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1799.) Dr. Priefley on the Doctrine of Pblogifton. 263 tate, in their nomenclature, to denominate of air, in all the methods that I can think thein all, without exception, oxydes. Thus of, without being able to find any fign of they call finery cinder a black oxyde of iron, oxygen in it,any more than in finery cinder. though they produce no direct evidence of When I treated it in common air, the air its containing any oxygen at all. But it was not increased, but diminished; the by no means follows, that because one fame effect that is produced by heating calx of a metal owes its additional weight finery cinder. to oxygen, all the rest do so.

As I could find no oxygen in the preIndeed the calces of the fame metal are cipitate of iron dissolved in acids, I have in this, and in other respects, different from not been able to find any in those of zinc. one another. Finery cinder, for example, The most mexceptionable that I could is different thing from the common think of, is that by caustic volatile alkali. ruft of iron, confisting of different princi- This fubitance I heated in atmospherical ples. From finery cinder nothing can be air both when moilt and dry, left exposure got by mere heat; but from rust of iron a to the atmosphere should make lome differquantity of fixed air may be extracted. ence in it; but with the same result. The

From 1277 grains of the common rust air in which it was treated was rendered of iron, I got 45 ounce measures of air, much worse than common air, though in of which only about one 30th part was

one case the quantity was increased from not fixed air, the reinainder of the standa 64 to 8 ounce measures. Half an ounce ard of 1,6) was slightly inflammable, pro. measure was fixed air, and the rest of the bably from the gun barrel in which the standard of 1, 8, extinguishing a candle; experiment was made.

so that it was almost wholly phlogisticated. The addition that is made to iron by It therefore seemed to have imbibed part rusting in the open air, I do not find to be of the pure air, and to have given out more than 30 or 40 grains to an ounce; phlogisticated air. whereas the addition made to iron, when Filings of zinc yield much inflammable it is converted into finery cinder, is near air in pure water, though I do not find one half of its original weight. I find, that they can by this means be reduced however, much variety in this respect to a complete calx, at least in a moderate When the finery cinder is made by a burn. time. But the imperfect calx to wbich ing lens in the open air, the addition to its this metal is by this means reduced, does weight is the least, and when it is made in not appear to contain any oxygen. When close vessels with steam, it is the greatest, it was heated in common air, the quantity Notwithstanding this very great difference of air was not increased, about one twenbetween finer, cinder and the common ruft tieth part of it was fixed air, and the reof iron, the Antiphlogistians fcruple nct to mainder of the Itandard of 1, s. The fay, but without any examination, that water in which the filings of zinc had been finery cinder is an imperfect oxyde of iron, immersed, gave out air much worse than and the common ruft' a more perfect one. common air, and it was perfectly free But if finery cinder ever be converted in. from acidity. Iron filings will yield also to rust, which I have never found to be inflammable air in water, and this water the cafe, it must, by some process or other, gives out air that is worse than common natural or artificial, be first converted into air, as does the water over which tin and iron, in which case it will lose much of its other metals are calcined. weight.

That the calces of metals do in general The oniy circumstance that gives any contain oxygen, I have no doubt; because plausibility to the finery cinder being an the dephlogisticated part of atmospherical oxyde of iron, is the addition that is gained air disappears when they are calcined in it. to the weight of the iron. But when zinc But there is reason to think that a great is treated in the same manner, steam being part of the addition of weight which they sent over it in a red heat, though inflam. thereby acquire is mere water, while the mable air is procured, the zinc gains no oxygen will attach itfelf to other fubaddition of weight; so that, in this case, stances in preference to the calx, if they there is no colour for saying that the wa- be prelent. One evidence of this is, that ter is decomposed. The substance that when they are calçined over lime water, is produced in these circumstances I have the lime is precipitated; whereas, if the called flowers of zinc, because it is a calx calx had imbibed all the dephlogisticated of zinc; and at that time I prefumed air that disappeared, the lime water would thiat it must have all the properties of the not have been affected by the process ; common fowers of zinc, which may con. this precipitation of the lime coming, no

But I have treated this pe- doubt, from fixed air, which I have fufficuliar calx of zinc, made without access ciently proved, consists of dephlogisticated

taju oxygen.

