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custom well understood in many localities between seller and buyer is sixty pounds per bushel. A large portion of the maize delivered to the country elevator is in the ear, where it is usually shelled before shipping. In most States the legal weight per bushel of maize on the ear is seventy pounds, although it is sixty-eight pounds in a number of States. In some localities, custom requires that a larger number of pounds be given for new maize until a given date, say eighty pounds per bushel until December first.
366. Commercial Grades.—The system of inspection for maize is the same as that for wheat and other grains. As in wheat, soundness, plumpness and mixture of foreign substances or of maize of different color fix the grade. The weight of measured bushels does not enter into the determination of the grade. The Illinois Board of Railroad and Warehouse Commissioners recognizes the following classes and grades:
Yellow maize, Nos. 1, 2 and 3.
Usually in the Chicago market, more maize is dealt in than yellow and white combined, and much more yellow maize than white maize. The grade of all classes of maize usually dealt in is No. 3, No. 4 maize being much more common than No. 2. The following are the rules for grading yellow maize:
No. I yellow maize shall be yellow, sound, dry, plump and well cleaned.
No. 2 yellow maize shall be three-fourths yellow, dry, reasonably clean, but not plump enough for No. 1.
No. 3 yellow maize shall be three-fourths yellow, reasonably dry and reasonably clean, but not sufficiently sound for No. 2.
Rules for white maize are identical with those for yellow, except three-fourths reads seven-eighths. Under these rules, all maize that is less than three-fourths yellow and at the same time less than seven-eighths white is maize.
367. Grade Uniformity.–Scofield" has pointed out that the essential elements in grading maize are: (1) the moisture, (2) the percentage of colors in mixtures, (3) the percentage of damaged grains, and (4) the percentage of broken grains and dirt. He proposes to put all dent maize into three classes as follows:
1. Yellow maize; at least 95 per cent yellow.
The maximum limits for each grade of yellow maize are suggested in the following table:
II. HISTORY. 368. Nativity.—The records of the early voyagers prove that maize was cultivated on the American continent from Maine to Chile at the time of its discovery. It was then the great bread plant of the New World. Numerous varieties of maize have been found in the ancient tombs of Mexico, Peru and New Mexico. These monuments are supposed to be two thousand years old. As there were many varieties at this time, the cultivation of maize must have been considerably more ancient, although not necessarily so ancient as that of wheat. There was a semi-civilized race of people in Peru, Mexico, and even in New Mexico, who made considerable use of maize, using it boiled and roasted when green, and grinding it and making it into bread when ripe.
1 U. S. Dept. Agr., Bu. Pl. Ind. Bul. 41.
369. Value to Colonists.—Maize was the salvation of many of the early colonies, preventing the colonists and their stock from starving. The tame grasses had not been introduced, so that besides maize stover their stock had nothing but salt marsh hay.
The early settlers learned the cultivation of maize from the Indians. The James River settlers, under the tuition of the Indians, began to raise maize in 1608, and within three years they appeared to have as many as thirty acres under cultivation. The Pilgrims found it in cultivation by the Indians on their arrival at Plymouth, and began its cultivation in 1621, manuring, as the Indians did, with fish.
“According to the manner of the Indians we manured our ground with herrings, or rather shads, which we have in great abundance and take with ease at our doors.
“You may see in one township a hundred acres together set with these fish, every acre taking a thousand of them, and an acre thus dressed will produce and yield as much corn as three acres without fish." In the Jamestown settlement they planted pumpkins and melons in the hill with the maize.
370. Introduction into Eastern Continent. — Maize is pretty certainly of American origin. It has been introduced into Europe, Asia and Africa since the discovery of America. After its introduction into the old continent it spread very rapidly across northern Africa and southern Europe and across Asia into China. The rapidity with which it spread gave rise to disputes as to its origin and considerable confusion as to its name.
Maize has been known by the following curious names in Europe: Turkish corn, Italian corn, Roman wheat, Sicilian wheat, Indian wheat, Spanish wheat, Barbary wheat, Guinea and Egyptian wheat. These names were given it in various places on account of the country in which it was supposed to have originated. They simply indicate the country from which and through which maize was introduced. The names, with the exception of Indian, are those of places bordering on the Mediterranean Sea. This would seem to indicate that maize
was brought from America in vessels which sailed into the Mediterranean Sea and landed in the various countries denoted. The climate on both sides of the Mediterranean is fairly well adapted to the growth of maize. The rapid introduction into these countries of so striking a plant and its spread therefrom is not a matter of surprise.
