Imágenes de páginas


Number of vessels.



have to legislate on the attributes, means, and authorBelgium

$18,893,000 ity of the

nation-so great was the want of a permaBrazil..

1,928,000 nent capital for the republic. Now you may make Chili..

1,278,000 laws in full liberty, knowing that they will be obeyed, France.

10,583,000 and without consulting anything but common sense Germany.

2,460,000 Great Britain..


justice, and expediency, or fearing that any provincial Italy


governor should enter these halls to protest against or Paraguay.

dictate your measures.

46,000 Spain...

1,189,000 The Executive is in perfect accord with the authoriUnited States.....

4,961,000 ties of all the provinces, and not even the slightest hitch Uruguay..

1,798,000 has occurred in the working of the liberal and comWest Indies

1,479,000 Other countries...


plicated laws of our political system. The law orderIn transitu....


ing national intervention in Rioja resulted in a speedy

and satisfactory solution, thanks to the clear terms in Total......

$56,497,000 which the orders of Congress were expressed, and the

tact and prudence of the commissioner appointed. On comparing these two tables, the balance

I feel pleasure in telling you that the republic is of trade in favor of the republic in 1880 is on the best terms with alf foreign powers. We can observed to have been $12,431,000, against easily keep so, as the fundamental principle of our $2,898,000 in 1879. To the usual list of Ar- foreign policy is a determination to defend our rights

and to respect those of others. gentine export staples * have been added some

The Executive and the whole country have witnew articles, as, for instance, ostrich-feathers, Dessed with profound sorrow the horrible drama on of which 72,229 kilogrammes were shipped in the Pacific, the ruin of two sister republics, and the 1880, of the value of $156,000.

gulf dug between three nations of the same blood, The shipping movements at the various ports stead of tearing each other to pieces. For this reason

who should be united for mutual advancement, inwere as follows in 1880:

the mediation of the United States Government in

Aggregate tonnage. October last was so joytully hailed by public opinion. Entered: Steamers... : 2,517

902,290 We had a right to hope that such a powerful and reSailing-vessels 2,147

808,167 spected nation would be able to bring about peace beCleared : Steamers..... 2,112


tween the belligerents, and only when it failed did I Sailing-vessels 1,022


deem it right to make a fresh attempt at conciliation, Of railways there were ten in operation in with the aid of a South American state which, being 1881, of an aggregate length of 1,545 miles; tinent, and for other reasons, 1 considered the best and in course of construction three other lines, wherewith to initiate a fresh 'attempt at friendly inaggregating 190 miles. Of telegraph lines terference. The Minister of Foreign Affairs will rethere were, in 1877, 4,848 miles (3,365 miles of port to you the result of this negotiation. The which were the property of the state), with Governments of Peru and Bolivia addressed that of an aggregate of 9,887 miles of wires. The this country, denouncing the bitter character of the

strife, and protesting against the terms of peace pronumber of dispatches in 1879 was 242,259, of posed by Chili. In its turn the Chilian Government which 42,636 were official; the receipts having sent us the protocols of the conferences at Arica, exbeen $165, 266, and the expenditures $169,266. plaining its line of action, and declaring that it sought

In 1879 the number of letters that passed no conquest. I trust that, after the recent battles, dethrough the post-office was 6,696,328, of which at. The reclamations made by the legations of the 1,494,854 were official; and that of packages belligerents here have been impartially attended to, of printed matter 11,162,089, of which 457,913 with due regard to the exigencies of those at war and were to or from foreign countries.

the rights of those who, in peace and tranquillity, reOn the occasion of the opening of Congress,

main strictly neutral.

The Colombian Government asked us to send a May 8, 1881, President Roca, in a long but representative to the conference at Panama, to introunusually interesting message, presented an duce the principle of arbitration into American interelaborate sketch of the country under its va- national law. Our relations with Brazil are perfect. rious aspects-political, financial