air and phlogiston, or the base of inflam- perfect oxide. This I found to be only mable air. I had this result when I cal. zinc partially calcined, for, in heating it cined iron, zinc, tin, lead, bismuth, and in atmospherical air, it became white. The regulus of antimony, in those circum- air was diminished, was without fixed air, ftances. But when the process was made and considerably phlogisticated. The perover mercury, I could not always find feet flowers of zinc treated in the fame any, and therefore presume that all the manner made no sensible change in the oxygen was imbibed by the calx, though quantity of air. But, as in the former it

may be impossible, in some cases, to ex- case, there was no fixed air in it, and it tract it again in that form. For, when was considerably phlogisticated. the quantity is small, it may be fo united The melting of massicot in these cir. to the phlogiston remaining in the calx, as cumstances made 110 change of any kind to form the basis of phlogisticated air, which in the air, which shews that it contains I have proved to consist of dephlogisticated less phlogiston than flowers of zinc. and inflammable air,

Oxygen in a calx is perhaps most easily Lead furnishes an example of this. No detected by its forming fixed air, when it oxygen can, I believe, by any means be is heated in infiammable air. But I did got from maficot, though it' has imbi- not find this to be the result of an attempt bed fome; but when this calx is fuper- to revive flowers of zinc in those circumfaturated with it, and becomes minium, stances. Owing to the whiteness of this it will yield the purest dephlogisticated air substance, which disposes it to reflect, and by heat only, and will likewile dephlogis- not to absorb, the light that is thrown ticate marine acid ; and fince flowers of upon it, I could not revive any part of zinc will not dephlogisticate marine acid, this calx completely. A black ipot only I presume that this calx also is nearly in was made in a part of it, and about an the same state with maflicot in this respect, ounce measure of the inflammable air was and that in any state it contains but little imbibed ; but I found no fixed air in oxygen, or fo united to phlogiston, as what remained, any more than I did not to be obtained either in the form of when I revived finery cinder in that acid, or of dephlogisticated air.

process. Though the flowers of zinc may con- (The continuation of these interesting papers tain some oxygen, I have not been able to fall appear in our succeeding Number.) discover any in them, by any process that I have made use of for the purpose. As this substance is made in a considerable The following Paper on a curious Etymolodegree of heat, I was not surprised to find that heat would not expel any thing from

gical Subjeét has been transmitted to us

by. . BEDDO ES, to whom it had been it ; but I thought that when it was mixed

communicated by an intelligent Friend. with iron filings, it might with them give fome fixed air, as red precipitate does.

For the Monthly Magazine. But this I found not to be the cafeI got HAVING fome reafons, for believing inflamma

word , ble air, as I should have done with finery at present to denote the rise and tall of the cinder : Also when mixed with perfectly fea-I wish them to be subniitted to the made charcoal, such as gives no air by curious in language. heat, a great quantity of both fixed and I am aware of the illusions of fancy, to inflanımable air is produced ; which thews which the student of words is perpetually that, like this substance, flowers of zinc liable;--but as I desire nothing more than contain little or nothing besides water, to disabuse myself from error," on all which will have just the lame effect. occasions,mmy reasons, I hope, will be

To make this experiment with fairness, thoroughly examined;--for in what I now the iron filings must be heated till they offer, the historian of mankind seems to give no air. They must then be well have a concern ; for an art or contrivance washed till the water put on them be quite : is attempted to be demonstrated as having clear, and they he again found to give an existence prior to the remotest antiquity no fixed air by heat. For foreign sub- which tradition can inform us of1 mean Itances are very apt to be mixed with iron the use of the tyde, to reckon the progress filings, which this process will separate. of the common affairs of life among north With iron filings thus prepared, red pre

ern nations. cipitate gave fixed air; bịt flowers of The word tyde is used with a little zinc none at all,

variation at present in the north of our There is a grey calc of zinc, fimilar to island that of lead, which Mr. Chapta! calis a Vide, Grose's Glossary, --words tider,

and

265

1799.] Mr.Wakefield on the Style of Hume. and astite, “ tider up caw ;" let him that ferred to mean other motions than the wais up first, call the rest.--North.