371. DESCRIPTION OF MAIZE PLANT. Name of variety .... Date .... 1. Maturity of plant silking: roasting ear; partly dented or glazed; dented
or glazed; nearly ripe ; ripe. 2. Height of plant: average of ten plants ... feet ... inches 3. Proportion of ears: number of ears on one hundred stalks .. 4. Barren stalks: number in one hundred stalks... 5. Position of ear: pointing upward; horizontal; pointing downward. 6. Husks: adherent; medium; non-adherent. 7. Husks: abundant; medium; scanty. 8. Length of shank: distance from node to base of ear, - average of ten
plants . .. 9. Circumference of stem: at middle of internode between second and third node
from ground ... 10. Circumference of stem: at middle of internode below main ear ... II. Number of leaves : average of ten plants... 12. Average width of leaf blades : average of five plants.. 13. Average length of leaf blades : average of five plants ... 14. Lengih of tassel: average of ten plants...
372. THE CHARACTERS OF THE GRAIN.—Give each student twenty-five to thirty grains each of five types of maize or five varieties of a single type. For Nos. 12 to 18, a number of grains should be soaked in hot water for thirty minutes, or in cold water for twenty-four hours. For taking measurements, furnish each student with a sheet of cross-section paper. Name of variety .... Date ..... 1. Weight: ten average grains in duplicate (a) ... (b) ... 2. Length: ten average grains in duplicate (a) ... (b) ... 3. Width: ten average grains in duplicate (a) ... (b) ... 4. Thickness: ten average grains in duplicate (a) ... (b) ... 5. Ratio of width to length: divide length of ten grains by width of ten grains
(a) ... (b) .... 6. Ratio of thickness to width: divide width of ten grains by thickness of ten
grains (a) ... (b) ... 7. Shape ; flat; spheroidal; conical.
8. Shape (side view): cuneate wedge-shape; rounded-cuneate; truncate-cuneate;
shoe-peg form; rectangular; rounded corners. 9. Summit: rostrate; mucronate; rounded; flat; dented. 10. When dented : dimple; long dimple; creased; pinched ; ligulate. II. Color: white; yellow; golden; red; purple. 12. Place of color: endosperm; aleurone layer; hull. 13. Character of endosperm: corneous; partly corneous; farinaceous; glucose. 14. Proportion of corneous endosperm, if dent variety: large; medium; small. 15. Size of embryo: large; medium; small. 16. Sketch of cross-section : show arrangement to scale of embryo, glossy and white
endosperm. 17. Sketch of transverse section: show arrangement to scale of embryo, glossy and
white endosperm. 18. Sketch of lateral section: show arrangement to scale of embryo, glossy and
white endosperm. 373. THE CHARACTERS OF THE EAR.-Give each student two or more ears of each of the five types of maize, or five different varieties of the same type. Ten ears of a given type or variety are none too many for a thorough study, but with larger classes it may be necessary to economize in material. Ears properly labeled, showing characters mentioned below, should be displayed for guidance of stu. dents. (220) Name of variety .... Date ..
1. Color of grain : white; yellow; golden; red; purple. 2. Color of cob: white; light red; deep red. 3. Surface: smooth; medium; rough ; very rough. 4. Sulci: absent; apparent; narrow; distinct; very distinct. 5. Pairs of rows : distichous; not distichous. 6. Number of rows : one-fourth length from butt ...; from tip... 7. Direction of rows : rectilinear; spiral to right; spiral to left; irregular. 8. Grains: very loose; loose; firm; mosaic-like. 9. Grains : upright; sloping; imbricated.
Ear: cylindrical; cylindraceous; slowly tapering; tapering; distinctly taper
ing; flat II. Butt: even ; shallow rounded; moderately rounded; deeply rounded.
Butt: depressed; compressed; depressed-rounded; depressed-compressed
enlarged; expanded; open. 13. Tip: sides of cob exposed; end exposed; end covered ; terminal grain. 14. Juncture of ear stalk: large; medium; small. 15. Length of ear (extreme length): (a) ... (b) ... 16. Circumference of ear one-third distance from butt: (a) ... (b) ...
Weight of ear: (a) ... (b) ... 18. Weight of cob: (a) ... (b) . . 19. Percentage of grain : (a) ... (b) ... 20. Circumference of cob one-third distance from butt: (a) ... (b) ... 21. Ratio of circumference of cob to circumference of ear: (a) ... (b) ...