« AnteriorContinuar »
difficult to decide its exact limits. Native geographers and the lower trias beds, followed by a continuous succession of strata, Paranic scriptures define the Himalayas as comprising only the which reach up into the lower lias. chain of snowy peaks at the head of the Ganges drainage. The same condition prevails in Spiti, where the lower lias is Modern views generally limit the Himalayas to the system of also well represented. mountain ranges which extend between the Brahmaputra and The lias limestones and shales are overlaid by jurassic (Spiti) Indus rivers. Of course, structurally, these ranges continue beds, which have yielded a large number of fossils, but which heyond these boundaries, but there are distinct changes in the have not yet been entirely examined. Most of them appear features of the ranges which make these limits advisable. As to belong to the upper jurassics rather than middle or lower. regards the lateral extension of the region, several views have whether the latter is represented or not, is not quite clear, but been formed; but I consider it most convenient, and at the same the bedding of the Spiti shales is isoclinal with the lower lias, time more in accordance with the original significance of the and if there is an unconformity between these systems, it may term, to call Himalayas only the system of ranges which fringe only be conjectured from the sudden and entire change in the Tibetan highlands along its southern margin, a view which lithological character of the two formations, coupled with the is now most generally held. That part of the system in which absence of lower jurassic forms amongst the species found in the rise the headwaters of the Ganges drainage, and extending Spiti shales. north-westwards as far as the Sutlej gorge, I call here the From this formation there is a gradual passage into the greenish Central Himalayas, and within this area I divide the Central shales and sandstones of the cretaceous (with perhaps upper ranges into (1) Northern range (watershed), and (2) Southern jurassic), the Gieumal sandstone of Stoliczka. Again a sudden range (line of highest peaks).
change in lithological character from these sandstones into the Whilst the Southern range of the Central Himalayas is formed white limestone of the upper cretaceous seems to point in the chiefly of crystalline rocks, mostly gneissic with metamorphic probability of there having occurred physical changes on a large schists, it is shown that the Northern range is almost entirely scale after the deposition of the lower cretaceous. In the Central composed of a vast sequence of sedimentary strata, ranging from Asian area, and also in the Perso-Afghán region, a strongly the lowest palæozoic to tertiary and recent age. The detailed marked overlap. of the upper cretaceous over the neocomian description of these various formations I have given in the limestones may be observed. preceding pages, and I will here only recapitulate the following Probably similar features will be found to exist in the Himalayan points.
area, the cretaceous rocks of which have not been closely studied. Immediately on the crystalline schists reposes an enormous The tertiary system is fully developed, though few fossils were thickness of beds of varying lithological character, named found in it. A great unconformity occurs between certain sand. haimantas by me, which are sharply defined near its upper limit stones which cannot be older than upper eocene (overlying be most characteristic red quartz shales, which form the base of nummulitics), and are probably of miocene age, and horizontal the richly fossiliferous lower silurians. Structurally, this system beds of clay, sand, gravels, and sandstone, which form the high is very much more fully developed than the succeeding silurians, table-land of Húndés, which, having yielded mammalian bone being in most sections more than double the thickness of the remains, are commonly known as the ossiferous beds of Húndés. latter. But the lower limit of the haimantas is obscure; an From the foregoing it will be seen that special disturbances almost perfect lithological passage may be traced from the must have occurred in early geological times, and have been crystallines (vaikritas) into this system, both in the western and repeated periodically. easternmost sections described.
It is very certain that near the beginning of the haimanta era One of the most characteristic amongst the various horizons sufficient physical changes have occurred not only to completely in this system is a great thickness of a coarse conglomerate or alter the lithological character of the deposits in course of formahoulder-bed, which in some sections alternates with slaty beds, tion, but also the area in which the latter were laid down. The but is never entirely absent. This, in conjunction with the great thicknesses of coarse conglomerates, which are of wide. ripple-marking which may be seen on nearly all the slaty beds of spread extent in the lower haimantas, indicate the nearness of the haimantas, indicates clearly that we must suppose the land at the time, or, as I may term it, the existence of an early ancient coast-limits of haimanta age to have been in close region of elevation in place of the present area of the Central proximity. The apparent overlap of haimantas on gneiss (Niti Himalayas. At the same time lithological, not less than area) is easily explained, if we suppose this system to have structural, conditions point to the probability of true haimanta been developed in this region as a littoral formation. It is deposits having been laid down also on the south slope of what extremely probable that one of the earliest Himálayan dis- is now the Central Himalayan region. tarbances occurred immediately before haimanta times.
