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Yet thus it is nor otherwise can be
11.-UTTERANCE. Utterance is the art of vocal expression. It includes the principles of pronunciation and elocution.
Pronunciation. Pronunciation, as distinguished from elocution, is the utterance of words taken separately.
Pronunciation requires a knowledge of the just powers of the letters in all their combinations, and of the force and seat of the accent.
The just powers of the letters are those sounds which are given to them by the best readers.
Accent is the peculiar stress which we lay upon some particular syllable of a word, whereby that syllable is distinguished from the rest ; as, grám-mar, gram-má-ri-an.
Every word of more than one syllable, has one of its syllables accented.
When the word is long, for the sake of harmony or distinctness, we often give a secondary or less forcible accent to another syllable; as, to the last of tém-per-a-túre, and to the second of in-dém-ni-fi-cá-tion.
A full and open pronunciation of the long vowel sounds, a clear articulation of the consonants, a forcible and well-placed accent, and a distinot utterance of the unaccented syllables, distinguish the elegant speaker.
Elocution. Elocution is the utterance of words that are arranged into sentences, and form discourse.
Elocution requires a knowledge, and right application, of emphasis, pauses, inflections, and tones.
1.-Emphasis is the peculiar stress of voice which we lay upon some particular word or words in a sentence, which are thereby distinguished from the rest, as being more especially significant.
II.—Pauses are cessations in utterance, which serve equally to relieve the speaker, and to render language intelligible and pleasing. The duration of the pauses should be proportionate to the degree of connection between the parts of the discourse.
II.-Inflections are those peculiar variations of the human voice, by which a continuous sound is made to
from one note, key, or pitch, into another. The passage of the voice from a lower to a higher or shriller note, is called the rising or upward inflection. The passage of the voice from a higher to a lower or graver note, is called the falling or downward inflection. These two opposite inflections may be heard in the following examples: 1. The rising, "Do you mean to gó?” 2. The falling, “When will you gò ?”
OBS. -- Questions that may be answered by yes or no, require the rising inflection; those that demand any other answer, must be uttered with the falling inflection.
IV.-Tones are those modulations of the voice, which depend upon the feelings of the speaker. They are what Sheridan denominates “the language of emotions.” And it is of the utmost importance that they be natural, unaffected, and rightly adapted to the subject and to the occasion; for upon them, in a great measure, depends all that is pleasing or interesting in elocution.
A figure, in grammar, is an intentional deviation from the ordinary spelling, formation, construction, or application, of words. There are, accordingly, figures of Orthography, figures of Etymology, figures of Syntax, and figures of Rhetoric. When figures are judiciously employed, they both strengthen and adorn expression. They occur more frequently in poetry than in prose, and several of them are merely poetic licenses.
Figures of Orthography, A figure of orthography is an intentional deviation from the ordinary or true spelling of a word.
The principal figures of orthography are two; namely, Mi-me'-sis and Ar-cha-ism.
I.-Mimesis is a ludicrous imitation of some mistake or mispronunciation of a word, in which the error is mimicked by a false spelling, or the taking of one word for another; as, “ Maister, says he, have you any wery good weal in your vallet ? ”—“Ay, he was porn at Monmouth, captain Gower.” -Shak. “I will description the matter to you, if
be capacity of it." - Id.
Perdigious! I can hardly stand.”—Lloyd.
II.-An archaism is a word or phrase expressed according to ancient usage, and not according to our modern orthography; as, “Newe grene chese of smalle clammynes comfortethe a hotte stomake.”—T. PAYNEL: Tooke's Diversions, ii., 132.
“With him was rev'rend Contemplation pight,
Bow-bent with eld, his beard of snowy hue.”—Beattie.
Figures of Etymology. A figure of etymology is an intentional deviation from the ordinary formation of a word.
The principal figures of etymology are eight; namely, a-phær'-e-sis, pros'-the-sis, syn'-co-pe, apoc'-o-pe, Par-a-go'-ge,
Par-a-go'-ge, di-ær-e-sis, syno ær'-e-sis, and tme'-sis.
I.-Aphæresis is the elision of some of the initial letters of a word; as, 'gainst, 'gan, 'neath,--for against, began, beneath.
II. — Prosthesis is the prefixing of an expletive syllable to a word ; as, adown, appaid, bestrown, evanished, yclad, for down, paid, strown, vanished, clad.
III.-Syncope is the elision of some of the middle letters of a word : as, medcine, for medicine ; e'en, for even ; o'er, for over ; conq'ring, for conquering ; se'nnight, for sevennight.
IV.-Apocope is the elision of some of the final letters of a word : as, tho', for though; th', for the ; t'other, for the other.
V.--Paragoge is the annexing of an expletive syllable to a word : as, withouten, for without ; deary, for dear; Johnny, for John.
VI.—Diæresis is the separating of two vowels that might form a diphthong: as, coöperate, not cooperate; aëronaut, not @ronaut ; orihoëpy, not orthopy.
VII.--Synæresis is the sinking of two syllables into one : as, seest, for seëst ; tacked, for tack-ed; drowned, for drown-ed.
OBS. -When a vowel is entirely suppressed in pronunciation (whether retained in writing or not), the consonants connected with i: fall into another syllable ; thus, tried, triesl, loved or lov'd, lovest or lov’st, are monosyllables ; except in solemn discourse, in which the e is generally retained and made vocal.
VIII.—Tmesis is the inserting of a word between the parts of a compound; as, “ On which side soever."--" To us ward.”_" To God warul.”
Figures of Syntax. A figure of syntax is an intentional deviation from the ordinary construction of words.
The principal figures of syntax are five; namely, el-lip'sis, ple'-o-nasm, syl-lep'-sis, en-al'-la-ge, and hy-per-ba-ton.
Ellipsis is the omission of some word or words which are necessary to complete the construction, but not necessary to convey the meaning. Such words are said to be understood ; because they are received as belonging to the sentence, though they are not uttered. *
Almost all compound sentences are more or less elliptical. There may be an omission of any of the parts of speech, or even of a whole clause ; but the omission of articles or interjections can scarcely constitute a proper ellipsis. Examples :
Of the Article ; as, “A man and [a] woman. _“The day, [the] month, and [the] year.”
Of the Noun ; as, “ The common [l«xon) and the statute law.”twelve [apostles].”—“One [book] of my books.”—“A dozen [bottles] of wine."
Of the Adjective ; as, “There are subjects proper for the one, and not [proper) for the other.”—Kames. Of the Pronoun; as, “I love [him] and [I] fear him.”—“
"-" The estates [which] we own.”
Of the Verb ; as, “Who did this ? I”[ilid it].-—"To whom thus Eve, yet sinless” [spoke].
Of the Participle ; as, “That [being] o'er, they part.”
* There can never be an ellipsis of any thing which is either unnecessary to the construction or necessary to the sense, for to say what we mean and nothing more never can constitute a deviation from the ordinary grammatical construction of words. As figure of Syntax, therefore, the ellipsis can be only of such words as are so evidently suggested to the reader, that the writer is as fully answerable for them as if he had written them. To suppose an ellipsis where there is none, or to overlook one where it really occurs, is to pervert or mutilate the text, in order to accommodate it to the parser's ignorance of the principles of syntax. There never can be either a general uniformity or a self-consistency in our methods of parsing, or in our notions of grammar, till the true nature of an ellipsis is clearly ascertained ; so that the writer may distinguish it from a blundering omission that impairs the sense, and the reader be debarred from an arbitrary insertion of what would be cumbrous and useless.