, commercial, served, and the efforts of some uneasy spirits fail beindustrial, and intellectual. Here follow a few fore the circumspection and foresight of both Governbrief extracts from that document:

ments. We must definitely settle our boundaries with Messrs. SENATORS AND DEPUTIES : As you are aware, the empire. It is a joint work, and, once the dividpeace, order, and complete liberty, with every pros- ing line, through mysterious and deserted forests, is pect of a long duration, prevail al over the republic, traced, the science and civilization of both countries and our credit has reached every country and market will soon break in on their solitude. In more peacein Europe, where they are at last beginning to believe ful days for Bolivia we can also settle our

boundaries that we have

reached the years of discretion and com- with her. We maintain with Uruguay the good relamon sense. The uncertainty in which we were living, tions natural between nations whose

blood and intereven in times which were apparently the most tran" ests are identical, and any differences that arise are quil, has been succeeded by a most boundless con- promptly settled with good-will on both sides. Parafidence in the future. Life, movement, a spirit of guay has broken off her commercial treaty with this progress, and a love of work, have sprung up in all country and Brazil, but this shall not alter our wishes parts. The provinces are no longer armed in defense for her prosperity. of their autonomy or against revolution, but are occu

The Holy See, and the American and European pied in political, social, and economic reorganization, Governments, send us frequent proofs of friendship. improved administration, agriculture, irrigation, roads, I will lay, before you this year several conventions banks, and all kinds of improvements.

which will consolidate our good relations with those The session before you is full of work to be done. powers. It is as if we were a people newly born, as you will

I have the utmost confidence in the rectitude of our

foreign policy. Nothing shall divert us from the prin. See " Annual Cyclopædia " for 1880, p. 21. ciple of peace abroad and the firm assertion of our

rights. Our native land, whole and without a stain, promises to be effective, if enforced rigorously, The credit and wealth of the nation are apparent in State has borne an evil reputation. It is the

in diminishing a class of crimes for which the every way, now that it is felt that peace and order are firmly established. The receipts at the custom-house so-called “pistol bill,” which makes it a mis. in the capital for the last six months exceed by 1,045,- demeanor, punishable by a heavy fine, to sell 500 hard dollars those in the same period of the pre- or to keep for sale, or to furnish in whatever vious year. Our bonds have reached the highest quotations in London, while here there is no price, as

panner to any person, any species of sword or nobody will sell. Ships now leave our ports with dagger, or any kind of pistol, excepting the what we formerly imported, and every year we have regulation navy revolver.” It also prohibits the some new production to export. Here is one fact: carrying of deadly weapons of any sort, except 4,000 tons of fax shipped at the Riachuelo between the wearer be on his own premises, or on a revenue of the national railways was $805,379. The journey, or be an officer of the law. Officers Central Argentine Railway is now beginning to return and justices of the peace are subject to like what it received as guarantee. The balance in favor penalties for neglecting to arrest or to enterof government in 1880 was $130,993. The shares aro tain proceedings under the act. at a premium in London. The mint is finished, and

A law to protect the public against unqualimight have been at work, but the Executive decided to wait to lay before you some measures to meet dif- fied medical practitioners requires etery person culties that have arisen since you passed the coinage desiring to practice as a physician or surgeon act. The abolition of forced currency and a uniform to prove his or her qualifications before a circulating medium are of primary interest to the county board, and to be registered in the office country. Forced currency and privileges are against the spirit of a free government and the Constitution, of the county clerk. Persons denied registry which guarantees freedom of trade and industry; may demand an examination, as to their prothey also drive away foreign capital, disturb business, ficiency, by a State medical board. and inflict enormous loss on the Treasury. Every The law relative to larceny was changed so effort that Congress and the Executive can make to free as to make thefts of property under the value the country from this burden will be amply repaid. of ten dollars petty larceny only, the law having The day on which we get a uniform currency, and are free from inconvertible paper and privileges, there been excessively severe, thefts of above two will be an immense influx of foreign money. . Bad dollars being punished as grand larceny. cin, like the primitive languages of America, is not Arkansas is still one of the most backward a rneans of civilization, and, if we have progressed in States in educational facilities. The publicspite of monetary chaos, it is solely due to the exuberant vitality of the country.

school appropriations amount to only $205,000 The twelve-million loan, authorized in October last, per annum, being considerably less in proporfor railway extension in the interior, was successfully tion to the school population than is spent by contracted for with Paris bankers at 82, and the works

any other State. Congress has granted over are progressing. As you will see in the Finance Minister's report, it is the first loan launched here (and 1,000,000 acres of land to Arkansas for school perhaps in South America) direct, and with special purposes. In some sections the State fund is commissions.