The compression of the Himalayan, and indeed entire Central Lithological resemblance, not less than structural features, Asian area, and consequent folding, and thus elevating of it, most point to the probability that a part at least of the slate series of probably went on uninterruptedly and continuously from the the Lower Himalayas are equivalents of the haimanta system of earliest epochs to the present; indeed, the natural forces exerted the Central Himalayas. I believe even that some of the older on the surface of our globe condition this. But in addition to rocks, which immediately underlie the Vindhian group, may yet this, periodical greater changes have taken place, and are proved be found to belong to the same age. It would thus follow that by the sections of the Central Himalayas. the haimanta seas had extended not only over the greater part of After the lower haimanta recession of deposits from the entire the present Himalayan area, but perhaps also as far south as Himalayan area into well-defined northern and southern regions Central India. If so, the line of the Central Himálayas was of formations, we find an undisturbed sequence of beds till the probably marked out as a chain of elevations, from the waste upper carboniferous, when clear evidences of a great overlap may of which the boulders and pebbles of the haimanta conglomerate be observed. This is well marked in the Central Himalayas, and of the Simla rocks were derived. The latter supposition is and is clearly proved in the Perso-Afghán area, where caralso advanced by the authors of the “ Manual."
boniferous marine limestones are followed by littoral deposits, The palæozoic group forms an uninterrupted sequence from the upper beds of which contain a triassic fauna. Here we the lowest haimantas to the upper carboniferous ; and this have therefore a period of sub-aërial and marine erosion of the sequence is the same, or nearly so, in all the sections of the carboniferous, followed by an overlap of probably a permian and Central Himalayas. The first indications of a disturbance are triassic sequence of deposits. noticeable in the upper carboniferous. Certain beds of the latter The third period of disturbance seems to belong to the lower are wanting in some sections, and I found the next following jurassic age, where a gap (partial or otherwise) between lower systein overlapping what I must look upon as an eroded surface lias and middle or upper jurassics is probable. of upper carboniserous.
I may inention that this gap is not observable in the PersoNearly everywhere I found the latter overlaid by a great Afghán region, where the passage from the trias into jurassics sequence of beds, which represent permian, trias, rhætic, and and neocomian is gradual. lias. This group of systems forms an uninterrupted sequence, On the other hand, a decided overlap on an immense scale has with conformable bedding throughout. The base of the sequence occurred in later cretaceous times in Central Asia, and we find is everywhere seen to be dark crumbling shales, which contain that hippuritic limestone covers both jurassics and neocomian a palæozoic sauna, probably permian in character, which gradu. unconformably. Such is less apparent in the Central Himálayas, ally passes into lowest trias beds through dark limestones and though probable enough when considering the sudden change shales which have yielded a curious fauna, some of the pecies of from the sandstone and shales of the lower cretaceous to the which have strong affinities with permian forms. On it rest hard white and grey limestone of the upper cretaceous. 1 Page 679
The fifth period of disturbance, which is clearly shown in the
Central Himálayas, occurred after the deposition of the sand- than the surface of the continent, of which the Peninsula cof stones which overlie the nummulitics of Húndés, and which are India forms only a portion of the remains. probably of miocene age. A considerable gap seems to exist It is improbable that the folding action alone has been the between the latter and the ossiferous younger tertiaries which fill cause of the present structure and orographical features of the Húndés basin.
Central Asia and the areas south of it: for the final great There is clear evidence, therefore, of very early disturbances changes which have resulted in the draining of Central Asia of having taken place in the Himalayan area. There are abundant the tertiary seas, of which nothing now remains but isolated saltproofs that minor changes in the distribution of land and water water lake-basins, such as the Aral and the Caspian are, we must have occurred not only frequently, but we can scarcely believe look for other causes. otherwise than that the forces which have resulted in the intricate Possibly such may be found in the sinking in of large portions folding and crumpling of the great sequence of sedimentary and of the southern hemisphere which caused the submergence of crystalline strata must have been of very long duration, and were the Indo-African area below what is now the Indian Ocean. probably existent from the very earliest date when the first grain With it the part now known to us as the Peninsula of India of sediment was deposited in the Himalayan seas. We can go may have partially broken down, though of that we have no further. Whatever other-and as yet only dimly understood direct evidence, unless the improbability that the Central Asian forces were at work to produce this contraction and folding of area could have been pushed up to its present elevation above the the earth's crust, we know of two forces about which there can Peninsula entirely through being folded might be adduced as. scarcely be the slightest doubt. The first is the gradual cooling proof. Large tracts of Central Asia we know could never have of our earth, and consequent lessening and shrinking of the suffered folding to any but very slight extent, as, for instance, surface of it. Secondly-and this is a force which may be the greater part of the tertiaries of the Turkistán region which mathematically expressed-we know that the centrifugal force are often in undisturbed horizontal position. On the other hand, endeavours to move every point on the surface of the earth in a these latter are but little raised above-some are even depressed direction opposite to that in which gravitation attracts it.
