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2.5 Characteristics: Probably derived from Einkorn; leaves usually velvety hairy; plants pithy or hollow; heads very compact and flat almost always bearded; threshing does not remove chaff; spikelets two-grained; non-shattering; some varieties drought and rust resistant. 3.5 Distribution: Extensively in Russia and Servia; Germany; Spain; Abyssinia; Switzerland; to some extent in France, and Italy; also perhaps in northern India Thibet, and in portions of China; in the United States; cultivated in prehistoric times. 4.5 Varieties: Red chaff; white chaff; etc.

5.5 Use: Quite extensively for human food in portions of Russia, Germany, Switzerland and Italy as "kaska," a sort of porridge from crushed emmer; grist; "pot barley;" bread; also used for feed. 4.4 Triticum sat. spelta.

1.5 Name: English, spelt; German, spelz or dinkel; French epeautre.

2.5 Characteristics: Grows fully as tall as wheat; heads loose, narrow, rather long, bearded or bald; very brittle rachis; spikelets two to five-grained; far apart in head; hardy; non-shattering; constancy in fertility; retains chaff in threshing.

3.5 Distribution: The oldest grain cultivated in ancient Egypt, Greece and the Roman Empire. With emmer is the principal bread grain of southwest German Empire; raised widely in Russia, Switzerland, Belgium, France, Italy, Spain. In Canada and the United States it is known only to experimenters.

4.5 Varieties: Winter and spring varieties white-bearded; black-bearded; red; smooth; white.

5.5 Use: Flour is placed in same rank as common wheat flour; fed to stock. 5.4 Triticum sat. compactum.

1.5 Name: Club or square head wheats; also "hedgehog wheat," "dwarf wheat."

2.5 Characteristics: Little more than two feet high, being a dwarf; heads very short, often squarely formed; commonly white, at times red; bearded or bald; spikelts very close, three or four-grained; grain short and small, red or white; great yielding power; stiff straw; non-shattering; eary maturity; drought resistant.

3.5 Distribution: Pacific coast and Rocky Mountain states of the United States; Chile; Turkestan; Abyssinia; to slight extent in Switzerland, Russia, and a few other districts of Europe.

4.5 Varieties: Generally known as "club" or "square head"; dwarf; hedgehog.

5.5 Use: Yield the flour desired in certain localities; crackers; breakfast foods. 6.4 Triticum sat. turgidum.

1.5 Name: Poulard or pollard wheats; English (a misnomer), rivet; German, bauchiger Weizen; French, ble petanielle; also known as English wheat; Egyptian wheat. 2.5 Characteristics: Rather tall; broad velvety leaves; stems thick and stiff; heads long, often square; bearded; spikelets compact, two to four-grained; grains hard and light color; resistant to rust and drought.

3.5 Distribution: France, Egypt, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Southern Russia, other Mediterranean and Black Sea districts, and experimentally in the United States.

4.5 Varieties: Poulard; composite wheats (T. compositum), known as Miracle, Egyptian or Mummy wheats, having branched or compound heads whose grains develop unequally.

5.5 Use: Macaroni and other pastes; bread; mixed with bread wheats to produce flour desired by certain French markets. 7.4 Triticum sat. durum.

1.5 Name: Durum, macaroni, or flint wheats.

2.5 Characteristics: Hardest grain and longest beard known among wheats; plants tall; leaves smooth with hard cuticle; heads slender, compact, at times very short; always bearded; grains glassy, sometimes rather transparent, yellowish, long; very sensitive to changes of environment; high gluten content; drought and rust resistant; spikelets two to four-grained.

3.5 Distribution: Practically the only wheat of Algeria, Spain, Greece, Mexico, and Central America; extensively raised in south and east Russia, Asia Minor, Turkestan, Egypt, Tunis, Sicily, Italy, India, Chile, Argentina, United States, and Canada. 4.5 Varieties:

1.6 Gharnovka, Velvet Don, and Arnautka (Azov Sea region, Russia) United States. 2.6 Kubanka (east of Volga river, Russia), United States. 3.6 Saragolla (southeast Italy). 4.6 Goose wheat (Canada. Dakota). 5.6 Trigo candeal and Anchuelo (Argentina). 6.6 Nicaragua (Central America, Texas). 7.6 There are perhaps several dozen other varieties. 5.5 Uses: Macaroni; semolina; noodles; all kinds of pastries; bread; it is coming to be used for all purposes, in some regions, as ordinary wheat flour. 3.4 Triticum vulgare.

1.5 Name: This is the common bread wheat.

2.5 Characteristics: Well known; heads rather loosely formed; bearded or bald; chaff usually smooth but may be velvety; spikelets generally three-grained, but may be two, and rarely four; stem usually hollow; all the characteristics vary widely (see varieties). 3.5 Distribution: Practically over the whole globe, within the limits