ters of the ocean, as the diffolution of The word tyde is used very generally king Alfred's three candles, each of which over the island in some words, and means burned 8 hours-the motion of the sun, time, as Shrove-tyde, Whitsun-tyde, &c. marked by the Shadow on the dial plate,

Chaucer uses the word tyde, for time, and the motion of sand through an hour more frequently than our writers do at glass, and of the hands of a watch over a present.

graduated circle ;-but the end of all is “ And by day in every tyde,

the same, and must all coincide with the “ Ben all the dores open wyde”. never ceasing retrograde and progressive

Third Book of Fame. motions of the tydes. - It is agreeable to the Again, in Thysbe of Babiloyne,

admirers of Nature, to find, if Art has suc “ And, for the feldes ben fo brode & wyde, “ For to mete in o place at o tyde,

perseded Nature, she is still founded on her

institutions. “ They fet markes," and not always for the purpose of a rhyme,

The frequent use of the word betyde in for the following is from a profe tranfla. Chaucer, is in favour of the above contion

jecture. Thou devydeft the swyfte rydes of the

Batb, 29, Rivers fireet. M.D. nyght, whan the hote sommer is comen.”

Firp Book of Boecius, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. The Saxon word tid, Mr. Grose says, SIR, means, in English, time. The words tyde and time, have similar AS Mr. Hume retains a great reputation

for the excellence of his style, and his meaning the difference between them in political propensities would probably lead the spelling, is an objection to their having him to particular exertion in his character the same original derivation-and here is of Charles II. perhaps it may not be una want of proof, which might deter me entertaining to some of your readers, if I from going further into this enquiry; but give a flight examination of the composition for reasons derived from the state of the in his delineation of that monarch, in this people and the country, to whom I suspect and some future numbers. What is liable the word belongs, I Mall venture further. to no specific exception in point of impro

The word tid is northern--the northern priety, but is merely insipid, inelegant, countries of Europe, next Britain, have and Rovenly, I shall distinguish by the much coast, and the inhabitants (perhaps Italic letter. originally in most countries fixed next the

“ If we survey the character of Charles sea and great rivers) perpetually saw ocean II, in the different lights, that it will adrolling his tyde up and down their hores, mit of, it will appear various, and give rise and along their great rivers. Thus fitu- to different and even opposite sentiments." ated, they beheld the progress of the 'fall

Survey is an improper term in this apand rise of the sea-they fished for sub- plication. Accurate writers employ it listence—the success and other conveni- with reference to large and extended obences of such an occupation, were influ- jeets, not to the niceties of minute inspecenced by a proper choice of the tyde-the tion. And is the reader much enlightened, choice of tyde regulated, and was extended who learns, that a character, that admits to other occupations of life-regularity of different lights, appears various ? How was introduced, and a proper tyde or time Aat the sentiment ! how meagre the comchosen-Life was improved ; and the true position ! scavoir vivre (not tie brutal prostitution " When considered as a companion, of appetite and sense of modern days) was he appears the most amiable and engaging

of men ; and indeed, in this view, his deIt would be easy to mark the tide in its portment must be allowed altogether unexprogress.At Chepstow, for example, the

ceptionable.” tyde rises generally about 60 feet ; that is,

Appears, recurs too soon after it's use in 10 feet an hour; by an upright post then, the former paragraph ; but carelessness of marked with foot divisions, I could find this kind is abundant in this historian.

{ feet washed by the tyde every hour- " His love of raillery was so tempered a division of time, or tyde, exact enough to with good breeding, that it was never regulate the commencement and duration offensive." of most of the common occupations of life This inbarmonious clause proves the Art has iuper seded nature—and the tyde rythmical cadence, that give exquisite de

writer unacquainted with those charms of no longer used to mark the fleeting course ligl:t to readers of sensibility, and are the of things the word time is now trans- criterion of true taste in composition.

Better

thus begun.

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in earlier ages.