below the level of India. The actual force exerted is the resultant between the centri. In all these considerations and speculations two points seem fugal and tangential forces, and it has the tendency, if I may so probable almost beyond doubt, namely: First, that ihe last and express it, of gradually moving each point on the surface of the main disturbance of physical conditions of the Central Asian area earth towards the equator. It may be supposed that an enormous has taken place in post eocene, perhaps in middle tertiary times, sequence, of to a certain extent pliable deposits, trying to move and is most likely still continued to the present day. Secondly, bodily, as it were, towards the equator, but en route arrested and that this period of disturbance coincides with the sinking in of banked up against a rigid mass of which the peninsula of India the Indo-African continent, which “breaking down "caused the is a small remnant only, must necessarily have suffered wrinkling, final draining of the tertiary seas from the Central Asian area. and lateral crushing.
Not so certain is whether the raising en bloc of the Central These forces operated since the earth existed, and must be Asian mass above the level of the Indian Peninsula is due only active now. But throughout the great sequence of the palæozoic, to the folding process, or whether some movement downwards mesozoic, and kainozoic deposits, we search in vain for an of the Peninsula, in connection with the sinking in of the Indointernal explanation of the great unconformities and disturbances African region, may not have had a share in producing the present of coast-line which have taken place at certain intervals, such as configuration of the Húndés plateau. Some such movement may I have sketched out above. That these changes were not local be conjectured. Certain supposed elevations of the Peninsula overlaps only is apparent when we compare the Central may possibly be cwing to “negative” movements of the area of Himalayan area with the Perso-Afghán region. In the latter the Indian Ocean—in other words, to the sinking in of the ocean the physical changes are far more clearly marked. At the close bed. of the carboniserous epoch, which was one of pelagic conditions in the Hindu Kúsh area, Khorassán and Persia, the distribution of land and water must have considerably changed, as we find
SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. immediately above the carboniferous limestone, shaly beds with coal-seams, and conglomerates and partly littoral, partly fresh
American Journal of Science, January.—Theory of an interwater conditions prevailed in that area till late into jurassic glacial submergence in England, by G. Frederick Wright. The times. These disturbances, which are slightly indicated in the theory of deep interglacial submergence which has been proHimalayas, are clearly shown and occur on a larger scale in the pounded to account for the shell-beds at Moel Tryfaen, near West Central Asian area.
Snowdon, and at Macclesfield, is opposed by several formidable The next great change in the Perso-Afghán area is the great objections, viz. (1) the subsidence must have been one which overlap of the upper cretaceous (hippuritic) limestone over the affected North Wales and central England without affecting the neocomian, already alluded to. It has resulted in a great and region south of the the Thames and Bristol Channel ; (2) there often strongly expressed unconformity. Again, another and
is in other places a considerable absence of marks of subsidence strongly, marked change occurs in the middle tertiaries of the over the northern part of the centre of England, where it is supPerso. Asghán area. The purely marine miocene beds are over
posed to have been the greatest ; (3) the Pennine Chain is not laid, often with isoclinal bedding, at other localities distinctly
more than 25 or 30 miles wide from east to west, yet east of unconformably, by upper tertiary freshwater deposits. If the Macclesfield there is an entire absence upon its Hanks both of folding and crushing process were alone the cause of these glacial deposits and of beach lines ; (4) the shell beds are strictly shall I call them cycles of disturbances—then at least some
confined not only to the area which was demonstrably covered evidence of it should be observable within the sequences of by glacial ice, but to those more limited areas which were rocks as we see them.