supplemented by liberal local levies. ConsidThe National Bank, reorganized in 1876, shares the ering the facts that the public-school system general prosperity of trade. The price of its shares shows its improved credit, and it will be of much was not established until 1868, and that in 1870 greater service in the interior when the monetary con- only 75 per cent of the adult population could fusion that interferes with the circulation of its notes read and write, substantial educational progress shall have disappeared.

is being made. The State tax for school pur

poses is only two mills on the dollar. The ARKANSAS. The biennial session of the local tax raised in the individual districts is deLegislature commenced in January. The finan- termined by popular vote every year at an ancial affairs of the State occupied considerable nual school-meeting. The tax usually voted in attention. A State Board of Finance was cre- the more progressive districts is five mills. ated, consisting of the Governor, the Treasurer, Some depend solely on the scanty allowance and the Auditor, and is empowered to bor- afforded by the State fund. row money to meet the expenses of the gov- A state of violence and intimidation, in which ernment by pledging the State's bonds, which the authority of the law was superseded, preshall not be hypothecated for a less amount vailed for several months in Perry County, than three fourths of their face value. The terminating in the assassination of J. L. W. debt thus contracted is to bear no higher rate Matthews, editor of the “Fourche Valley of interest than 6 per cent per annum, and is Times.” The judicial acts of County Judge to be payable in two years. A senatorial com- Harris had been murmured at by a group of mission was appointed to examine the Audi- citizens, who complained that the murdered tor's and Treasurer's books, upon the suspicion man had procured or influenced obnoxious proof a default in the Treasurer's accounts. "That ceedings. One day a band of armed men rode officer's honesty was not impagned, however, into Perryville, and frightened the judge from by the instigators of the investigation. the bench by their menacing appearance. The

A law was passed, prohibiting the sale or Governor was appealed to, and General New. giving away of intoxicating liquors within a ton, of the militia, visited the county, but found radius of three miles from any church or no outward evidences of lawlessness. There school-house in the State.

were no further disturbances until the evening The Legislature passed one measure which in July on which Matthews was shot. Judge

Harris received at the same time a notice of be nominated which should be supported by warning to leave the county. Through fear, both divisions of the party unitedly, and that a the sheriff and magistrates refrained from in- resolution should be adopted, calling for a constituting proceedings against the suspected stitutional convention for the settlement of the murderers, appealing to the Governor to re- debt question. Every member of the party store order. Two detachments of militia were should be guided by his own convictions on the sent into the disturbed district to protect the debt question in the canvass for the Assembly civil officers in the discharge of their duty. elections, and in his action with reference to The arrest and commitment of the prisoners the Constitutional Convention. The Democrattook place under military guard. A guard of io State Central Committee, in a meeting in May, State soldiery was posted in the town for concluded to bring forward in the State Conseveral weeks to preserve order. Similar law. vention a proposition for an amendment which less developments occurred in Polk County, would not invalidate the objectionable bonds, though of a less serious character. Writs of but would yet prevent their funding or paythe court were defied, and the sheriff threat- ment without the express acquiescence of the ened. Exhibitions of mob-law have not grown people. The purport of the proposed amendless frequent in Arkansas. Various cases of the ment, by which it is sought to stave off the infliction of vengeance on supposed criminals question and avoid a final committal of the by bands of lynchers occurred in 1881, as in party, is expressed in the following first draft former years. Instances of the violent seizure to be submitted to the party convention in the of prisoners in legal custody, and the wreaking beginning of 1882: of popular rage upon their persons, continue to 1. Hereafter the General Assembly of this State shall take place. These manifestations of lawless- be prohibited from making any settlement or adjustness accompany, as usual, a high rate of crime, ment of the bonded debt of this State, based on what especially of the crimes against the person ford bonds, which shall be binding upon the State, which spring from anger or revenge, or reck- until such adjustment shall have been submitted to less bravado. The customary difficulty of pro- and voted upon by the qualified electors of this State curing salutary convictions for serious assaults by the next succeeding general election after such act of this character still obtains. There are many have been ratified by a majority of the qualified electsigns, however, of a rapid reformation of the

