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be handled with more care, but outlines may be made from them also without great trouble. Such drawings are very satisfactory if carefully made from typical specimens.
Water-color paintings are indulged in by a few American pomologists who are themselves expert with the brush, or who have the necessary funds for employing an artist. Good water-color sketches are an obvious improvement on the uncolored drawings, and they form about as complete a record as one can have in connection with a good written description. Very few persons, however, can avail themselves of this method.
Models in plaster of Paris, or in wax, are sometimes undertaken. These are usually colored by hand, in imitation of the fruits from which they are made. When such models are well done they make remarkably satisfactory records, but they are not always well done. The difficulties in the way of securing models are the same as those in the way of the water-colors. There are probably not more than three or four good collections of fruit models in America at the present timeperhaps not so many as that.
The photograph is one of the most practi
cable and serviceable of picture records. Almost any one nowadays can make photographs if he have only moderate patience in learning. It is not just so easy as it might seem to be to make good photographs of fruits. It is considerably harder than it is to make pushbutton pictures of the girls in their bathing suits. Nevertheless, it is a good deal easier than some other things.
For making photographs of fruits it is requisite to have a camera at least 5x7 inches in size. A 6% x 872 camera is better, and even an 8 x io is desirable for indoor use. The socalled “view cameras ” are suitable for indoor work; but since the hand cameras are so popular and so convenient for other purposes, most people will prefer this latter model. The writer prefers what is known as a long-bellows (or “tele-photo ") camera, with a reversible back. Both these adjustments are essential. Other conveniences are desirable, but not imperatively necessary.
In photographing fruits one can get large satisfaction out of a good lens. There is hardly any other line of photography—aside from professional portrait-making—in which an expensive lens really seems to pay so well
for itself. Almost any of the modern anastigmats can be used for such work. The Goerz, Voigtlaender, Cooke, Zeiss, and other makes are all known to be good. If one is selecting a lens for this special purpose, and if price is a great consideration, he will naturally choose one of comparatively short focus, since such a lens will give photographs of fruits at natural size without the use of the long bellows extension. These short-focus lenses, often spoken of rather erroneously as wide-angle lenses, are not suitable for general outdoor work, however, and are to be regarded always as special purpose tools. Too short a focus should not be adopted under any circumstances. A 6-inch focus may be regarded as the minimum for a 5 x 7 plate, 774-inch for a 6%2 x 842 plate, and 872-inch for an 8 x 10 plate.
For myself, I greatly prefer a lens of considerably longer focus, such as is used for general landscape work. These lenses will run about as follows: Focus of 8-9 inches for 5 x 7 plates, 9-12 inches for 67/2 x 872 plates, and 11-14 inches for 8 x 10 plates. As a general rule, subject to some qualifications, it may be said that the longer the focus of the lens the