reached by ice that is known to have moved in its way over On the other hand, there is no direct evidence to show that shallow sea-bottoms; (5) the assemblage of shells is not such as the raising of the Himalayas as a mountain system was in any
could have occurred in one place in the ordinary course of way due to these periodical Auctuations of sea-level, or, as Suess
The author develops a system of glaciers which will terms it, the" positive” and “negative” movements of the liquid explain the facts at present known, upon the supposition of a covering of the earth. The evidence of the transverse valleys single glacial epoch.-The Permian of Texas, by Ralph S. in the Himalayas points even to the probability that the raising Tarr. It is shown that the Permian of Texas is, like other areas up of the chains of hills forming them, i.e. the folding and
of Permian, a deposit in large measure made in an inland sea.crumpling of its rock strata, must have kept pace, step by step,
The chemical composition of iolite, by O. C. Farrington. The with the erosion by rivers which we now find traversing the formula obtained from two analyses of exceptionally pure speciwhole width of this mountain system.
mens of the mineral is H,0 4(MgFe) 4A1,0,10SiO2, the Such transverse valleys, however, can only date since the last ratio of Mgo to FeO in the two cases being as 7 : 2.-On a series of the periodical changes spoken of, i.i. since the middle of cæsium trihalides, by H. L. Wells; including their crystal tertiary epoch. Before that time, up to the point when the last lography, by S. L. Penfield. Upon adding bromine to a conmarine tertiary deposits were laid down along the margin of centrated solution of cæsium chloride, a bright yellow precipithe Himalayas, the relative position of Peninsular India and tate was obtained, from which crystals were formed having Central Asia must have been the reverse of what we know them the composition Cs.Cl, Brg. An attempt has been made to to be now ; that is to say, the surface of the Central Asian
"Manual," pp. Ivi., 680, &c. elevated massif must have been nearer the centre of our earth
Manual," p. 681.
prepare all the members in the following series, and, with th: Royal Microscopical Society, January 20.--Dr. R. exception of Nos. 4 and io, all of them have been isolated Braithwaite, President, in the chair.— The Society adjourned (1) Csiz, (2) CsBrl,, (3) CsBr, I, (4) CsCli,, (5) CsCIBrI, (6) after passing a vote of sympathy and condolence to His Royal Csci,i, (7) CsBrz, (8) CsClBrz; (9) CsCl,Br, (10) CsClz. The Highness the Prince of Wales (Patron of the Society) on the characteristics of these compounds have been fully studied.- sad loss he had sustained.-Tbis being the annual meeting, the The law of elastic lengthening, by J. 0. Thompson. The President's address, which was to have been read, was therefore anthor has made an extended and thorough investigation on postponed till the next meeting, February 17. Hooke's law. The experiments were carried out at the Physical Institute of the University of Strassburg, with the advice and
EDINBURGH. help of Prof. Kohlrausch. They lead to the following conclusions :-(1) The generally accepted law of elastic lengthening,
Royal Society, January 4.-Prof. Sir W. Turner, Vicex = aP, according to which the lengthening x is proportional to
President, in the chair.—Dr. Noel Paton read a paper on the
action of the auriculo ventricular valves. It has hitherto been the stretching weight P is only an approximation. (2) The relation between elastic extension and stretching weight can be supposed that, when these valves close, the two flaps are floated expressed by an equation of the following form :
up by the fluid, and, partially overlapping, prevent the passage
of the fluid by being pressed against each other. Thus it has x= aP + BP? + P3.
been supposed that, when closed, the upper surface of one flap (3) The modulus of elasticity of the undeformed body can be
presses against the under surface of the other. Dr. Paton
has found, by direct experiment, that the flaps remain, on the calculated with the help of the equation
whole, in a pendant position, the upper surfaces of the two
being pressed together. -Mr. John Aitken read the second part =d.