ors voting at such election. manners of the people in this respect. This 2. That no act of the General Assembly of this State, tendency is clearly reflected in the expressions which may hereafter be passed, making an appropriaof the press, and in the attitude of the influ- tion to pay off any part of the principal or interest of ential classes of citizens. The strict and judi- any of the bonded indebtedness of this state, based ciously framed law against the unwarranted bonds, or Holford bonds, shall be binding on the State carrying of deadly weapons, passed at the last or paid from the Treasury until such act shall have session of the Leġislature, indicates the vigor been submitted at the next succeeding general election of the movement. The recent temperance leg. after such act of appropriation has been passed to the islation had for its principal motive the desire people, and the same shall have been ratified by a

majority of all the qualified electors voting at such to prevent violence and crime. An active agi- election; and they further recommend that no action tation, which wins a remarkable moral and on said indebtedness be taken by the General Assembly numerical support, is now being carried on in until such amendment shall have been submitted to favor of stringent restrictive or prohibitory a vote of the people. enactments to suppress the liquor-traffic. This The financial troubles of Arkansas date from movement takes rank with the debt contro- its first erection into a State in 1836. A State versy as a leading political question. It has its Bank was organized, and authorized to issue root in the determination to redeem Arkansas $2,000,000 of bonds, and further credit was from its reputation for savagery and anarchy; obtained by means of a real-estate bank, whose althongh the majority may condemn a prohibi- $1,500,000 of bonds were guaranteed by the tory law, as unnecessary or impracticable. State, and secured by the public lands. Both

The question of the repudiation of a part of institutions suspended payments in the second the bonded debt of the State has rendered immi- year. This was the commencement of the nent a disruption of the Democratic party. The State debt, the unskillful management of which plan of resettlement embodied in the Fishback bas ever since impeded the progress of the amendment, so called, which was rejected in State. The State debt matured in 1862. Since the general election of 1880, is earnestly ap- the restoration of self-government in 1869 the proved by a large section of the party, while weight of public sentiment has favored the the other branch includes its most decided op- evasion of the vast liabilities which it would ponents. Neither faction can sacrifice their still tax all the resources of the State to disliberty to speak and vote according to their charge in full. The debt contracted in waging principles in this question, while both are war against the Federal Government was deequally anxious to preserve the party organiza- clared void. Its repudiation was followed by tion in order to prevent the administration a series of defaults on other obligations. The from falling into the hands of the Republicans. levee bonds were decided to be unconstituIt was proposed, therefore, that at the Demo- tional by the Supreme Court in 1878, and all cratic Convention of 1882, a State ticket should the railroad-aid bonds have since been declared

by the same court to have been illegally issued. growth of excellent black-walnut will doubtless The vote on the Fishback amendment, which come into requisition as the supplies of that repudiates the bulk of the debt of Arkansas, valuable wood fail in Indiana, Upper Canada, was about 61,000 for, to 41,000 against. It was and other northern districts, while the demand declared not carried, because it lacked 4,000 of still increases. There are seventy varieties of a majority of all the votes cast. The liabilities, useful timber in Arkansas. Besides black-walconsidered not binding by so large a proportion nut, there are numerous other highly-prized of the citizens of the State, consist of about timber-trees, which attain large proportions, $2,000,000 of levee bonds, $5,000,000 of rail- and grow in abundance. There are several way-aid bonds, and other disputed liabilities, varieties of the oak. The cherry, the bois. aggregating about $4,000,000. There is an d'arc, the holly, and the maple furnish choice admitted debt amounting to some $5,000,000, qualities of timber. The cedar, the beech, the over half of which is funded. The ground on poplar, the cypress, the hickory, and the ash which the levee and railroad subsidy were out are common. The yellow pine grows to large lawed by the courts, and on which they are size, and its forests take up one tenth of the disclaimed by the people, is principally that area of the State. With 2,500 miles of navithe acts authorizing their issue were not passed gable rivers, with a greater length of running in the manner provided by the State Consti- water than any other inland State, the facilities tution. The other class of bonds which it is for driving logs render the wealth of valuable sought to exclude, known as the Holford bonds, lumber, which clothes a greater part of the were a part of the whole series issued under State's surface, easily accessible. Walnut logs the funding act in 1870–71. They are objected have already been shipped in large quantities to on the ground of general fraud. The other to Eastern manufactories and to England. The funded bonds of the State are recognized as price of this favorite wood is constantly rising. valid by all parties. The Legislature in the The lumber was at first floated in rafts, buoyed early part of the session of 1881 passed an act up by intermingled cypress logs, to New

Ordirecting the Auditor and Treasurer to drop leans, and thence shipped on cars to the East, from their books the levee, railroad-aid, and but is now transported directly by rail. Holford bonds.