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[May. Better thrus : as never to become of time, nothing, that can claim the most senlive."

distant alliance with dignity or elegance ; “ His propensity to satire was so checked nothing, but what the most humble advenwith discretion, that his friends never turer in letters might easily have written. dreaded their becoming the object of it." “ With a detail of his private character

This sentence is the very extreme of all we must let bounds to our panegyric on that is mean and pitiful; nor reducible to Charles." the grammatical rules of any one language Not much detail and less panegyric, of ever known at Babel.

such a conspicuous, experienced, and pe“ His wit, to use the expression of one culiar character, as that of Charles, has zubo knew him well, and rubo was himself been given in the preceding sentences : fo a good judge, could not be laid so much to that the words in question Teem employed be very refined or elevated, qualities apt with no discrimination on this occafon. to beget jealousy and apprehension in .The other parts of his conduct may company, as to be a plain, gaining, well. admit of some apology; but can delerve bred, recommending kind of wit." small applause."

Here is a fine exemplisication of the Both idiom and harmony demanded poet's censure,

but small applause :" this, however, * And ten low words oft creep in one dull line," the preceding but proscribed. Thus then with a luperabundance of native and ad- might the pasages have been tumed, I ventitious meanness, both in composition think, with more neatness and propriety; and phraseology. Nor does the next sen. though it is much easier to fraine a new tence at all disparage it's predecessor in paragraph, than to model the language quitting the same pitiful and groveling and conftruction of another writer. character of diction.

With the commendation of his pri“ And though perhaps be talked more vate character mult we finish our praise of than strict rules of behaviour might per. Charles. "If his public conduct admit apo. mit, inen were fa pleased with the affable, logy, it can deserve but sinall applause." communicative deportment of the mo- “ He was indeed so much fitted for prinarch, that they always went away con. vate life, preferably to public, that he even tented, both with him and themselves. popeljed order, frugality, and economy, This indeed is the most shining part of the in te former; was profuse, thoughtless, king's character; and he seems to have and negligent in the latter." been sensible of it : for he was fond of The words in Italics are either super. dropping the formality of state, and of re- fuous or mean: nor is an adequate oppo. lapfing every moment into the conipanion.' sition discoverable between order and eco

No congruity of figure seems to fubfift nomy, thoughtlefs and negligent ;, as the between tropping and relapsing ; especially character of the sentences required. No between dropping in the active sense, and writer of the least dexterity could have relapsing in the pasive, with application failed in such an obvious and attainable to the same subject. Befides a quality in proportion. the former claule, (the formality of state) " When we consider him as a sovereign, sequired a quality, not a person, (the com- his character, though not altogether deftipanion) for correspondence in the latter : tute of virtue, was in the main dangerous but how can we expect these delicate con- to his people, and dishonourable to him. fistencies of fine writing from such a miser- felf. Negligent of the interests of the naable artist as David Hume ?

tion, careless of its glory, averse to its re“ In the duties of private life, his con- ligion, jealous of its liberty, lavish of its dnict, though not free from exception, was, treasure, sparing only of its blood; he in the moin, laudable. He was an easy ge- exposed it by his measures, though he ever nerous lover, a civil obliging husband, a appeared but in sport, to the danger of a friendly brother, an indulgent father, and furious civil war, and even to the ruin and a gocei-patured malter. The voluntary ignominy of a foreign conqueft. Yet may friend hip, however, that this prince con- all these enormities, if fairly and candidly tracteri, nay, even his sense of gratitude, examined, be imputed, in a great meawire teeble; and he never attached himself fure, to the indolence of his temper; 4 to any of his ministers or courtiers with a fault which however unfortunate in a mofincere affection. He believed them 19 lave narch, it is iinposlible for us to regard no motive in ferving him, but self-intereft; with grtat severity.". and he was ftill ready, in his turn, to facri- The last fentence alone, of all that have fice them to present ease or convenience." yet occurred, is entitled to approbation : it

Nothing particularly exceptionable oc. is perfpicuous and pure, without vulgarity, , curs in thcle fentences ; but, at the same without affectation, without redundancy,

a

a

SIR,

1799.) Mr. Capel Lofft on Duelling, and on an Errorin Didot's Virgil

. : 67 “ It has been remarked of Charles, Murther, the law must take it's course." that he never said a foolish thing, nor ever The night before his intended execution, did a wise one: a censure rubich, though the prisoner committed suicide. too far carried, seems to have some founda- But this case had strong circumstances tion in his character and deportment."

beyan.d the duel.