of a paper on the number of dust particles in the atmosphere of
certain places in Great Britain and on the Continent, with remarks (4) The true moduli of elasticity, calculated in this way, may be on the relation between the amount of dust and meteorological as much as 16 per cent. larger than those determined in the phenomena.—Dr. Thomas Muir read a paper on a theorem reordinary way. Consequently it will be necessary to recalculate garding a series of convergents to the roots of a number. physical constants which depend on the modulus of elasticity. The investigation was suggested by some work of the late Dr. A method for the quantitative separation of strontium from Sang. The series does not converge rapidly, and so cannot calcium by the action of amyl alcohol on the nitrates, by P. E. be of great practical use. -Mr. Malcolm Laurie read a paper Browning.-The relation of melting point to pressure in case of on the development of the lung-books of Scorpio, and the igneous rock fusion, by C. Barus. From the experiments on relation of the lung-books to the gills of aquatic forms. He diabase the relation of melting point to pressure at 1200° is was led to investigate this subject by observations made on the T/dy = '021; at 1100°, dT/dp = '029. And since the probable allied fossil forms described in his paper read at the previous silicate value of dT/dp = '25 at 1170°, and as this falls within meeting of the Society. He concludes that the lung.books are the margin ('020 to '030) of corresponding data for organic sub- not formed by a process of invagination, as is usually supposed stances such as spermaceti, paraffin, &c., it is inserred that the to be the case. He considers that the cavities are formed by relation of melting point to pressure, in case of the normal type the growth of a protecting plate which finally adheres to the hody. of fusion, is nearly constant, irrespective of the substance operated upon. —The discovery of Clymenia in the fauna of the
SYDNEY. Intumescens zone (Naples beds) of Western New York, and its geological significance, by John M. Clarke.-A new meteoric
Royal Society of New South Wales, November_4, iron from Garrett Co., Maryland, by A. E. Foote. A plate 1891.-H. C. Russell, F.R.S., President, in the chair. - The accompanies this paper. ---Farrington, Washington Co., Kansas, following papers were read :-Notes on Artesian water in New aerolite, by G. F. Kunz and E. Weinschenk.—The skull of South Wales, by Prof. David.—On the constitution of the sugar Torosaurus, by 0. C. Marsh.
series, by W. M. Hamlet.
December 2.-H. C. Russell, F.R.S., President, in the chair.— The following papers were read :-On kaolinite from
the Hawkesbury sandstone, by H. G. Smith.-Notes on some SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
New South Wales minerals (Note No. 6), by Prof. Liversidge,
F.R.S.-Notes on the rate of growth of some Australian trees, LONDON.
by H. C. Russell, F.R.S. -Some folk-songs and myths from Royal Society, January 21.- “Additional Observations on Samoa, translated by the Rev. G. Pratt, with introductions and the Development of Apleryx.” By T. Jeffery Parker, B.Sc., notes, by Dr. John Fraser. F.R.S.
PARIS. The paper is founded upon the study of three embryos of Afteryx australis obtained since the author's former communi- Academy of Sciences, January 18.-M. Duchartre in the cation on this subject was written.
chair. -Obituary notice on the late Sir George Biddell Airy, by The youngest (stage E') is intermediate between E and F of M. Faye.-On the mass of the atmosphere, by M. Mascart. It the former paper, the next (F') between F and G, the most is shown that the determination of the mass of the atmosphere advanced (G') between G and H.
by observations of the pressures at the surface is open to serious In E' the characteristic form of the beak has already objections, and involves a notable error. The mass, calculated appeared.
by means of the formulæ developed by M. Mascart, is onein F' the pollex is unusually large, giving the fore-limb the sixth greater than that usually obtained. The quantity of air normal characteristics of an embryo wing.
situated at a height of 64 kilometres is 1/700 of the total mass. Several important additions and corrections are made to the Particles of ice and water are suspended at this height, although former account of the skull, especially with regard to the pre- the air is so rarefied. It is therefore presumed that the density sphenoid region, the basi-cranial fontanelles, and the relations does not diminish uniformly with increase of height above seabetween the trabecular and para-chordal regions.
level, but decreases more slowly in high than in low strata. [On The account of the shoulder-girdle is amended. In Apteryx this point see a note in NATURE, P. 259. ]-New note on the eveni the coracoid region is solid, and no pro-coracoid appears resistance and small deformations of helical springs, by M. H. ever to be formed : in d. australis a ligamentous pro.coracoid Resal. –On solar statistics for 1891, by M. Rodolf Wolf. (See is present at a comparatively early period (stage F', and perhaps | Our Astronomical Column.)-Observations of Wolf's periodic E').
comet, made in 1891 with the great equatorial of Bordeaux ObAn intermedium is present in the carpus in all three specimens, servatory, by MM. G. Rayet. L. Picart, and Courty. Observations in addition to the elements previously described.
of position are given, extending from June 27 to December 27.The brain in stage G' is interesting, as being at what may be On integrals of differential equations of the first order, possessing a called the critical stage ; the cerebellum is fully developed, and limited number of values, by M. P. Painlevé.-On an arithmetical the optic lobes have attained the maximum proportional size theorem of M. Poincaré's, by M. Victor Stanievitch.-On and are lateral in position. In all essential respects the brain organic compounds as solvents for salts, by M. A. Etard. of this embryo is typically avian.