Arkansas is also a State of extraordinary The settlement of the debt question in a way though undeveloped mineral wealth. The coalwhich shall be understood to be final, whether fields, covering 12,000 square miles, and conby the acknowledgment of the entire debt, or taining more than those of Great Britain, the repudiation of a portion of it, would prob- afford anthracite and cannel as well as bitumiably promote the commercial progress of Ar- nous coal, deposited in strata of four to nine feet kansas. The cessation of lawless license and in thickness. The semi-anthracite quality charthe universal observance of legal methods would acteristic of these beds renders the coal excellent have a much more powerful effect in attracting for smelting and manufacturing purposes. The capital and immigration. The recent extension iron-ores are as rich as those of Missouri, and of railroads is already leading to the establish- nearly as abundant. Specular and hematite ment of new industries, and the enlargement ores both abound. The lead-ores of Arkansas of the agricultural area. Although its develop- are of remarkable richness, containing, not only ment has been slower than that of any other a large percentage of lead, but a considerable State, the natural resources of Arkansas are proportion of silver associated with it. Veins scarcely excelled. Nearly the entire area of the have been found yielding 70 per cent of pure State is cultivable land of high average quality. lead and 200. ounces of silver per ton; and The soil is seven to ten feet in depth, and con- assays of 6 per cent of silver have been known. tains potash, soda, magnesia, ferrous oxide, Perhaps the largest zinc deposits on the conlime, and phosphoric acid in favorable quanti tinent are found in this State, and stores of ties. The greater part of the 10,000,000 acres manganese unexcelled in any part of the world, donated by Congress as "swamp-lands," need Among the other prospectively valuable mineral no reclamation whatever. Timber-land in this resources are mines of salt, antimony in abunState is easily brought under cultivation, as dance, gypsum in greater quantities than the stumps rot thoroughly in three years. The other States contain together, and, in Pike crops of the prairie States and of the Gulf County, near the Little Missouri River, a whole States thrive equally. The yield of cotton is mountain of fine alabaster. Silver-mining as large in proportion to the labor applied as operations are being started in the Mount Ida in any part of America. It is a surer crop in district, in Montgomery County. The ores are Southern Arkansas, probably, than in any other as rich as many which are profitably worked district. Sugar-cane, tobacco, and all the cereals in districts where the business has been long are cultivated with profit. The planting-season established, but where the facilities are far inlasts from February till August, so that, if a ferior. In Pulaski County, just out of Little crop does not promise well, a second one can Rock, there are other ledges of ore which assay be planted and harvested the same season. from 50 to 1,200 ounces a ton. Zinc is found

Arkansas is one of the richest timber States in vast, easily accessible beds of calamine, or in the Union, though this source of wealth has carbonate, which is the most easily worked of been as yet but little developed. The abundant the zinc-ores, and also in the form of the


1 awrence..

sulphuret or blende. Works established in COUNTIES. Population. I COUNTIES.

Population, Lawrence County for converting the calamine Calhoun

5,671 Lonoke.

12,146 into metallic zinc have been abandoned, prob- Chicot...

13,897 Madison

11,455 10,117 Marion..

7,907 ably from want of capital. In the northern Clark.

15,771 Miller,


Clay counties there are vast quantities of marble of

7,218 Mississippi.

7,882 Columbia. 14,090 Monroo

9,574 inany varieties, and of admirable texture for Conway.

12,755 Montgomery

5,729 building and monumental purposes.

7,087 Nevada.

12,959 Crawford

14,740 Newton.. The great extension of railroad facilities, Crittenden

6,120 9,415 Ouachita.

11,758 which is in prospect, will contribute largely to

5.050 Perry.


Dallas, the material development of Arkansas. Rail

6,505 Phillips..

21,262 Desha 8,973 Pike.

6,845 road companies contemplate the building of Dorsey.

8,370 Poinsett.

2,192 some 2,000 miles of new railroad within the

12,281 Polk.

12,786 Pope...

