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takes, and sometimes special circumstances arise that inake it proper to exercise clemency towards persons vvho are undergoing punishment for crime. Again, it inay be wise to exercise clemency while the offender is on trial, or even before trial begins. So the President is authorized to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. A reprieve is a temporary suspension of punishinent that has been decreed; a pardon is a full release from punishment either before or after it has been decreed. Commonly, however, a pardon comes after conviction.

413. Treaties.—A treaty is a solemn engagement or contract entered into between two or more sovereign or independent states. They relate to such subjects as commerce and trade, the rights of citizens of one country in the other, etc. Treaties also deal with the graver subjects of peace and war. The power to enter into a treaty properly belongs to the executive branch of governinent, as dispatch, secrecy, and unity of purpose are called for. As it might be dangerous in a republic to lodge the power exclusively in the Executive's hands, it is provided that the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall have power to make treaties with foreign states.

414. Mode of Making a Treaty.-Commonly the steps that are taken are the following: First, the treaty is negotiated or agreed upon by the powers. tiation is conducted on the part of our Government by the Secretary of State, a minister residing at a foreign capital, or a minister or commissioner appointed for the purpose. The President, acting through the Department of State, directs the general course of the negotiation. Secondly, the treaty, when it has been negotiated, is wholly in the President's hands. If he disapproves

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of it, he may throw it aside altogether. If he approves it, or is in doubt whether he should approve it or not, he submits it to the Senate for its advice. Thirdly, the treaty is now wholly in the Senate's hands, except that the President may at any time that he chooses withdraw it from the Senate's further consideration. The Senate may approve or disapprove the treaty as a whole, it may propose amendments, or it may refuse to act at all. If the Senate amends the treaty it is practically a new one, and both the President and the foreign power must assent to it in its new form. The fourth step is an exchange of ratifications. This is a formal act by which the powers concerned signify that all the steps required to make the treaty binding have been taken. Finally, the President publishes the treaty and by proclamation declares it to be a part of the law of the land. The Senate considers treaties in executive session, and its advice and consent in most cases is merely approval or disapproval of what the President has done. A twothirds vote of the Senate is necessary for the ratification of a treaty.

415. Appointment of Officers. — The President nominates, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States that are provided for by law, unless the Constitution itself provides for them. Congress may, however, place the appointment of such inferior officers as it thinks proper in the President alone, in the heads of Departments, and in the courts. The President appoints his private secretary and clerks. The appointment of a somewhat larger number of officers is placed in the courts, while the appointment of a very great number iş vested in the heads of the Executive

Departments. Thus, the appointment of all postmasters whose salary is less than $1,000 is placed in the hands of the Postmaster-General. When all these exceptions have been made, a large number of appointments still remains to be made by the President and the Senate.

416. Mode of Appointment.—The first step to be taken in filling an office is for the President to make a nomination in writing to the Senate, specifying the office and naming the officer. The Senate refers the nomination to its proper committee, as of a judge to the Committee on the Judiciary, or of a foreign minister or consul to the Committee on Foreign Relations. The committee investigates the subject and reports the nomination back to the Senate, either with or without a recommendation that the nomination be confirmed. The Senate then grants or withholds its confirmation, as it is called. The Senate acts in such a case, as in the case of treaties, in executive session. If the Senate refuses to confirm, the President makes a second nomination, and so on until the place is filled. The Senate sometimes refuses to confirm a nomination if the Senators from the State where the office is, or one of them, objects to it. This is especially the case when the Senator or Senators belong to the political party that for the time has a majority of the body. This custom, which is wholly without support of law, is known as the courtesy of the Senate.

417. Ambassadors and Other Public Ministers. Public ministers are representatives that one state or nation sends to another to look after its interests. Ambassadors are the highest rank of ministers. The other grades are envoys extraordinary or ministers plenipotentiary, ministers-resident, commissioners, and chargés d'affaires. The United States now have ambassadors at the capitals of England, France, Germany, and Italy, and represent

atives of inferior grade at many other capitals. The salaries paid these representatives, who are collectively called the diplomatic service, range from $5,000 to $17,500. The duties and rights of ministers are defined by the Law of Nations, called also International Law.

418. Receiving Ministers.—It is the duty of the President to receive ambassadors and other public ministers sent by foreign powers to our Government. This ceremony involves the recognition of the power from which the minister comes, and also his own recognition as a man acceptable to the United States. The President can refuse to receive a minister because he is personally objectionable, and can dismiss him for the same reason.

419. Consuls.—The duties of consuls are fixed by treaties and by the municipal law of the nation appointing them. In general it may be said that they look after the commercial interests of the country at large, and assist their countrymen in obtaining commercial rights and privileges. They also perform many other duties. They are business agents and do not rank as ministers. Sometimes, however, diplomatic duties are entrusted to them. A consul-general exercises supervision over the consuls of his country within the country to which he is sent, or within some designated portion of it. The President appoints about 30 consuls-general and about 300 consuls. The highest consular salary is $6,000. Many consuls receive their compensation in the form of fees.

420. Military and Naval Officers.-Unless otherwise provided by law, military and naval officers are appointed in the same manner as civil officers. Still the President, as commander-in-chief, has exclusive control of the commands to which they are assigned. He assigns officers to their places of duty, and removes them for what he deems sufficient reasons. Since 1866 the law

has been that no officer in the military or naval service shall, in time of peace, be dismissed from service except upon, and in pursuance of, the sentence of a court-martial, or in commutation thereof.

421. Removal from Office.-The President has the power of removal as well as of appointment. When the Senate is in session a removal is made in the following way: The President sends to the Senate a nomination, just as though the office were not already filled. If the Senate confirms this nomination, the President then commissions the officer and he enters upon the duties of his office. The former incumbent holds the office until the last of these steps has been taken. If the Senate refuses to confirm, the President must send in a second nomination or allow the incumbent to remain undisturbed. In a recess of the Senate a removal is made in a somewhat simpler way.

The President now appoints directly, and at the same time gives the appointee his commission, who enters upon his office at once. When the Senate meets at its next session, the President must send to that body, for its action, the name of the appointee. If the Senate confirms the nomination, that is the end of the matter. If it refuses to confirm, the President must then make a second nomination. In either case the removal of the former incumbent is final and absolute.

422. Vacancies.-When a vacancy in any office occurs while the Senate is in session, the President makes a nomination, and matters proceed just as explained in the last paragraph. When the vacancy occurs in a recess of the Senate, the President appoints and commissions the officer, and the Senate acts on the nomination at its next session just as in the case of a removal made in the recess.

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