Action of carbon monoxide on iron and manganese, by M. Guniz. Pure finely divided manganese, obtained by heating an Physiological Society, January 15.-Prof. du Bois Rey. amalgam formed electrolytically, at 400° completely absorbs mond, President, in the chair.—Dr. Max Levy described his pure carbon monoxide as follows :-Mn + CO = MnO + C. experiments on the influence of blood-supply to the skin on the The reaction is probably the same in the case of iron. This secretion of su eat as seen in the paw of the cat. He found that explains the facility with which C is taken up by iron in the blod only supplies the material necessary for the secretion. blast furnace. The spongy iron reduces CO, and finely divided Secreiion can be obtained even after complete occlusion of the C is deposited in contact with the Feo formed ; at a higher blood vessels supplying the glands. After anæmia lasting for temperature the FeO is reduced by CO, when the metallic Fe
35 minutes the sweat-glands are paralyzed, but can recover realily takes up the finely divided C intimately mixed with it. - iheir functional activity even after having been deprived of Action of carbon on sodium sulphate, in presence of silica, hy blood for five hours. - Dr. Th. Weyl gave an account of the M. Scheurer-Kesine :-Lithium nitride, hy M. 1. Ouvrard results of his experiments on animals (pigeons and fowls) (See Notes.) – Action of phosphorus pentachloride on ethy! rendered immune io anthrax. When anthrax spores were oxalate, hy M. Ad. Fauconnier (See Nees) – On the thermal introduced on a silk ihread under the skin of these animals, the value of the substitution by sodium in the two alcoholic spores relained their full activity at the end of one day's sojourn hydroxyl groups of glycol, by M. de Forcrand. -- An isomeride under the skin. I kept there for a longer period, they lost of caraphor, hy M. Ph. Barlier --The fixation of iodine by some of their virulence, and were found to have become quite starch, hy M.' E. Rouvier -The rot uory power of silks of harmless at the end of six days in the pigeon, and three or different origin, hy M. Léo Vignon. -Action of boric acid on more in the fowl. germina'ion, hy M. J. Morel.-Contribution to the embryogeny Erratum. - In the report of the Meteorological Society for of Smicra clasi pes, by M. 1. F. Henneguy.-On some new December 1, 1891 (see NATURE, vol. xlv. p. 168) for “maxiCoccidia, parasites of fishes, by M. P. Thélohan.--On the pre. mum and minimum thermometer read sling thermometer." vention of hiccough by pressure on the phrenic nerve, by M. Leloir. Five years ago the author was consulted by a girl Twelve years of age who hiccoughed every half-minuie. She was thus prevented from sleeping, or masticating her lood, and her BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. life was despaired of. Anti-spasmodic prescriptions were tried
Books.-Cooley's Cyclopædia of Practical Receipts, 2 vols., 7th edition: in vain. After pressing the left phrenic nerve, however, for W. Norih (Churchill) - Manual of Chemical Technology: K. von Wagner : about three minutes, the hiccoughing disappeared. The method translated and edited by W. Crookes (Churchill). - The Human Mind. 2 has since been successful in many other ca:es - On the vols. : J. Sully (I.ongmans). — The Rainfall of Jamaica : M. Hall (Stanford).
