know what the bread was for, but he soon found out? He was a very happy little He liked to go to sleep in Nellys y looking like a Muffy yellow, and he would follow the children all about the yard. He never knew he was a relation of the
and could not even understand Mother
Speckle's “Cluck! Cluck!"
They had Nellys eu, and mamma 'had given them some si, and and cookies, and the big ap
: ple tree let them have all the red 0 they wanted
. Nelly brought her Nedon invited Towser, his , and little Polly brought her cotton. The dolls and the rabbit were very polite, but Towser grabbed a (and ran away. What bad manners!
Suddenly the children heard a shrill “Peep, peep, peep!”in the long sletka.. Little Peep-peep had just missed them and felt lonesome. Nelly called "Chickie, chickie,' and he ran to them as fast as his little tik could carry him, with his līny yellow a stretched out to help him go faster. How glad he was to find them! "Why, we forgot to invite you to our party , said Polly, giving him some . "But you came anyway, didn't you, Peep-peep?"