already given (see varieties). 4.5 Varieties: (Carleton's division, based not on botanical but on environmental characteristics). 1.6 Soft winter wheats: Grain amber to white; produced by moist mild climate of even temperature; found in eastern United States, western and northern Europe, Japan, and in portions of China India, Australia, and Argentina. 2.6 Hard winter wheats: Usually red-grained; usually bearded; relatively high gluten content; grown on black soils in climate characterized by extremes of temperature and moisture. Found chiefly in Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and Oklahoma in the United States (the wheat of Crimean origin known as "Turkey red"), in Argentina (the Italian wheat, Barletta), in Hungary and Roumania, in southern and southwestern Russia, and to some extent in Canada, northern India, Asiatic Turkey, and Persia. 3.6 Hard spring wheats: What has been said of the hard winter wheats also applies to this group, the difference being that the growing season is shorter, and the winter too severe for winter varieties. They are found in central and western Canada, the north central states of the United States (these are the fife and blue-stem wheats), east Russia and western and southern Siberia. 4.6 White wheats: Soft and very starchy; grains harder and much drier than those of the soft winter wheats; fall or spring sown, even in same locality; grown chiefly in the Pacific coast and Rocky Mountain states of the United States, in Australia, in Chile, in Turkestan, and the Caucasus. 5.6 Early wheats: Grain soft or semi-hard, amber to red; main characteristic is that they ripen early. Found in Australia and India, have a slight representation in California, and include some of the dwarf wheats of Japan. 5.5 Districts in the United States (Carleton's division). 1.6 Soft wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 14$ bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties grown.

1.8 Fultz. 5.8 Jones'Winter Fife.

2.8 Fulcaster. 6.8 Red Wonder.

3.8 Early Red Clawson. 7.8 Gold Coin.

4.8 Longberry. 8.8 Blue Stem.

3.7 Needs of the grower.

1.8 Harder-grained, more glutinous varieties.

2.8 Hardier winter varieties for the most northern portions.

3.8 Early maturity.

4.8 Rust resistance.

2.6 Semi-hard winter wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 14 bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties grown.

1.8 Fultz. 5.8 Valley.

2.8 Poole. 6.8 Nigger.

3.8 Rudy. 7.8 Dawson's Golden ChafI

4.8 Mediterranean. 8.8 Early Red Clawson.

3.7 Needs of the grower. 1.8 Hardness of grain.

2.8 Rust resistance.

3.8 Hardy winter varieties.
3.6 Southern wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 9} bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties now grown.

1.8 Fultz.

2.8 Fulcaster.

3.8 Red May. 4.8 Rice.

5.8 Everett's High Grade.

6.8 Boughton.

7.8 Currel's Prolific

8.8 Purple Straw.
3.7 Needs of the grower.

1.8 Rust resistance.

2.8 Early maturity.

3.8 Resistance to late spring frosts.

4.8 Stiffness of straw.
4.6 Hard spring wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 13 bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties.

1.8 Saskatchewan Fife.

2.8 Scotch Fife.

3.8 Power's Fife.

4.8 Wellman's Fife.

5.8 Hayne's Blue Stem.

6.8 Bolton's Blue Stem.

7.8 Minnesota 163.
3.7 Needs of the grower.

1.8 Early maturity.

2.8 Rust resistance.

3.8 Drouth resistance.

4.8 Hardy winter varieties.
5.6 Hard winter wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 12| bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties grown.

1.8 Turkey.

2.8 Kharkov.

3.8 Big Frame.
3.7 Needs of the grower.

1.8 Drouth resistance.

2.8 Hardy winter varieties. 3.8 Early maturity.
6.6 Durum wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, 11J bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties.

1.8 Nicaragua. 2.8 Turkey.

3.8 Arnautka. 4.8 Kubanka.
3.7 Needs of the grower

1.8 Durum varieties.

2.8 Drouth resistance.

3.8 Rust resistance.

4.8 Early maturity.
7.6 Irrigated wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 21 bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties.

1.8 Sonora.


2.8 Taos.

3.8 Little Club

4.8 Defiance.

5.8 Turkey.
3.7 Needs of the grower.

1.8 Increase of gluten content.

2.8 Early maturity.
8.6 White wheat.

1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 14} bushels.
2.7 Chief varieties.

1.8 Australian.

2.8 California Club.

3.8 Sonora.

4.8 Oregon Red Chaff.

5.8 Foise.

6.8 Palouse Blue Stem. 7.8 Palouse Red Chaff. 8.8 White Winter. 9.8 Little Club. 3.7 Needs of the grower. 1.8 Early maturity. 2.8 Non-shattering varieties. 3.8 Hardy winter varieties in the colder portions. The distribution of these wheats in the United States in 1900 is shown in Map on page 9.


This bibliography contains practically all of the works to which reference has been made in this volume. In addition it contains many other works that have been found of value. While it is not put forth as a complete list of all publications on wheat, it should, nevertheless, serve as a good foundation in all research work on this subject, for it is a fairly exhaustive list of American publications, and also contains many foreign works. An alphabetical list of all authors is first given, including periodicals containing articles of which the author is not stated, as well as miscellaneous official and unofficial publications. This list gives opportunity for looking up the works of any given author. For the purpose of aid in research, certain classifications of works will be found after the alphabetical list. All articles from encyclopedias and dictionaries are grouped together. Under each bureau or division of the United States Department of Agriculture are grouped the publications of that bureau or division. The next three groups are those of the United States census, the Department of Commerce and Labor, and consular reports. Then follows an alphabetical list of the state experiment stations of the United States, with station publications listed chronologically under each state. The publications of the Canadian Department of Agriculture are also grouped together. Finally, there is given a topical index of authors. In general, this index contains only those works which permit of definite classification, and it is arranged on the basis of individual works. Each work is placed under only one topic, the topic which it covers most definitely. The name of an author, however, appears as many times under different topics as he has written works on different phases of wheat. This topical index, and, to a certain extent, the classification under the United States Department of Agriculture, will facilitate a topical study of wheat, while the classification of experiment station works will aid in a geographical study. Works of special merit are designated with*. Authors the whole of whose publications are of unusual value are designated with*. There are a few works that are inaccessible to the

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