- The Horse : W. H. Flower (Kegan Paul). muciserous apparatus of Laminaria, by M. Léon Guignard:
PAMPHLETS.--A New Departure in Astronomy: E. H. (Chapman and On the dorsal insertion of the ovules of Angiosperms, by M. Hall).-Hand-book on Viticulture for Victoria (Melboume, Brain). --Royal Gustave Chauveaucl.-On chloride of sodium in plants, by M. Commission on Vegetable Products : 1. Ensilage; Il. Perfume Plants and Pierre Lesage. It appears that when Lepidium sativum and
Essential Oils (Melbourne, Brain). - Report upon the Condition and Pro
gress of the US. National Museum during the year ending June 30, 1889 : Raphanus sativus are watered with a solution of sodium
G. B. Go de (Washington).--List of Institutions and Foreign and Domestic chloride the elements of this salt are found in these plants, Librar.es to which it is desired to send future Publications of the National consequently a certain proportion of each is absorbed by the Museum (Washington).- Te Pico te Henua, or Easter Island : W. J Thor. plants.- Observation of a lunar corona on January 14, 1892, by
son (Washington). -Ahoriginal Skin Dressing : 0. T. Mason (Washington)
- I he Development of the American Rail and Track, as illustrated by the M. Chapel
Collection in the U.S. National Museum: J. E. Watkins (Washington). —
Preliminary Hand book of the Depariment of Geology (f the U s. National
Serials.- Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zologie, liii. Band, 3 Hest the chair.--Dr. Kurlbaum described a sursace-bolometer which (Williams and Norgate).-Morphologisches Jahrbuch, xviii. Band, i Heft he had constructed in conjunction with Dr. Lummer. It (Williams and Norgaie). -- Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natura! is cut out of platinum foil whose thickness is ool2 mm.,
Sciences, vol. v. No. 3 (Buffalo).-Records of the Geological Survey of
India, vol. xxiv. Part 4, 1891 (Calcutta). and possesses the great advantage of very rapidly coming to rest. It is a trustwerthy instrument for the measurement of the differences in luminosity of two sources of light. -Dr. Pringsheim described a lengthy series of experiments made in order to determine whether the emission of light by gases is
PAGE the outcome of mere elevation of temperature, or whether
The Astronomical Theory of the Glacial Period. electrical or chemical processes play a necessary part in their incandescence.
289 Sodium vapours were found to yield their Popular Zoology. By A. R. W. By Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.
291 characteristic spectral lines and absorption spectra, when
292 passed through a highly heated porcelain tube, only in the case
Physiological Chemistry for Medical Students
Our Book Shell:where chemical processes (of reduction) could be ascertained to
Cox: “Problems in Chemical Arithmetic"
293 take place inside the tube. In the absence of these reduction
etters to the Editor :processes, both the emission ard absorption of light by the
The Theory of Solutions.-Prof. W. Ostwald
293 sodium vapours were wanting. The experiments suri her showed that Kirchoff's law holds good not only for the emission of light
A Simple Heat Engine. (Illustrated.)-Frederick J.
Smith resulting from a rise of temperature, but also for that which
The Migration of the Lemming -w. Dupparesults from chemical processes, since in all cases the emission
Crotch; W. Mattieu-Williams
294 spectrum corresponded absolutely to the absorption spectrum.
The New Forest Bill, 1892.-H. Goss
295 Meteorological Society, January 12.-Prof. Schwalbe, A Brilliant Meteor. - Thomas Heath
295 President, in the chair.--Dr. Sprung exhibited his improved On some Points in Ancient Egyptian Astronomy. sliding-weight balance, demonstrated its mode of action and (Illustrated.) By J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. . extreme sensitiveness, and explained its use in the registration on the Number of Dust Particles in the Atmoof changes of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and humidity; sphere of Various Places in Great Britain and on -Prof. Boernstein spoke of a case of extraordinarily rapid the Continent. By John Aitken, F.R.S.
299 evaporation from both the surface of his body and his clothing, John Couch Adams .
301 which he had recently observed while on a glacier. He Walter Hood Fitch
302 expressed his belief that the evaporation was due to the lesser Notes
302 tension of aqueous vapour, for any given temperature, over a Our Astronomical Column:surface of ice as compared with its tension, at the same Wolf's Numbers for 1891
307 Temperature, over a surface of water. Dr. Assmann put A New Journal .
307 forward the view that the phenomenon was due to the extreme Korea. By Charles W. Campbell
307 and sudden dryness of the air often observed in elevated The Geology of the Himalayas
308 regions, and to the powerful effect of solar radiation.-Dr. Scientific Serials
310 Andries read a passage from Virgil's “ Æneid " which contains Societies and Academies
311 a most clear description of a cyclone.
Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1892.
English makers for an instrument of no greater practical value ; whilst it was also the fact that English dealers (not the great makers) were in the habit of selling inferior
Continental objectives (rejected by their makers) as their CARPENTER BY DALLINGER.
own “make," at higher prices than would suffice to purThe Mii roscope and its Revelations. By the late William
chase first-rate glasses from the Continental firms. The B. Carpenter, C.B. M.D., F.R.S. Seventh Edition, by result of the diversion of English purchasers to Conthe Rev. W. H. Dallinger, LL.D., F.R.S. (London : tinental stands and objectives was the simplification of J. and A. Churchill, 1891.)