14,822 State lines. They do not expect any assistance Franklin.

14,951 Prairie

8,435 from the State, since the constitutional limit of Fulton,

6,720 Pulaski.


Garland. 850 miles of railway altogether for which the

9,023 Randolph.

11,124 Grant.. 6,185 St. Francis...

8.869 State, county, and city credit may be pledged, Greene

7,481 Saline.

8.953 was reached several years ago, the aid award: Hempstead.. 19,015 Scott

9,174 Hot Spring 7,775 Searcy:

7,278 ed amounting to $9,900,000 in all. The Iron lloward.

9,917 Sebastian

19,560 Mountain Company, which has already done Independence.. 18,086 Sevier

6,192 much to build up the State, contemplates build

10,875 Sharp..

10.877 Stone.

5,089 ing 900 miles of branch lines. One will reach Jefferson.

22,886 Union..

18,419 from near the Missouri line to Vidalia, opposite La Fayette.

11,565 Van Buren.

9.565 Natchez. The second will run from about 30

3,730 Washington.

28,844 8,782 White

17,794 miles south of the north line of Arkansas

18,288 Woodruff.


Lincoln. straight west 150 miles. Another will extend

9,255 | Yell.

13,802 Little River.

6,404 from Little Rock southeast to the Louisiana Logan..

14,885 | Total.. 802,525 line. The fourth will extend from 85 miles southeast of Little Rock to Alexandria, Louisi- State was-Hancock, Democrat, 60,775 ; Gar

The result of the presidential election in the ana, on the Red River. The extension of the field, Republican, 42,436; Weaver, Greenback, Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fé to the Missis- 4,079: total vote, 107,290. Hancock's majorsippi will enter Arkansas at Fort Smith, and ity over Garfield, 14,260. pass across the State from side to side, 200 miles.

The vote for State officers was as follows: The St. Louis and San Francisco is completing the section from the north State line to Texarkana, 200 iniles long, whence it will follow the

Jacob Frolich, Democrat..

86,782 course of the Red River to a point opposite

C.E. Tobey, Greenback.

97,630 Natchez, 150 miles farther. The Memphis and

FOR TREASURER. Charleston intends crossing the State from W. E. Woodruff, Jr., Democrat..

86,987 W. A. Watson, Greenback.

26,448 the east. The line being built by the Texas and St. Louis Company intersects the State

FOR AUDITOR. diagonally from the southwest to the north- John Crawford, Democrat ,

86,997 east corner, 300 miles. The same railroad


C. E. Cunningham, Greenback company is adding a branch, 120 miles long, running from Little Rock to Shreveport. The C. B. Moore, Democrat..

87,206 Fort Scott, Southeastern and Memphis Railroad

G. Sibley, Greenback.

24,370 is building a live from Springfield, Missouri,

FOR LAND COMMISSIONER. to the Mississippi, opposite Memphis, traversing D. W. Lear, Democrat.

88,251 the State for 200 miles. Besides these, various

W. Riley, Greenback

27,116 shorter lines and branches have been surveyed, FOR SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTIOX. and some are under construction. The pro- J. L. Denton, Democrat ........

90,329 jected railroad of the Georgia syndicate from Atlanta to the Mississippi River, opposite Ar

E. H. English. Democrat..

87,051 kansas City, will furnish direct connection

J. C. Davis, Greenback.

27,857 between Arkansas towns and the Southern sea-ports on the Atlantic, making a continuous

D. W. Carroll, Democrat........

88,462 line from Fort Smith, on the border of the Indian nation, to Atlanta, and thence to The vote for members of Congress was as Charleston and Richmond.

follows: The compilation of the census of Arkansas has been only partially completed at the Census | Dunn, Democrat

15,753 1 Johnson, Republican.

10,407 Office, so as to be available for this volume.

16,517 The following is the population of the State







Jones, Democrat..

II. Williams, Republican.

4,513 Garland, Greenback

8,920 by counties :

Cravens, Democrat

15,781 Population. | COUNTIES. Population.

Boles, Republican..

11,552 Arkansas.. 8,038 | Benton....

Gunter, Democrat

7,897 Ashley.. 10.156 | Boone.. 12,146 IV. Murphy, Republican.

4.125 Baxter. 6,001 Bradley

Peel, Independent Democrat



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