It had an act of great Why this perpetual loquacity and in. violence and insult; the throwing of a compactnefs ? 'Suppose thus: “a censure bottle at the head of the deceased. It had too severe, but not unauthorised by fome expressions of contempt, and of murther. peculiarities in his deportment."

olis hatred, after the offer of reconcilia" When the king was informed of this tion made by the young man who fell in saying, he observed, that the matter was the duel. It had a circumstance in proof easily accounted for: for that his discourse of the continuance of this ftate and dispowas his own, his actions were the mi- lition of mind, and of the deliberate pure' nistry's."

pose of gratifying this hatred, to the very Exceed this, Vulgarity and Infipi. instant before i he duel. For these reasons, dity? if ye can. O ye admirers of David which the Judges declare expressly to have Hume, give me, as specimens of style, a weighed with them in their resolution, I fingle page in Milton, or the controver. think this cannot be considered as coming fial works of MIDDLETON, in preference up to an Adjudication and Conviction of to all the volumes, metaphysical and his- Murther; for the killing of another in torical, by this object of your idolatry ! what is called a fair duel, with 10 other,

GILBERT WAKEFIELD. malice in evidence than what the construcHackney, April 14, 1799.

tion of law attaches to the Act itself of

Homicide on set challenge, abstracted from To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

any other circumstances.

Within these very few days, I have learnt

that there has been a conviction at the last QUESTION of very great importance Exeter Allizes of Murther, founded on A

in the CRIMINAL LAW has been put homicide, in a duel. I am wholly igno, in your Magazine:-Whether there be

any cale in which killing, in what is called a

rant what the facts are in that cafe ; and fair duel, has been ADJUDGED MURTHER,

if I were otherwise, it would be improper and has had a CONVICTION of Mur: to anticipate what remains for folemn de

termination. What I have here faid, is THER pronounced upon it. There are many cases where the JUDGES fwer merely to the question as stated in the

without reference to that case; and in anhave stated to the Jury, and indeed they

abstract. Í remain yours fincerely, almost always (perhaps always) do state, upon these unhappy occasions, that killing,

Trojton, Apr.16, 1799. CAPEL LOFFT. on a deliberate jet CHALLENGE is MURTHER; but I know not one in which Small Stereotype Edition of Virgil by Didot. there has been a Conviction of Murther, Ifa faultless Edition of a Work of considerwhich has not turned upon other circum- able quantity be possible, I had hope that at laft hances of malice, than merely the general it was effected. This elegant little Edition has implied malice which the construction of proofs of uncommon attention to correctness. the Law annexes to the Act of Duelling. Yet one fault of the Press has already ftruck The case of Major Oreby, Tr. 13 G. I. Errata graviora,

me: and I am sorry to say, that it is of the

it violates at once quanand 1 G. II. is perhaps the nearest. The tity and mythology, parties there, having quarrelled at a gam- " Teque fibi generum Thetis emat omniing table, and the deceased having offered bus undis."

i GEORG. 394 to make it up, they staid an hour together It is necessary to say for Terbys. in and immediately after fought,

If we happily were at peace, I should have taken company, upon a verbal challenge given by the pri, tice, to have intimated the error.

a method more delicate than by this public no

I have found foner. The deceased received a mortal

no other yet which is not fairty referable to a wound. The prisoner was left upon a various reading ; though not every where the Special Verdiet to the opinion of all the reading which I thould have expected to have Judges on his case. The Twelve Judges seen preferred. But in this no Editor can fa

C. L. were unanimous, that the facts found upon tisfy every individual. the Special Verdict amounted to Murther.

Lord Raymond, 1485, 1500.-S. C. Strange, He was accordingly fentenced : and a pretty strong application was made in his To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, behalf to his late Majesty on his accession. SIR, But the King declared, that the Judges

. As a constant reader of the Monthly baving pronounced the prisoner guilty of Magazine, I cannot be unacquainted

with

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