English models, and an enormous reduction in the price "HE
of English-made objectives. had a satisfactory basis. They formed an excellent The treatise on section-cutting, mounting, use of reguide to the use of the instrument, in days when micro- agents, &c., is necessarily short, and lacks that completescopic technique was far less elaborated than it is now, ness and authority which can alone make a laboratory urritten by an enthusiastic and experienced worker. Dr. guide really useful. But the chapter on practical microCarpenter told us about the theory of the microscope and the scopy is a really valuable one, giving the matured condifferent kinds of stages, rack-works, and objectives which clusions of the editor as to the true methods of getting he himself had seen and tried ; and then gave a somewhat the best possible performance from the instrument. The casual and purely personal account of different animal, English school of microscopists is unrivalled in the vegetable, and mineral structures which had been investi- services which it has rendered to the development of gated with the microscope, and had especially excited his the microscope as an instrument of precision, and in the interest and attention. The book was valuable because cultivation of the art of obtaining from it the most it contained the advice and judgment of a great authority, perfect optical results by skilful management of illuminaand original observations upon a heterogeneous assem- tion, &c., as also of rightly judging and correcting those blage of objects by a highly competent naturalist. The results. The high eulogy passed on the Royal Microlater editions of the book, even in Dr. Carpenter's scopical Society (p. 340), in view of its services in this hands, lost a good deal of the original character of the field, is amply warranted. It is, however, to be regretted work. New matter of all kinds was fitted in, until the that the name of the late Dr. Royston Pigott, F.R.S., is. rolume became very bulky. Still, the selection of omitted from the history here given of the improvements material was made by one man, and the work might be in condensers, objectives, and eye-pieces. His valuable regarded as his note-book, his conception of what was contributions to the subject were rejected by the Society most interesting and instructive in the wide field of in 1870, and published in the Quarterly Journal of microscopic research. An edition of such a book by Microscopical Science at that period. other hands after the death of the original author is The last three treatises are what give the book its not likely to be a real success, though it may justify a strange and almost incomprehensible character. There publisher's commercial foresight. Dr. Carpenter's name can be no doubt that Prof. Bell would have written an is a good one to trade with ; but as a matter of fact there excellent original treatise on microscopic animals, and is not much of Dr. Carpenter in the present work, and Mr. Bennett an equally valuable one on microscopic what there is has only impeded the naturalists who have plants ; but they have not been asked to do this. They assisted Dr. Dallinger in elaborating its contents. The and others, and the editor himself, have contributed result is very confusing : the reader often is at a loss to fragments which are mixed up with fragments of the know whether a statement is one surviving from Dr. original Carpenter in inextricable confusion. Carpenter himself or is introduced by the new editor. The “Author," with his capital A, appears as of old,
The book really consists of five treatises compressed into but he will now receive credit for opinions he never held, a single volume, no one of which excepting the first is and would probably have rejected. The present editor by any means complete. These treatises are : (1) on the is, however, careful to take responsibility himself for a theory of microscopical optics, and the history and pre- very remarkable statement-namely, that the saprophytic sent development of the compound microscope and Monadinæ (such as Monas Dallingeri of Sav. Kent accessory instruments; (2) on microscopic technique ; , and others) +3 ) on the vegetable kingdom and vegetable histology; “possess features that ally them to the vegetable series, · 4) on the animal kingdom and animal histology ; (5) and indicate affinities with certain Nostocaceæ and the on the microscopic structure of minerals and rocks. Bacteria ; while a leaning to the Mycetozoa (already
The first of these treatises is a new and original work by classed by our editor among Fungi !) and the chloroD:. Dallinger, and occupies five chapters. It contains a phyllaceous Algæ, and even some forms of Fungi, is quite valuable exposition of the theory of modern objectives, apparent to the careful student." and some interesting records of ancient microscopes. It is somewhat startling at the present day to come The statements on p. 209, as to the introduction of the across conceptions of this kind-groups“ leaning" this Hartnack model and objectives into this country, and the way and that, with remote affinities to half-a-dozen inmotives which led to it, are entirely erroneous. I had a compatible ancestries. One would like to know in large share in that innovation ; and I have no hesitation plain English whether Dr. Dallinger considers that the in stating that what led to the importation of German Monadinæ have descended from Nostocaceæ, or from and French microscopes direct from their makers was the Mycetozoa, or from green Algæ, or any of the latter from simple fact that one obtained an efficient instrument for any of the former, or all from a common ancestor ; and about one-fourth of the price exacted at that time by what grounds he has for his view as to their genealogy.